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Data Sets

Political-Security Commitments, 1975-2006

Compiled by Laura Sunderland, G8 Research Group

On this page: Comparative Table | Definitions | Full text of commitments

# commitments
Total
P/S
%
P/S
East-
West
1975
14
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1976
7
1
14%
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1977
29
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1978
35
3
9%
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
1979
34
3
9%
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
1980
55
11
20%
1
5
1
1
3
0
0
1981
40
12
30%
2
7
0
1
2
0
0
1982
23
3
13%
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
1983
38
5
13%
1
0
0
2
1
0
1
1984
31
6
19%
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
1985
24
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1986
39
24
62%
8
14
1
1
0
0
0
1987
53
19
36%
5
13
1
0
0
0
0
1988
27
11
41%
4
2
1
0
4
0
0
1989
61
34
56%
9
9
11
0
2
3
0
1990
78
29
37%
3
7
6
4
0
9
0
1991
53
20
38%
6
0
0
12
0
2
0
1992
41
23
56%
16
1
0
4
2
0
0
1993
29
14
48%
8
0
0
1
4
1
0
1994
53
21
40%
4
1
4
5
3
4
0
1995
78
21
27%
0
2
3
4
5
6
1
1996
128
45
35%
0
7
14
7
4
7
6
1997
145
67
46%
0
14
19
14
3
11
6
1998
73
23
32%
1
0
12
7
1
1
1
1999
46
11
24%
2
0
2
3
1
3
0
2000
105
32
20%
0
4
17
7
0
0
4
2001
58
8
14%
0
0
4
0
2
1
1
2002
187
82
44%
0
22
6
23
19
10
2
2003
206
68
33%
0
40
4
23
0
1
0
2004
245
105
43%
0
38
19
20
12
2
14
2005
212
74
36%
1
12
7
14
7
16
17
2006
317
82
26%
0
24
25
24
1
3
5
Total
2,564
857
 
75
229
157
178
80
80
58
Ave.
80
27
33%
2.3
7.2
4.9
5.6
2.5
2.5
1.8
France
86
30
35%
2.4
11.2
5.8
6.0
1.2
2.2
1.2
USA
102
41
40%
1.0
11.8
8.8
8.0
3.2
4.4
4.2
UK
80
25
31%
1.6
3.4
3.8
6.6
1.8
3.8
3.6
Germany
37
9
24%
4.5
0.8
0.5
2.0
0.8
0.8
0
Japan
54
18
33%
4.0
4.5
4.5
2.3
1.8
0.3
1.0
Italy
55
15
27%
2.5
4.8
2.5
1.5
2.0
1.3
0.3
Canada
83
32
39%
1.5
8.3
2.5
7.0
7.5
4.0
0.8
Russia
317
82
26%
0
24.0
25.0
24.0
1.0
3.0
5.0

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Definitions

The Political-Security issue area comprises commitments relating to terrorism, East-West relations, crime and drugs, non-proliferation, regional security, conflict prevention, and democratization.

Terrorism commitments include all references to terrorism, air-hijacking, taking hostages, terrorist financing, transport security, Counter-Terrorism Action Group, anti-terror efforts, and bioterrorism. East-West commitments include all references to East-West economic relations, the USSR, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Russian democracy, aid to Russia, Russian integration into the G8, and Russian military activities (if the USSR is mentioned, as in the case of the crisis in Afghanistan, this counts as East-West, rather than regional conflict). References to the Moscow Nuclear Safety summit are excluded.

Crime/Drugs commitments include all references to crime, transnational crime, drugs, human trafficking, high-tech crime, IPR piracy, fighting corruption, and counterfeiting.

Non-Proliferation commitments include all references to non-proliferation, weapons of mass destruction, arms reductions and transfers, and the Global Partnership. Excludes references to enriched uranium, nuclear safety, nuclear power, energy security, etc. unless proliferation concerns or weapons are specifically mentioned within the text of the commitment.

Regional Security commitments include all references to a particular country or region in crisis (including Bosnia, the Middle East, the Sudan, Africa, Korea, etc.), ending conflicts, peacekeeping, refugee flows, and military armament in the G8.

Conflict Prevention includes reducing the threat of war, post-war peacebuilding activities (including upholding peace treaties, economic reconstruction for peace, etc.), conflict prevention, and peace support operations.

Democratization includes references to democratization, human rights, good governance, human rights, human security, (unless democratization refers to the USSR or Russia, in which case it is coded as East-West). Does not include "prosperity" unless linked to security and does not include investing in people, NGOs, civil society, health, education, social programs, or development. Excludes corporate governance, energy governance. Excludes "humanitarian response" to disasters.

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Full Text of Commitments

East-West Relations
Non-Proliferation
• Terrorism
• Crime and Drugs
Regional Security
Conflict Prevention
Democratization

East-West Relations

1976-4. We welcomed in this context the steady growth of East/West trade, and expressed the hope that economic relations between East and West would develop their full potential on a sound financial and reciprocal commercial basis. We agreed that this process warrants our careful examination, as well as efforts on our part to ensure that these economic ties enhance overall East/West relationships.

1980-51. We have taken note of today's announcement of the withdrawal of some Soviet troops from Afghanistan. In order to make a useful contribution to the solution of the Afghan crisis, this withdrawal, if confirmed, will have to be permanent and continue until the complete withdrawal of the Soviet troops. Only thus will it be possible to reestablish a situation compatible with peace and the rule of law and thereby with the interests of all nations...We are resolved to do everything in our power to achieve this objective.

1981-30. We concluded that consultations and, where appropriate, coordination are necessary to ensure that, in the field of East-West relations, our economic policies continue to be compatible with our political and security objectives.

1981-31. We will undertake to consult to improve the present system of controls on trade in strategic goods and related technology with the USSR.

We agree to pursue a prudent and diversified economic approach to the USSR and Eastern Europe, consistent with our political and security interests. This includes actions in three key areas.

1982-11. First, following international discussions in January, our representatives will work together to improve the international system for controlling exports of strategic goods to these countries and national arrangements for the enforcement of security controls.

1982-12. Second, we will exchange information in the OECD on all aspects of our economic, commercial and financial relations with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

1982-13. Third, taking into account existing economic and financial considerations, we have agreed to handle cautiously financial relations with the USSR and other Eastern European countries in such a way as to ensure that they are conducted on a sound economic basis, including also the need for commercial prudence in limiting export credits.

1983-36. We are ready to work with the Soviet Union to this purpose and call upon the Soviet Union to work with us.

1986- Each of us is committed to addressing East-West differences through high-level dialogue and negotiation.

1986- We have made commitments to provide funds to establish a $300 million Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Fund in close cooperation with the EBRD.

1986- We will work with Russia as it proceeds towards accession to the GATT.

1986- In this connection, we will intensify efforts to adapt export controls to the post-Cold War era.

1986- Recognizing that privatization and enterprise reform are at the heart of Russia's transformation into a market economy, we agree to create a Special Privatization and Restructuring Program, in cooperation with international financial institutions, consisting of enterprise restructuring support, technical assistance and oblast support, focusing on an initial period to the end of 1994. In total, this program is expected to mobilize $3 billion.

1986- In addition, we are ready to encourage our private sectors to assist in this process, sharing with their Russian counterparts methods and techniques to increase productivity.

1986- We agree to establish a Support Implementation Group in Moscow to facilitate implementation of our support to Russia.

1986- We welcome the progress made in the nuclear safety program agreed at the Munich Summit, including the establishment of the multilateral fund, in which we encourage broader participation. Our aim is to agree as quickly as possible on a framework for coordinated action by all those involved following a country-by-country approach.

1986- We will review the progress made in 1994.

1987-35. Within existing alliances, each of us is resolved to maintain a strong and credible defense which threatens the security of no one, protects freedom, deters aggression and maintains peace.

1987-36. We shall continue to consult closely on all matters affecting our common interest. We will not be separated from the principles that guide us all.

1987-37. We reaffirm our commitment to peace and increased security at lower levels of arms.

1987-38. We seek a comprehensive effort to lower tensions and to achieve verifiable arms reductions.

1987-39. Thus, we each seek to stabilize military competition between East and West at lower levels of arms; to encourage stable political solutions to regional conflicts; to secure lasting improvements in human rights; and to build contacts, confidence and trust between governments and peoples in a more humane world.

1988-17. We welcome the beginning of the Soviet withdrawal of its occupation troops from Afghanistan. It must be total and apply to the entire country. The Afghan people must be able to choose their government freely. Each of us confirms our willingness to make our full contribution to the efforts of the international community to ensure the return of the refugees to their homeland, their resettlement, and the reconstruction of their country.

1988-18. Since our last meeting, progress has been made between the United States and the Soviet Union in agreeing to reduce nuclear weapons in a manner which accords fully with the security interests of each of our countries. The INF [IntermediateRange Nuclear Forces] Treaty, the direct result of Western firmness and unity, is the first treaty ever actually to reduce nuclear arms. It sets vitally important precedents for future arms control agreements: asymmetrical reductions and intrusive verification arrangements. We now look for deep cuts in U.S. and Soviet strategic offensive arms. We congratulate President Reagan on what he has already accomplished, along with General Secretary Gorbachev, towards this goal.

1988-19. We seek the early establishment of a comprehensive, effectively verifiable, and truly global ban on chemical weapons.

1988-20. We pay special attention to the countries in Eastern Europe. We encourage them to open up their economies and societies, and to improve respect for human rights. In this context we support the continuation and strengthening of the Helsinki process.

1989-41. In order to hasten the advent of a world in which the weight of arms and military strength is reduced, we recommit ourselves to the urgent pursuit of a global ban on chemical weapons, a conventional forces balance in Europe at the lowest possible level consistent with our security requirements, and a substantial reduction in Soviet and American strategic nuclear arms.

1989-42. We welcome the process of reform underway in Poland and Hungary. We recognize that the political changes taking place in these countries will be difficult to sustain without economic progress. Each of us is prepared to support this process and to consider, as appropriate and in a coordinated fashion, economic assistance aimed at transforming and opening their economies in a durable manner.

1989-43. We believe that each of us should direct our assistance to these countries so as to sustain the momentum of reform through inward investment, joint ventures, transfer of managerial skills, professional training and other ventures which would help develop a more competitive economy.

1989-44. Each of us is developing concrete initiatives designed to encourage economic reforms, to promote more competitive economies and to provide new opportunities for trade.

1989-45. We agreed to work along with other interested countries and multilateral institutions to concert support for the process of reform underway in Hungary and Poland, in order to make our measures of support more effective and mutually reinforcing.

1989-46. We will encourage further creative efforts by interested governments and the public and private sectors in support of the reform process.

1989-47. Concerning concerted support for reform in Poland and Hungary, we call for a meeting with all interested countries which will take place in the next few weeks.

1989-48. We underline, for Poland, the urgent need for food in present circumstances.

1989-49. We are ready to support in the Paris Club the rescheduling of Polish debt expeditiously and in a flexible and forthcoming manner.

1990-11. We have all begun, individually and collectively, to assist these reform efforts. We all believe that technical assistance should be provided now to help the Soviet Union move to a market-oriented economy and to mobilize its own resources. Some countries are already in a position to extend large-scale financial credits.

1990-12. We have taken note of the decision of the European Council in Dublin on June 26. We have agreed to ask the IMF, the World Bank, the OECD and the designated president of the EBRD to undertake, in close consultation with the Commission of the European Communities, a detailed study of the Soviet economy, to make recommendations for its reform and to establish the criteria under which Western economic assistance could effectively support these reforms.

1990-13. This work should be completed by year's end and be convened by the IMF.

1991-18. We all intend to take a full part in the initiative of the European Community for the establishment of a European Energy Charter on the basis of equal rights and obligations of signatory countries. The aim is to promote free and undistorted energy trade, to enhance security of supply, to protect the environment and to assist economic reform in Central and East European countries and the Soviet Union, especially by creating an open, non-discriminatory regime for commercial energy investment.

1991-19. Recognising that successful reform depends principally on the continuing efforts of the countries concerned, we renew our own firm commitment to support their reform efforts, to forge closer ties with them and to encourage their integration into the international economic system. Regional initiatives reinforce our ability to co-operate.

1991-20. We will support the work of the OECD to identify restrictions to East/West trade and to facilitate their removal.

1991-21. The Group of Twenty-four (G24) process, inaugurated by the Arch Summit and chaired by the European Commission, has mobilised $31 billion in bilateral support for these countries, including balance of payments finance to underpin IMF-supported programmes. Such programmes are in place for Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. We welcome the contributions already made for Bulgaria and Romania. We are intensifying the G24 coordination process and we reaffirm our shared willingness to play our fair part in the global assistance effort.

22. We support the moves towards political and economic transformation in the Soviet Union and are ready to assist the integration of the Soviet Union into the world economy.

1991-39. We have a strong interest in the success of market reforms and democracy in Central and Eastern Europe and we commit ourselves to full support for these reforms. We also take note of the progress of Albania towards joining the democratic community of nations.

1992-18. The industrial countries have granted substantial trade concessions to the CEECs in order to ensure that their reform efforts will succeed. But all countries should open their markets further. The agreements of the EC and EFTA countries aiming at the establishment of free trade areas with these countries are a significant contribution. We shall continue to offer the CEECs technical assistance in enhancing their export capacity.

1992-19. Investment from abroad should be welcomed. It is important for the development of the full economic potential of the CEECs. We urge the CEECs to focus their policies on the creation of attractive and reliable investment conditions for private capital. We are providing our bilateral credit insurance and guarantee instruments to promote foreign investment when these conditions, including servicing of debt, are met.

1992-20. We want to help the new States to preserve their highly developed scientific and technological skills and to make use of them in building up their economies. We call upon industry and science in the industrial countries to promote cooperation and exchange with the new States. By establishing International Science and Technology Centres we are helping the redirect the expertise of scientists and engineers who have sensitive knowledge in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction towards peaceful purposes. We will continue our efforts to enable highlyqualified civil scientists to remain in the new States and to promote research cooperation with western industrial countries.

While we recognise the important role nuclear power plays in global energy supplies, the safety of Soviet-design nuclear power plants gives cause for great concern. A special effort should be made to improve the safety of these plants. We offer the States concerned our support within the framework of a multilateral programme of action. We look to them to cooperate fully. We call upon other interested States to contribute as well. The programme of action should comprise immediate measures in the following areas: 1992-21. operational safety improvements;

1992-22. near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessments;

1992-23. enhancing regulatory regimes.

Such measures can achieve early and significant safety gains.

In addition, the programme of action is to create the basis for longerterm safety improvements by the examination of: 1992-24. the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy;

1992-25. the potential for upgrading plants of more recent design.

1992-26. Complementary to this, we will pursue the early completion of a convention on nuclear safety.

1992-27. The programme of action should develop clear priorities, provide coherence to the measures and ensure their earliest implementation. To implement the immediate measures, the existing G-24 coordination mandate on nuclear safety should be extended to the new States concerned of the former Soviet Union and at the same time made more effective. We all are prepared to strengthen our bilateral assistance.

1992-28. In addition, we support the setting up of a supplementary multilateral mechanism, as appropriate, to address immediate operational safety and technical safety improvement measures not covered by bilateral programmes. We invite the international community to contribute to the funding. The fund would take account of bilateral funding, be administered by a steering body of donors on the basis of consensus, and be coordinated with and assisted by the G-24 and the EBRD.

Decisions on upgrading nuclear power plants of more recent design will require prior clarification of issues concerning plant safety, energy policy, alternative energy sources and financing. To establish a suitable basis on which such decisions can be made, we consider the following measures necessary: 1992-29. the necessary safety studies should be presented without delay;

1992-30. together with the competent international organisations, in particular the IEA, the World Bank should prepare the required energy studies including replacement sources of energy and the cost implications. Based on these studies the World Bank and the EBRD should report as expeditiously as possible on potential financing requirements.

1992-31. We shall review the progress made in this action programme at our meeting in 1993.

1992-32. The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the new States of the former Soviet Union can now seize unprecedented opportunities but they also face enormous challenges. We will support them as they move toward the achievement of democratic societies and political and economic freedom.

1992-33. We shall continue through bilateral contacts and the International Science and Technology Centres in Moscow and Kiev our efforts to inhibit the spread of expertise on weapons of mass destruction.

1993-9. We have made commitments to provide funds to establish a $300 million Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Fund in close cooperation with the EBRD.

1993-10. We will work with Russia as it proceeds towards accession to the GATT.

1993-11. In this connection, we will intensify efforts to adapt export controls to the post-Cold War era.

1993-12. Recognizing that privatization and enterprise reform are at the heart of Russia's transformation into a market economy, we agree to create a Special Privatization and Restructuring Program, in cooperation with international financial institutions, consisting of enterprise restructuring support, technical assistance and oblast support, focusing on an initial period to the end of 1994. In total, this program is expected to mobilize $3 billion.

1993-13. In addition, we are ready to encourage our private sectors to assist in this process, sharing with their Russian counterparts methods and techniques to increase productivity.

1993-14. We agree to establish a Support Implementation Group in Moscow to facilitate implementation of our support to Russia.

1993-15. We welcome the progress made in the nuclear safety program agreed at the Munich Summit, including the establishment of the multilateral fund, in which we encourage broader participation. Our aim is to agree as quickly as possible on a framework for coordinated action by all those involved following a country-by-country approach.

1993-16. We will review the progress made in 1994.

1994-36. We recognize the historical dimension of the reform process in Russia. We are encouraged by the commitment to reform, both political and economic, of the Russian leadership and by the progress made so far.

1994-37. Mobilizing domestic savings for productive use and attracting foreign direct investment will be crucial to the success of Russia's reforms. We therefore urge Russia to improve the legal and institutional framework for private investment and for external trade. We ourselves will continue to work with Russia towards GATT membership, in order to advance Russia's integration into the world economy and further improve access to our markets for Russian products. 1994-38. We will continue to support reform in Russia.

1994-53. The meeting has also given us the opportunity for an exchange of views on the reform process in Russia, a historic task that President Yeltsin and the Russian government continue to bring forward with the confirmed support of the international community. President Yeltsin presented Russia's views on global economic and security issues. We intend to cooperate on such topics as transnational crime, money laundering, and nuclear safety.

1998-30. We agreed to deepen Russia's role in the activities of the NSWG, with a view to eventual full membership in the appropriate circumstances.

1999-8. We agreed to intensify our dialogue within the G8 structures on the longer term social, structural and economic reform in Russia.

1999-9. To this end, we have instructed our personal representatives to ensure the overall continuity and cohesion of the work among the G8 on this subject. Particular emphasis should be given to concrete areas of cooperation such as small business development, strengthened cooperation with regions, health, the social impact of economic transformation.

2005:3 - further structural reforms in Russia, and in the European Union, to boost growth, employment and domestic demand;

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Non-Proliferation

1978-21. To promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, the nuclear fuel cycle studies initiated at the London Summit should be pursued.

1980-26. We reaffirm the importance of ensuring the reliable supply of nuclear fuel and minimizing the risk of nuclear proliferation.

1981-25. In most of our countries progress in constructing new nuclear facilities is slow. We intend in each of our countries to encourage greater public acceptance of nuclear energy, and respond to public concerns about safety, health, nuclear waste management and nonproliferation.

1983-35. We wish to achieve lower levels of arms through serious arms control negotiations. With this statement, we reaffirm our dedication to the search for peace and meaningful arms reductions.

1983-37. Our nations are united in efforts for arms reductions and will continue to carry out thorough and intensive consultations.

1986- To that end, each of us supports balanced, substantial and verifiable reductions in the level of arms; measures to increase confidence and reduce the risks of conflicts; and the peaceful resolution of disputes.

1990-74. With regard to chemical and biological proliferation, we commit ourselves to pursue efforts to prevent the diversion of chemical precursors at a national level, as well as in the relevant Western fora.

1990-75. We similarly commit ourselves to be vigilant about the danger of potential diversions in the field of biological technologies.

1990-76. We endorse a complete ban on chemical weapons, through an effective and verifiable treaty, as the only long-term guarantee against the proliferation of chemical weapons.

1990-77. We reiterate our determination, first expressed at the 1989 Paris Conference on Chemical Weapons, to redouble the effort at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva to resolve the remaining issues and to conclude the Convention at the earliest date.

1991-42. The principle of transparency should be extended to international transfers of conventional weapons and associated military technology. As a step in this direction, we support the proposal for a universal register of arms transfers under the auspices of the United Nations, and will work for its early adoption.

1991-43. The principle of consultation should now be strengthened through the rapid implementation of recent initiatives for discussions among leading arms exporters with the aim of agreeing a common approach to the guidelines which are applied in the transfer of conventional weapons. We welcome the recent opening of discussions on this subject. These include the encouraging talks in Paris among the Permanent Members of the United Security Council on 8-9 July; as well as ongoing discussions within the framework of the European Community and its Member States. Each of us will continue to play a constructive part in this important process, in these and other appropriate fora.

1991-44. The principle of action requires all of us to take steps to prevent the building up of disproportionate arsenals. To that end, all countries should refrain from arms transfers which would be destabilising or would exacerbate existing tensions. Special restraint should be exercised in the transfer of advanced technology weapons and in sales to countries and areas of particular concern. A special effort should be made to define sensitive items and production capacity for advanced weapons, to the transfer of which similar restraints could be applied. All states should take steps to ensure that these criteria are strictly enforced. We intend to give these issues our continuing close attention.

1991-45. Iraq must fully abide by Security Council Resolution 687, which sets out requirements for the destruction, removal or rendering harmless under international supervision of its nuclear, biological and chemical warfare and missile capabilities; as well as for verification and longterm monitoring to ensure that Iraq's capability for such weapon systems is not developed in the future. Consistent with the relevant UN resolutions, we will provide every assistance to the United Nations Special Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) so that they can fully carry out their tasks. In the nuclear field, we:

1991-46. reaffirm our will to work to establish the widest possible consensus in favour of an equitable and stable nonproliferation regime based on a balance between nuclear nonproliferation and the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy;

1991-47. reaffirm the importance of the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty (NPT) and call on all other nonsignatory states to subscribe to this agreement;

1991-48. call on all other nonnuclear weapon states to submit all their nuclear activities to IAEA safeguards, which are the cornerstone of the international nonproliferation regime; Each of us will also work to achieve:

1991-49. our common purpose of maintaining and reinforcing the NPT regime beyond 1995;

1991-50. a strengthened and improved IAEA safeguards system;

1991-51. new measures in the Nuclear Suppliers Group to ensure adequate export controls on dual use items.

1991-52. We welcome recent announcements by the United States which we believe will contribute to the swift conclusion of such a convention. We hope that the negotiation will be successfully concluded as soon as possible.

1991-53. We reaffirm our intention to become original parties to the convention.

1992-34. We will support reference by the IAEA of unresolved cases of proliferation to the UN Security Council.

1992-35. We reaffirm our willingness to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology with all other States, in accordance with our nonproliferation commitments.

1992-36. Each of us will continue our efforts to improve transparency and consultation in the transfer of conventional weapons and to encourage restraint in such transfers.

1992-37. We will continue to intensify our cooperation in the area of export controls of sensitive items in the appropriate fora to reduce threats to international security. A major element of this effort is the informal exchange of information to improve and harmonize these export controls.

1992-38. We support Russia in its efforts to secure the peaceful use of nuclear materials resulting from the elimination of nuclear weapons.

1993-23. In the field of conventional arms, we will work to ensure the effectiveness of the UN Register of Conventional Arms as an important step toward improving transparency and restraint in their transfers.

1994-44. We underline the importance of continuing nuclear arms reduction, and confirm our commitment to achieve universal, verifiable and comprehensive treaties to ban nuclear tests and the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons.

1994-45. We reaffirm our commitment for the earliest possible entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention and welcome the Special Conference of States parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

1994-46. We support full implementation of the UN Register of Conventional Arms. We agree to cooperate to prevent nuclear smuggling.

1994-47. We assign priority to the problems of anti-personnel landmines, including efforts to curb their indiscriminate use, halt their export, assist in their clearance worldwide.

1994-48. We shall work together and with others for effective export controls to ensure that trade in armaments and sensitive dual-use goods is carried out responsibly.

1995-63. We support the safe and secure dismantlement of the nuclear weapons eliminated under START I and we welcome the work of the United States and Russia on measures to ensure that the fissile material from these weapons is rendered unusable for weapons purposes.

1995-64. Recognizing the continuing dangers posed worldwide by criminal diversion and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, and drawing on the decisions taken in Naples and the practical work undertaken by our experts since then, we resolve to work together to strengthen systems of control, accounting and physical security for nuclear materials; to expand our cooperation in the area of customs, law enforcement and intelligence and to strengthen through venues such as the IAEA and INTERPOL the international community's ability to combat nuclear theft and smuggling.

1995-65. We emphasize the importance of bringing the Chemical Weapons Convention into force at the earliest possible date, and call for rapid progress in developing verification systems for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

1995-66. We shall work with others for effective and responsible export controls on arms and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies.

1996-76. We affirm our undertaking to conclude a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) so as to enable its signature by the outset of the 51st session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, this coming September.

1996-77. We reaffirm our commitment to the objectives set out in the document on Principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament adopted on 11 May 1995 at the conclusion of the NPT Review and Extension Conference.

1996-78. We are determined to contribute to the effectiveness of the strengthened NPT review process before the next Review Conference in 2000, the first preparatory committee for which will meet in 1997.

1996-79. We reiterate the importance we attach to the entry into force of the Convention on Chemical Weapons. We will continue to work hard to implement the Convention on Prohibition of Biological and Toxin Weapons, including the establishment of an effective verification mechanism.

In order to ensure rapid and efficient follow-up of the decisions regarding non-proliferation issues adopted at the Moscow Summit, we have taken the following initiatives : 1996-83. on our behalf, France will undertake demarches in order to encourage more countries to adopt the "Programme for preventing and combatting illicit trafficking in nuclear material";

1996-84. a meeting dedicated to the implementation of this Programme, with the participation of agencies and ministries involved in the prevention and fight against illicit trafficking will be held as soon as possible.

1996-127. We stress the need to observe the timetable set by the Arms control Agreement signed in Florence on June 14. We shall provide the OSCE with the means to verify the Arms Control Agreement, and closely monitor its implementation.

1997-34. We will seek to adopt standard systems for firearms identification and a stronger international regime for import and export licensing of firearms.

1997-67. Since the Moscow Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security, we have taken important steps to implement the agreed "Programme for Preventing and Combating Illicit Trafficking in Nuclear Materials." We will expand participation in this program to include countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and in Central Asia and the Caucasus.

1997-68. Further regarding the safe and effective management of fissile material, with respect to such materials no longer required for defense purposes, we will continue our cooperation through concrete initiatives, in particular the French-German-Russian project to build a pilot plant in Russia to produce MOX fuel from weapons plutonium, which is open to additional states, and the related U.S.-Russian cooperation on the conversion of weapons plutonium.

1997-69. Recognizing that enhancing confidence in compliance would reinforce the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, we reaffirm our determination to complete as soon as possible through negotiation a legally-binding and effective verification mechanism.

1997-70. We reaffirm our unwavering commitment to full implementation of the objectives set forth in the Non- Proliferation Treaty. To that end, we welcome the IAEA's recent adoption of a program on strengthening the effectiveness and improving the efficiency of the safeguards system.

1997-71. We reaffirm our commitment to the immediate commencement and early conclusion of a convention banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

1997-72. We recognize that global security and stability are strengthened by promoting international responsibility in the transfer of arms and sensitive technologies, and to that end reaffirm our support for the Wassenaar Arrangement.

1997-73. We encourage the work of the UN Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms to identify the ways and means to prevent and reduce the excessive and destabilizing transfer of small arms and light weapons and we will continue to work together to curb illegal trafficking in firearms.

1997-76. In order to sustain and build upon the momentum generated by these initiatives, developed in the wake of the Moscow Summit, the Non-Proliferation Experts Group should begin discussion of possible arrangements for coordinating and implementing plutonium management efforts.

1997-77. The Non-Proliferation Experts Group should submit a report to the Heads by next year's Summit in Birmingham.

1997-78. Our Governments will continue to participate in efforts to conclude an effective antipersonnel landmine ban to address this urgent problem.

1997-79. Consistent with last year's decisions at Lyon, our Governments are committed to universal adherence to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and to the 1996 Protocol on Mines, Booby Traps, and Other Devices, which strengthens restrictions on the use and transfer of anti-personnel landmines.

1997-80. Our Governments will continue their efforts to secure ratification of the amended Protocol by all countries that have not completed their ratification efforts.

1997-81. We will endeavor to ensure that our various bans on the export of anti-personnel landmines become permanent.

1997-82. In the coming year, we will continue our efforts to develop the most promising mine detection and clearing technology and to share this technology, as appropriate, with the international community.

1998-60. Our countries have been in the forefront of efforts to prevent proliferation, and we have worked closely together to support international non-proliferation regimes. We pledge to continue and strengthen this co-operation. As a key element of this co-operation, we reaffirm our commitment to ensure the effective implementation of export controls, in keeping with our undertakings within the non-proliferation regimes.

1998-61. We will deny any kind of assistance to programmes for weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery.

1998-62. To this end, we will where appropriate undertake and encourage the strengthening of laws, regulations and enforcement mechanisms.

1998-63. We will likewise enhance amongst ourselves and with other countries our co-operation on export control, including for instance on the exchange of information.

1998-64. We will ask our experts to focus on strengthening export control implementation.

1998-65. And we will broaden awareness among our industrial and business communities of export control requirements.

1998-70. We underline our full commitment to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty as the cornerstones of the global non-proliferation regime and the essential foundations for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament.

1999-35. Strengthening the international non-proliferation regime and disarmament measures is one of our most important international priorities. We are committed to increased resources for these purposes and encourage all other interested countries to join us.

1999-36. We affirm our intention to establish arrangements for the safe management of fissile material.

1999-37. We strongly support the concrete initiatives being undertaken by G8 countries and others for scientific and technical cooperation necessary to support future large-scale disposition programs. We recognize that an international approach to financing will be required involving both public and private funds, and we will review potential increases in our own resource commitments prior to the next G8 Summit.

2000-95. "We are determined to implement the conclusions reached at this Conference, including the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the immediate commencement and the conclusion within five years of negotiations for the Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty."

2000-96. "We remain committed to promoting universal adherence to and compliance with the NPT."

2000-97. "Our goal for the next Summit is to develop an international financing plan for plutonium management and disposition based on detailed project plan, and a multilateral framework to coordinate this cooperation."

2000-98. "We will expand our cooperation to other interested countries in order to gain the widest possible international support, and will explore the potential for both public and private funding."

2000-99. "We strongly support the important work of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and will consider the proposal for a Global Monitoring System".

2000-100. "We will work to increase the level of international contributions to the Russian chemical weapons destruction programme".

2000-101. "We commit ourselves to work with others to conclude the negotiations on the Verification Protocol to strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention as early as possible in 2001".

2002-146. We have also decided today to launch a new G8 Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction.

2002-147. Under this initiative, we will support specific cooperation projects, initially in Russia, to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues.

2002-148. Among our priority concerns are the destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposition of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists.

2002-149. We will commit to raise up to $20 billion to support such projects over the next ten years

2002-150. We will review over the next year the applicability of the guidelines to existing projects.

2002-151. We will review progress on this Global Partnership at our next Summit in 2003. The G8 Global Partnership: Principles to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from gaining access to weapons or materials of mass destruction The G8 calls on all countries to join them in commitment to the following six principles to prevent terrorists or those that harbour them from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical, radiological and biological weapons; missiles; and related materials, equipment and technology.

2002-152. Promote the adoption, universalization, full implementation and, where necessary, strengthening of multilateral treaties and other international instruments whose aim is to prevent the proliferation or illicit acquisition of such items; strengthen the institutions designed to implement these instruments.

2002-153. Develop and maintain appropriate effective measures to account for and secure such items in production, use, storage and domestic and international transport; provide assistance to states lacking sufficient resources to account for and secure these items.

2002-154. Develop and maintain appropriate effective physical protection measures applied to facilities which house such items, including defence in depth; provide assistance to states lacking sufficient resources to protect their facilities.

2002-155. Develop and maintain effective border controls, law enforcement efforts and international cooperation to detect, deter and interdict in cases of illicit trafficking in such items, for example through installation of detection systems, training of customs and law enforcement personnel and cooperation in tracking these items; provide assistance to states lacking sufficient expertise or resources to strengthen their capacity to detect, deter and interdict in cases of illicit trafficking in these items.

2002-156. Develop, review and maintain effective national export and transshipment controls over items on multilateral export control lists, as well as items that are not identified on such lists but which may nevertheless contribute to the development, production or use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and missiles, with particular consideration of end-user, catchall and brokering aspects; provide assistance to states lacking the legal and regulatory infrastructure, implementation experience and/or resources to develop their export and transshipment control systems in this regard.

2002-157. Adopt and strengthen efforts to manage and dispose of stocks of fissile materials designated as no longer required for defence purposes, eliminate all chemical weapons, and minimize holdings of dangerous biological pathogens and toxins, based on the recognition that the threat of terrorist acquisition is reduced as the overall quantity of such items is reduced.

The G8 Global Partnership: Guidelines for New or Expanded Cooperation Projects Cooperation projects under this initiative will be decided and implemented, taking into account international obligations and domestic laws of participating partners, within appropriate bilateral and multilateral legal frameworks that should, as necessary, include the following elements:

2002-158. Mutually agreed effective monitoring, auditing and transparency measures and procedures will be required in order to ensure that cooperative activities meet agreed objectives (including irreversibility as necessary), to confirm work performance, to account for the funds expended and to provide for adequate access for donor representatives to work sites;

2002-159. The projects will be implemented in an environmentally sound manner and will maintain the highest appropriate level of safety;

2002-160. Clearly defined milestones will be developed for each project, including the option of suspending or terminating a project if the milestones are not met;

2002-161. The material, equipment, technology, services and expertise provided will be solely for peaceful purposes and, unless otherwise agreed, will be used only for the purposes of implementing the projects and will not be transferred. Adequate measures of physical protection will also be applied to prevent theft or sabotage;

2002-162. All governments will take necessary steps to ensure that the support provided will be considered free technical assistance and will be exempt from taxes, duties, levies and other charges;

2002-163. Procurement of goods and services will be conducted in accordance with open international practices to the extent possible, consistent with national security requirements;

2002-164. All governments will take necessary steps to ensure that adequate liability protections from claims related to the cooperation will be provided for donor countries and their personnel and contractors;

2002-165. Appropriate privileges and immunities will be provided for government donor representatives working on cooperation projects; and

2002-166. Measures will be put in place to ensure effective protection of sensitive information and intellectual property.

2002-167. Given the breadth and scope of the activities to be undertaken, the G8 will establish an appropriate mechanism for the annual review of progress under this initiative which may include consultations regarding priorities, identification of project gaps and potential overlap, and assessment of consistency of the cooperation projects with international security obligations and objectives.

2002-168. With respect to nuclear safety and security, the partners agreed to establish a new G8 Nuclear Safety and Security Group by the time of our next Summit.

2003-185. We reaffirm our commitment to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and we urge all states which have not yet joined to do so.

2003-186. We reaffirm our support for the IAEA, which should be granted the necessary means to implement its monitoring tasks.

2003-187. it undertakes to promote the application of the Code of Conduct, collectively or individually, when the revisions to the Code have been completed and approved, and to encourage States to request the assistance of the Agency in this sphere.

2003-188. They will exchange information and consult to review progress achieved in this sphere.

2003-189. The G8 undertakes to carry out a long term review of the means to strengthen control over radioactive sources and international co-operation in this sphere.

2003-190. Political commitments by States producing, possessing, using, importing or exporting radioactive sources to uphold the <<principles of safe and secure management of radioactive sources>>, inspired by the relevant sections of the IAEA Code of Conduct.

2003-191. Identification of the elements of the completed Code of Conduct that are of the greatest relevance in preventing terrorism and encouragement to implement them world-wide.

2003-192. The G8 members will promote - individually and collectively - the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources when the revisions to it have been completed and approved, and invites States to work through the Agency for its application.

2003-193. The G8 will direct a working group to identify those elements of the IAEA Code of Conduct that are of greatest relevance to prevent terrorists from gaining access to radioactive sources and to develop recommendations for national consideration on the implementation of those elements, in close connection with the IAEA.

2003-194. Establishing a national register to track sources throughout their life-cycle.

2003-195. Setting up an outline for creating a national mechanism for the recovery and securing of <<orphan>> or poorly-controlled sources within their national territory.

2003-196. Establishing a series of guidelines with respect to the control of exports of sources, conditions attaching to them, and mechanisms (e.g. notifications) for monitoring these exports.

2003-197. Developing national measures as necessary to combat malevolent acts involving radioactive sources.

2003-198. Identifying possible measures to be taken by the State in order to safeguard and restrict access to sources.

2003-199. Identifying measures that the state could take regarding the conditioning and/or encouraging the recycling of sources at the end of their life.

2003-200. Putting in place a system which aims to detect the passage of radioactive sources at strategic points such as border crossings.

2003-201. Consultations should be conducted, after the Evian Summit, with the main States concerned in order to give substance to the initiatives launched.

2003-202. Consideration will also be given to the need to launch campaigns to secure poorlycontrolled radioactive sources, and to search for, locate and secure <<orphan>> radioactive sources, with international funding (mainly via the G8 Global Partnership and IAEA Nuclear Security Fund.)

2003-203. Consolidating the IAEA's international efforts with regard to radioactive sources.

2003-204. Evaluating the main projects in progress.

2003-205. Preparing a provisional assessment of the campaigns to secure poorly-controlled sources.

2003-206. This conference would be attended by all of the aforementioned operational actors concerned by this issue.

2004-1. We reaffirm our commitment to the NPT and to the declarations made at Kananaskis and Evian, and we will work to prevent the illicit diversion of nuclear materials and technology.

2004-2. To allow the world to safely enjoy the benefits of peaceful nuclear energy without adding to the danger of weapons proliferation, we have agreed to work to establish new measures so that sensitive nuclear items with proliferation potential will not be exported to states that may seek to use them for weapons purposes, or allow them to fall into terrorist hands.

2004-3. We shall work to amend appropriately the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) guidelines, and to gain the widest possible support for such measures in the future.

2004.We aim to have appropriate measures in place by the next G8 Summit.

2004-5. We will also develop new measures to ensure reliable access to nuclear materials, equipment, and technology, including nuclear fuel and related services, at market conditions, for all states, consistent with maintaining nonproliferation commitments and standards.

2004-6.We seek universal adherence to IAEA comprehensive safeguards and the Additional Protocol and urge all states to ratify and implement these agreements promptly. We are actively engaged in outreach efforts toward this goal, and ready to offer necessary support.

2004-7. The Additional Protocol must become an essential new standard in the field of nuclear supply arrangements. We will work to strengthen NSG guidelines accordingly. We aim to achieve this by the end of 2005.

2004-8. To enhance the IAEA's integrity and effectiveness, and strengthen its ability to ensure that nations comply with their NPT obligations and safeguards agreements, we will work together to establish a new Special Committee of the IAEA Board of Governors. This committee would be responsible for preparing a comprehensive plan for strengthened safeguards and verification.

2004-9. We will continue our efforts to build effective PSI partnerships to interdict trafficking in weapons of mass destruction, their delivery systems, and related materials.

2004-10. We also will prevent those that facilitate proliferation from engaging in such trafficking and work to broaden and strengthen domestic and international laws supporting PSI.

2004-11. We will further cooperate to defeat proliferation networks and coordinate, where appropriate, enforcement efforts, including by stopping illicit financial flows and shutting down illicit plants, laboratories, and brokers, in accordance with national legal authorities and legislation and consistent with international law.

2004-12. Directly, and through the relevant international mechanisms, we will work actively with states requiring assistance in improving their national capabilities to meet international norms.

2004-13. We recommit ourselves to raising up to $20 billion for the Global Partnership through 2012.

2004-14. Expanding the Partnership to include additional donor countries is essential to raise the necessary resources and to ensure the effort is truly global. Today we welcome the decisions of Australia, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, the Republic of Korea, and New Zealand to join.

2004-15. We will continue to work with the other Soviet states to discuss their participation in the Partnership.

2004-16. We reaffirm that we will address proliferation challenges worldwide. We will, for example, pursue the retraining of Iraqi and Libyan scientists involved in past WMD programs.

2004-17. We also support projects to eliminate over time the use of highly-enriched uranium fuel in research reactors worldwide, secure and remove fresh and spent HEU fuel, control and secure radiation sources, strengthen export control and border security, and reinforce biosecurity. We will use the Global Partnership to coordinate our efforts in these areas.

We remain united in our determination to see the proliferation implications of Iran's advanced nuclear program resolved. Iran must be in full compliance with its NPT obligations and safeguards agreement.

2004-18. To this end, we reaffirm our support for the IAEA Board of Governors' three Iran resolutions.

2004-22. We support full implementation of the CWC, including its nonproliferation aspects.

2004-23. We have agreed to export and import control guidance for high-risk radioactive sources, which should only be supplied to authorized end-users in states that can control them.

2005: 17 - We reaffirmed our commitments and called on all States to uphold in full international norms on non-proliferation and to meet their arms control and disarmament obligations.

2005:1 - Multilaterally agreed norms provide an essential basis for our non-proliferation efforts. We strongly support universal adherence to and compliance with these norms. We will work to strengthen them, including through improved verification and enforcement.

2005:2 - We call on all States not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, an IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the Hague Code of Conduct Against the Proliferation of Ballistic Missiles, to accede without delay. We remain ready to assist States to this end.

2005:3 - We emphasise that the NPT remains the cornerstone of nuclear non-proliferation. We reaffirm our full commitment to all three pillars of the Treaty.

2005:4 - For our part, we pledge ourselves to redouble our efforts to uphold and strengthen the Treaty.

2005:5 - We will continue to work together to strengthen NSG guidelines accordingly.

2005:6 - We continue to agree, as we did at Sea Island, that it would be prudent in the next year not to inaugurate new initiatives involving transfer of enrichment and reprocessing technologies to additional states.

2005:7 - We welcome the efforts of the Expert Group, established by the Director-General of the IAEA, which has recently reported on possible Multinational Approaches to the Fuel Cycle. We will work together with all interested partners for a way forward which provides genuine access while minimising the risks of proliferation.

2005: 8 - We reaffirm our strong commitment to strengthening our defences against biological threats. Over the last year, our efforts have focussed on enhancing protection of the food supply. We will continue efforts to address biological threats and support work in other relevant international groups.

2005:9 - We continue to support full implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, including its non-proliferation aspects. While acknowledging the obligation to destroy chemical weapons within the time limits provided for by the chemical weapons convention and to destroy or convert chemical weapons production facilities, we recall that States Party agreed in

2003 to an Action Plan which requires all to have national implementing measures in place by the time of the Conference of States Party scheduled for this November. We urge those States Party who have not yet done so to take all necessary steps to ensure the deadline is met. We stand ready to provide appropriate assistance.

2005:10 - We will work to build on the considerable progress we have made to implement cooperative projects to which the G8 and thirteen other countries now contribute.

2005:11 - We renew our pledge to raise up to $20 billion over ten years to 2012 for Global Partnership priorities, initially in Russia.

2005:12 - In this context, we will embark on new projects according to these priorities.

2005:13 - We welcome the IAEA endorsement of the international import and export framework for the control of radioactive sources. We will work towards having effective controls applied by the end of 2005, in a harmonized and consistent manner.

2006 - 127: further reduce the risks associated with the safe use of nuclear energy. It must be based on a robust regime for assuring nuclear non-proliferation and a reliable safety and security system for nuclear materials and facilities;

2006 - 128: ensure full implementation of the international conventions and treaties in force today which are a prerequisite for a high level of safety and a basis to achieve a peaceful and proliferation-resistant nuclear energy use.

2006 - 129: continue to consider nuclear safety and security issues in the Nuclear Safety and Security Group (NSSG).

2006 - 130: We reaffirm the objective set out in the 2004 G8 Action Plan on Non-Proliferation to allow reliable access of all countries to nuclear energy on a competitive basis, consistent with non-proliferation commitment and standards.

2006 - 131: Building on that plan, we intend to make additional joint efforts to ensure reliable access to low enriched uranium for power reactor fuel and spent fuel recycling, including, as appropriate, through a multilateral mechanisms provided that the countries adhere to all relevant international non-proliferation commitments and comply with their obligations.

2006 - 218: tackling the undesirable illicit proliferation of conventional arms including by strengthening existing mechanisms;

2006 - 289: We rededicate ourselves to the re-invigoration of relevant multilateral fora, beginning with the Conference on Disarmament. These efforts will contribute to the further reinforcement of the global non-proliferation regime.

2006 - 290: We call on all states not Party to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and the 1925 Geneva Protocol to accede to them without delay and those states that have not yet done so to subscribe to the Hague Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation.

2006 - 291: We reaffirm our full commitment to all three pillars of the NPT. IAEA Safeguards

2006 - 292: We urge all states that have not yet done so, to sign, ratify and implement these instruments promptly.

2006 - 293: We will also work together vigorously to establish the Additional Protocol as an essential new standard in the field of nuclear supply arrangements. Peaceful use of nuclear energy

2006 - 294: We are committed to facilitate the exchange of equipment, materials and information for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. To further strengthen this common approach we will:

2006 - 295: continue reviewing multinational approaches to the fuel cycle, including international centres to provide nuclear fuel cycle services, with the IAEA, as well as relevant practical, legal and organizational solutions;

2006 - 296: facilitate developing credible international assurances of access to nuclear fuel related services

2006 - 297: We will facilitate adoption by the Review Conference of decisions aimed at strengthening and enhancing the implementation of the BTWC.

2006 - 298: We call upon all States Parties to take necessary measures, including as appropriate the adoption of and implementation of national legislation, including penal legislation, in the framework of the BTWC, in order to prohibit and prevent the proliferation of biological and toxin weapons and to ensure control over pathogenic micro organisms and toxins.

2006 - 299: . We urge all states to implement fully UNSC Resolution 1540, including reporting on their implementation of the Resolution.

2006 - 300: We intend to continue working actively at national and international levels to achieve this important aim, and stand ready to consider all requests for assistance in this regard.

2006 - 301: We reaffirm our commitment to work toward the, universalisation of the Hague Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, and the full implementation of its confidence-building measures.

2006 - 302: We reaffirm our commitment to the Proliferation Security Initiative, which constitutes an important means to counter trafficking in WMD, their delivery means and related materials.

2006 - 303: We reaffirm our full support for the September 19, 2005 Joint Statement and the Six- Party talks.

2006 - 304: We reaffirm our commitment to the full implementation of all G8 Global Partnership objectives.

2006 - 305: We also reaffirm our openness to examine the expansion of the Partnership to other recipient countries and donor states which support the Kananaskis documents and to embrace the goals and priorities of all Partnership members.

2006 - 306: We remain committed to our pledges in Kananaskis to raise up to $20 billion through 2012 for the Global Partnership, initially in Russia, to support projects to address priority areas identified in Kananaskis and to continue to turn these pledges into concrete actions.

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Terrorism

1978-34. The Heads of State and Government, concerned about terrorism and the taking of hostages, declare that their governments will intensify their joint efforts to combat international terrorism. To this end, in cases where a country refuses extradition or prosecution of those who have hijacked an aircraft and/or do not return such aircraft, the Heads of State and Government are jointly resolved that their governments shall take immediate action to cease all flights to that country.

1978-35. At the same time, their governments will initiate action to halt all incoming flights from that country or from any country by the airlines of the country concerned.

1980-47. Gravely concerned by recent incidents of terrorism involving the taking of hostages and attacks on diplomatic and consular premises and personnel, the Heads of State and Government reaffirm their determination to deter and combat such acts.

1980-48. They note the completion of work on the International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages and call on all States to consider becoming parties to it as well as to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons of 1973.

1980-49. The Heads of State and Government vigorously condemn the taking of hostages and the seizure of diplomatic and consular premises and personnel in contravention of the basic norms of international law and practice. The Heads of State and Government consider it necessary that all governments should adopt policies which will contribute to the attainment of this goal and to take appropriate measures to deny terrorists any benefits from such criminal acts.

1980-50. They also resolve to provide to one another's diplomatic and consular missions support and assistance in situations involving the seizure of diplomatic and consular establishments or personnel.

1980-55. While enforcement measures under the Declaration have not yet been necessary, the Heads of State and Government emphasize that hijacking remains a threat to international civil aviation and that there can be no relaxation of efforts to combat this threat. To this end they look forward to continuing cooperation with all other governments.

1981-34. The Heads of State and Government, seriously concerned about the active support given to international terrorism through the supply of money and arms to terrorist groups, and about the sanctuary and training offered terrorists, as well as the continuation of acts of violence and terrorism such as aircraft hijacking, hostage-taking and attacks against diplomatic and consular personnel and premises, reaffirm their determination vigorously to combat such flagrant violations of international law.

1981-35. Emphasizing that all countries are threatened by acts of terrorism in disregard of fundamental human rights, they resolve to strengthen and broaden action within the international community to prevent and punish such acts.

1981-36. The Heads of State and Government are convinced that, in the case of the hijacking of a Pakistan International Airlines aircraft in March, the conduct of the Babrak Karmal government of Afghanistan, both during the incident and subsequently in giving refuge to the hijackers, was and is in flagrant breach of its international obligations under the Hague Convention to which Afghanistan is a party, and constitutes a serious threat to air safety. Consequently the Heads of State and Government propose to suspend all flights to and from Afghanistan in implementation of the Bonn Declaration unless Afghanistan immediately takes steps to comply with its obligations.

1981-37. Recalling the Venice Statement on the Taking of Diplomatic Hostages, the Heads of State and Government approve continued cooperation in the event of attacks on diplomatic and consular establishments or personnel of any of their governments.

1981-38. They undertake that in the event of such incidents, their governments will immediately consult on an appropriate response.

1981-39. Moreover, they resolve that any State which directly aids and abets the commission of terrorist acts condemned in the Venice Statement, should face a prompt international response.

1981-40. It was agreed to exchange information on terrorist threats and activities, and to explore cooperative measures for dealing with and countering acts of terrorism, for promoting more effective implementation of existing antiterrorist conventions, and for securing wider adherence to them.

Proposals which found support in the discussion included the following: 1984-26. Closer cooperation and coordination between police and security organizations and other relevant authorities, especially in the exchange of information, intelligence and technical knowledge;

1984-27. Scrutiny by each country of gaps in its national legislation which might be exploited by terrorists;

1984-28. Use of the powers of the receiving State under the Vienna Convention in such matters as the size of diplomatic missions, and the number of buildings enjoying diplomatic immunity;

1984-29. Action by each country to review the sale of weapons to States supporting terrorism;

1984-30. Consultation and as far as possible cooperation over the expulsion or exclusion from their countries of known terrorists, including persons of diplomatic status involved in terrorism.

1986-Recognizing that the continuing fight against terrorism is a task which the international community as a whole has to undertake, we pledge ourselves to make maximum efforts to fight against that scourge.

1986-We urge all likeminded nations to collaborate with us, particularly in such international fora as the United Nations, the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization, drawing on their expertise to improve and extend countermeasures against terrorism and those who sponsor or support it.

1986-We, the Heads of State or Government, agree to intensify the exchange of information in relevant fora on threats and potential threats emanating from terrorist activities and those who sponsor or support them, and on ways to prevent them.

1986-We specify the following as measures open to any government concerned to deny to international terrorists the opportunity and the means to carry out their aims, and to identify and deter those who perpetrate such terrorism.

1986-We have decided to apply these measures within the framework of international law and in our own jurisdictions in respect of any State which is clearly involved in sponsoring or supporting international terrorism, and in particular of Libya, until such time as the State concerned abandons its complicity in, or support for, such terrorism.

These measures are:

1986- Refusal to export arms to States which sponsor or support terrorism;

1986- Strict limits on the size of the diplomatic and consular missions and other official bodies abroad of States which engage in such activities, control of travel of members of such missions and bodies, and, where appropriate, radical reductions in, or even the closure of, such missions and bodies;

1986- Denial of entry to all persons, including diplomatic personnel, who have been expelled or excluded from one of our States on suspicion of involvement in international terrorism or who have been convicted of such a terrorist offence;

1986- Improved extradition procedures within due process of domestic law for bringing to trial those who have perpetrated such acts of terrorism;

1986-Stricter immigration and visa requirements and procedures in respect of nationals of States which sponsor or support terrorism;

1986- The closest possible bilateral and multilateral cooperation between police and security organizations and other relevant authorities in the fight against terrorism.

1986- Each of us is committed to work in the appropriate international bodies to which we belong to ensure that similar measures are accepted and acted upon by as many other governments as possible.

1986- We agree to make the 1978 Bonn Declaration more effective in dealing with all forms of terrorism affecting civil aviation.

1986- We are ready to promote bilaterally and multilaterally further actions to be taken in international organizations or fora competent to fight against international terrorism in any of its forms.

We, the Heads of State or Government of seven major democracies and the Representatives of the European Community assembled here in Venice, profoundly aware of our peoples' concern at the threat posed by terrorism: 1987-40. Reaffirm our commitment to the statements on terrorism made at previous Summits in Bonn, Venice, Ottawa, London and Tokyo;

1987-41. Confirm the commitment of each of us to the principle of making no concessions to terrorists or their sponsors;

1987-42. Remain resolved to apply, in respect of any State clearly involved in sponsoring or supporting international terrorism, effective measures within the framework of international law and in our own jurisdictions;

1987-43. Reaffirm our determination to combat terrorism both through national measures and through international cooperation among ourselves and with others, when appropriate, and therefore renew our appeal to all like-minded countries to consolidate and extend international cooperation in all appropriate fora;

1987-44. We will continue our efforts to improve the safety of travelers.

1987-45. We welcome improvements in airport and maritime security, and encourage the work of ICAO [International Civil Aviation Organization] and IMO [International Maritime Organization] in this regard. Each of us will continue to monitor closely the activities of airlines which raise security problems.

1987-46. The Heads of State or Government have decided on measures, annexed to this statement, to make the 1978 Bonn Declaration more effective in dealing with all forms of terrorism affecting civil aviation;

1987-47. Commit ourselves to support the rule of law in bringing terrorists to justice.

1987-48. Each of us pledges increased cooperation in the relevant fora and within the framework of domestic and international law on the investigation, apprehension and prosecution or terrorists. In particular, we reaffirm the principle established by relevant international conventions of trying or extraditing, according to national laws and those international conventions, those who have perpetrated acts of terrorism.

1987-49. The Heads of State or Government recall that in their Tokyo Statement on international terrorism they agreed to make the 1978 Bonn Declaration more effective in dealing with all forms of terrorism affecting civil aviation.

1987-50. To this end, in cases where a country refuses extradition or prosecution of those who have committed offences described in the Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation and/or does not return the aircraft involved, the Heads of State or Government are jointly resolved that their Governments shall take immediate action to cease flights to that country as stated in the Bonn Declaration.

1987-51. At the same time, their Governments will initiate action to halt incoming flights from that country or from any country by the airlines of the country concerned as stated in the Bonn Declaration.

1987-52. The Heads of State or Government intend also to extend the Bonn Declaration in due time to cover any future relevant amendment to the above Convention or any other aviation conventions relating to the extradition or prosecution of the offenders.

1988-21. We strongly reaffirm our condemnation of terrorism in all its forms, including the taking of hostages. We renew our commitment to policies and measures agreed at previous Summits, in particular those against state-sponsored terrorism.

1988-22. We reaffirm our determination to continue the fight against terrorism through the application of rule of law, the policy of no concessions to terrorists and their sponsors, and international cooperation.

1989-53. We remain resolutely opposed to terrorism in all its forms. We confirm the commitment each of us has undertaken to the principle of making no concessions to terrorists or their sponsors and to cooperating, bilaterally and in all relevant international fora, in combatting terrorism.

1989-54. We reiterate our commitment to the policies agreed at previous summits; in particular we condemn state-sponsored terrorism.

1989-55. We are determined not to let terrorists remain unpunished, and to have them brought to justice within the framework of international law and in conformity with the rule of law.

1989-56. We reaffirm in particular our absolute condemnation of the taking of hostages.

1989-57. Deeply concerned for the safety of all travelers and outraged by the murderous attacks perpetrated against international civil aviation and the frequent threat to air transport safety from terrorist groups, we reaffirm our commitment to the fight against all forms of terrorism affecting civil aviation.

1989-58. We reiterate our determination to contribute to reinforcing internationally agreed measures for protection against aircraft hijackings and sabotage.

1989-59. We particularly condemn the recent attack on an aircraft over Scotland, which killed 270 people. We have agreed to give priority to preventing such attacks by further strengthening security measures.

1989-60. We have also agreed on the need for improved methods of detecting explosives.

1989-61. We endorse efforts currently underway in ICAO to develop, as a matter of high priority, an appropriate international regime for the marking of plastic and sheet explosives for detection.

1990-67. We, the Heads of State or Government, reaffirm our condemnation of terrorism in all its forms, our commitment to make no concessions to terrorists or their sponsors, and our resolve to continue to cooperate in efforts to combat terrorism.

1990-68. We demand that those governments which provide support to terrorists end such support immediately. We are determined not to allow terrorists to remain unpunished, but to see them brought to justice in accordance with international law and national legislation.

1990-69. We note with deep concern the continuing threat presented to civil aviation by terrorist groups, as demonstrated by such outrages as the sabotage of civil aircraft over Lockerbie, Scotland on December 21, 1988, above Niger on September 19, 1989, and over Colombia on November 27, 1989. We reiterate our determination to fight terrorist assaults against civil aviation.

1990-70. Accordingly, we will continue our cooperation to negotiate a convention requiring the introduction of additives into plastic explosives to aid in their detection.

1990-71. We pledge to work to strengthen international civil aviation security standards.

1990-72. Consistent with this objective, we note the importance of making available training and technical assistance to other nations.

1990-73. We support initiatives undertaken through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) regarding this issue. We will work together with ICAO to expand such assistance.

1992-40. We condemn terrorism in all its forms and reaffirm our resolve to cooperate in combatting it. We call upon all countries involved to renounce support for terrorism, including financial support, and to take effective action to deny the use of their territory to terrorist organizations.

1994-51. We condemn terrorism in all its forms, especially when state-sponsored, and reaffirm our resolve to cooperate in combating it with determination.

1995-71. We restate our resolve to defeat all forms of terrorism. Following recent outrages, we agree to share more intensively our experiences of, and lessons learned from, major terrorist incidents, and to strengthen our cooperation in all areas of counter-terrorism, including research and technology.

1995-72. In pursuit of these shared aims, we charge our terrorism experts group to report to a ministerial level meeting on specific, cooperative measures to deter, prevent, and investigate terrorist acts. These sessions should be held prior to our next meeting.

1996-60. We reaffirm our absolute condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, regardless of its perpetrators or motives. Terrorism is a heinous crime, and there must be no excuse or exception in bringing its perpetrators to justice.

1996-61. We proclaim our common resolve to unite our efforts and our determination to fight terrorism by all legal means.

1996-62. In keeping with the guidelines for action adopted by the Eight in Ottawa, we strongly urge all States to deny all support to terrorists.

1996-63. We rededicate ourselves and invite others to associate our efforts in order to thwart the activities of terrorists and their supporters, including fund-raising, the planning of terrorist acts, procurement of weapons, calling for violence, and incitements to commit terrorist acts.

1996-64. We consider the fight against terrorism to be our absolute priority, and reiterate the necessity for all States to adhere to the relevant international conventions. We are resolved to do more:

1996-65. to examine and implement, in cooperation with all States, all measures liable to strengthen the capacity of the international community to defeat terrorism.

1996-66. To that end, we have decided that a ministerial meeting to consider and Recommend further actions will be held in Paris, as early as the month of July.

1997-33. Border security is central to all efforts to fight transnational crime, drug-trafficking and terrorism. To this end, we will combat illegal firearms trafficking, by considering a new international instrument.

We have asked our Ministers to intensify diplomatic efforts to ensure that by the year 2000 all States join the international counterterrorism conventions specified in the 1996 UN resolution on measures to counter terrorism. We have instructed our officials to take additional steps:

1997-42. to strengthen the capability of hostage negotiation experts and counterterrorism response units;

1997-43. to exchange information on technologies to detect and deter the use of materials of mass destruction in terrorist attacks;

1997-44. to develop means to deter terrorist attacks on electronic and computer infrastructure;

1997-45. to strengthen maritime security; to exchange information on security practices for international special events; and

1997-46. to strengthen and expand international cooperation and consultation.

1997-93. To counter, inter alia, the use of strong encryption by terrorists, we have endorsed acceleration of consultations and adoption of the OECD guidelines for cryptography policy and invited all states to develop national policies on encryption, including key, management, which may allow, consistent with these guidelines, lawful government access to prevent and investigate acts of terrorism and to find a mechanism to cooperate internationally in implementing such policies.

1997-94. To promote further cooperation, our governments will compare their domestic legislation related to terrorist fund-raising, and ensure strong domestic laws and controls over the manufacture, trading and transport of explosives.

1997-95. We will continue these efforts in the coming year and extend our counterterrorist cooperation to other critical spheres.

1997-96. To protect our electronic and computer systems from disruption by terrorist attacks, we will share information and methodologies to prevent such attacks and to prevent the use of computer networks for terrorist and criminal purposes.

1997-97. To address the continuing danger from acts of terror using high explosives and other sophisticated technologies, and from potential use by terrorists of materials of mass destruction, our experts will intensify the exchange of information in research and development of counterterrorism technologies.

1997-98. Because of terrorist and other threats to the security of major international events, we will share information and experiences in providing security for such events.

1997-99. To heighten vigilance against acts of terror directed at maritime vessels and their passengers, our governments will encourage the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to strengthen maritime security measures and to improve the awareness and implementation of I.%IO standards.

1997-100. In response to a growing international desire for closer cooperation. we will strengthen and expand international cooperation and consultation and reach out bilaterally and multilaterally, on counterterrorism issues.

2000-102. "We call for the urgent strengthening of international cooperation, in particular in exchanges of counter-terrorism information, improving measures against the financing of terrorist activities, and working together to bring terrorists to justice."

2000-103. "We call for all states to become parties to the twelve international counter-terrorism conventions to enhance international cooperation against terrorism."

2000-104. "We will continue to raise this (concern at the increased number of terrorist acts) in our bilateral contacts, carefully monitor developments and maintain close cooperation between us".

2000-105. "We call for full implementation of the UNSCR 1267".

2002-4. We are committed to sustained and comprehensive actions to deny support or sanctuary to terrorists, to bring terrorists to justice, and to reduce the threat of terrorist attacks.

2002-5. We agreed on a set of six non-proliferation Principles aimed at preventing terrorists - or those who harbour them - from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical, radiological and biological weapons; missiles; and related materials, equipment or technologies.

2002-6. We launched a new G8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, under which we will undertake cooperative projects on the basis of agreed guidelines. We committed to raise up to US$ 20 billion to support such projects over the next ten years.

We have therefore agreed on a set of cooperative actions to promote greater security of land, sea and air transport while facilitating the cost-effective and efficient flow of people, cargo, and vehicles for legitimate economic and social purposes. The G8 will: 2002-169. Implement as expeditiously as possible a common global standard based on UN EDIFACT for the collection and transmission of advance passenger information (API).

2002-170. Work towards granting reciprocal bilateral access, on a voluntary basis, to departure and transit lounges, including timely implementation of a pilot project.

2002-171. Work towards agreement by October 2002 on minimum standards for issuance of travel and identity documents for adoption at ICAO, and by June 2003 on minimum standards for issuance of seafarers' identity documents for adoption at the ILO.

2002-172. Work towards developing recommendations on minimum standards for the application of biometrics in procedures and documents by the spring of 2003, with a view to forwarding them to standards organizations.

2002-173. Improve procedures and practices for sharing data on lost or stolen passports and denied entries, with a practical exercise by September 2002.

2002-174. Recognizing the urgency of securing global trade, work expeditiously, in cooperation with relevant international organizations, to develop and implement an improved global container security regime to identify and examine high-risk containers and ensure their in-transit integrity.

2002-175. Develop, in collaboration with interested non-G8 countries, pilot projects that model an integrated container security regime.

2002-176. Implement expeditiously, by 2005 wherever possible, common standards for electronic customs reporting, and work in the WCO to encourage the implementation of the same common standards by non-G8 countries.

2002-177. Begin work expeditiously within the G8 and the WCO to require advance electronic information pertaining to containers, including their location and transit, as early as possible in the trade chain.

2002-178. Accelerate implementation of standards for reinforced flight deck doors for all G8 passenger aircraft, by April 2003 wherever possible.

2002-179. Support in ICAO the rapid implementation of mandatory aviation security audits of all ICAO contracting states.

2002-180. Enhance cooperation, in a spirit of capacity-building assistance, on aviation security with other countries. The G8 will also share their information and assessments about security vulnerabilities.

2002-181. Encourage non-G8 countries to make, as we have done, proportionate contributions to the ICAO AVSEC mechanism, and encourage MDBs to consider requests to assist developing countries in this area.

2002-182. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to accelerate the date of the installation of automatic identification systems (AIS) on certain ships to December 2004.* 2002-183. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to require mandatory ship security plans and ship security officers on board ships by July 2004.

2002-184. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to require mandatory port facility security plans and port facility security assessments for relevant ports serving ships engaged on international voyages by July 2004.* * The Government of the Russian Federation supports the proposal concerning installation of AIS on certain ships by December 2004, as well as the proposal concerning availability of port facility security plans and port facility security assessments for relevant ports serving ships engaged on international voyages by July 2004. However, on grounds of technical feasibility of these proposals, the Russian Federation reserves for itself the right to extend the timeframe of their implementation by the year 2006.

2002-185. Develop, in the UN and other relevant international organizations, an effective and proportionate security regime for the overland transportation and distribution of hazardous cargoes which present potentially significant security risks, with initial consultations this year.

2002-186. In order to ensure timely implementation of this initiative, we will review progress every six months, providing direction as required to G8 experts.

2002-187. G8 experts will pursue these priorities and will promote policy coherence and coordination in all relevant international organizations (ICAO, IMO, WCO, ILO), in partnership with industry.

The G8 will support the UN Security Council's Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) by:

2003-145. Ensuring that the CTC is sufficinetly staffed.

2003-146. Prioritising countries, regions and fields in order to co-ordinate the assistance necessary to fulfil obligations under UNSCR 1373.

2003-147. Outlining specific ways G8 members can support and encourage countries to fulfil their UNSCR 1373 obligations.

2003-148. Working with the CTC in identifying relevant international best practices, codes and standards.

2003-149. Supporting steps by our Finance Ministers to co-ordinate counter-terrorism financing measures and to work with the Financial Action Task Force and the international financial institutions (IFIs) to address terrorist financing, capacity building and other counter-terrorism objectives in their assessment and assistance initiatives.

2003-150. To this end the G8 will create a Counter-Terrorism Action Group (CTAG), to focus on building political will, co-ordinating capacity building assistance when necessary. CTAG will provide funding, expertise or training facilities.

The CTAG will analyse and prioritise needs, and expand counter-terrorism capacity building assistance by:

2003-151. Reviewing requests, analysing the requirements and prioritising needs for capacity building assistance (by the second CTAG meeting to he held by October 15).

2003-152. Exchanging information as far as possible on the needs assessments missions CTAG members have carried out.

2003-152. Holding co-ordination meetings between CTAG members missions in priority recipient countries, involving the host government and local officials responsible for capacitybuilding assistance.

2003-153. Seeking to increase counter-terrorism capacity building assistance and co-ordination (by the 2004 Summit).

2003-154. Providing reports bi-annually of current and planned capacity building assistance which will be shared with the CTC.

2003-155. Identifying cases of successful implementation of counter-terrorism capacity building efforts to share best practice and lessons learned (by the second CTAG meeting to be held on October 15).

2003-156. Facilitating joint initiatives by members in some countries. The CTAG will expand regional assistance by:

2003-157. Encouraging regional assistance programmes including delivery through regional and donor sponsored training centres (by the 2004 Summit).

2003-158. Sharing available information on counter-terrorism curricula and best training practices (by the first CTAG meeting no later than July 150 and developing key areas of focus that various regional training centres could address (by the second CTAG meeting to be held October 15).

2003-159. Seeking to address unmet regional assistance needs (by the 2004 Summit). The G8 will increase outreach efforts to third countries and regional and functional organisations by:

2003-160. Continuing to implement B8 demarches to countries that are not parties to all international counter-terrorism conventions and protocols to urge them to become parties and accelerate domestic implementation of required measures.

2003-161. Conducting outreach bilaterally and jointly through experts meetings and seminars to share benefits of concluding conventions and impart technical knowledge for implementation (plan to be presented by CTAG first meeting).

2003-162. Building upon the March 6, 2003 meeting between the CTC and regional organisations, identify specific roles and responsibilities for regional and functional organisations that emphasise their strengths while avoiding duplication of effort.

2003-163. Requesting regional and functional organisations to become more active in encouraging UNSCR 1373 implementation by their members.

2003-164. Encouraging regional and functional organisations to develop best practices, codes or standards towards implementing UNSCR 1373 requirements.

2003-165. Implementing G8 outreach to the IFIs and functional organisations such as the World Customs Organisation, the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the International Maritime Organisation to discuss areas of mutual interest in the funding and provision of counter-terrorism capacity building assistance.

2003-167. We are therefore implementing national measures to combat such illegal use of Manpads, and will encourage other States to do so as well.

2003-168. Given the increasing number of Manpads in world-wide circulation, we commit ourselves to reducing their proliferation and call upon all countries to strengthen control of their Manpads stockpiles.

2003-169. We undertake to promote the application of the principles defined in these "Elements" by a larger number of States.

In addition, we agree to implement the following steps to prevent the acquisition of Manpads by terrorists:

2003-170. To provide assistance and technical expertise for the collection, secure stockpile management and destruction of Manpads surplus to national security requirements.

2003-171. To adopt strict national export controls on Manpads and their essential components.

2003-172. To ensure strong national regulation of production, transfer and brokering.

2003-173. To ban transfers of Manpads to non-state end-users; Manpads should only be exported to foreign governments or to agents authorised by a government.

2003-174. To exchange information on unco-operative countries and entities.

2003-175. To examine the feasibility of development for new Manpads of specific technological performance or launch control features that preclude their unauthorised use.

2003-176. To encourage action in the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Aviation Security (AVSEC) Working Group on Manpads.

2003-177. We agree to exchange information on national measures related to the implementation of these steps by December 2003. We will review progress at our next meeting in 2004.

2003-178. To review security procedures in place to ensure that staff do not pose a threat to aviation, including, in particular, by examining the feasibility and benefits of ensuring that all staff and items carried are screened when they enter critical parts of security-restricted areas of airports.

2003-179. To encourage further work within ICAO to review and adopt the measures related to an enhanced threat level for the standard security procedures.

2003-180. To encourage each of us to adopt and implement as soon as possible the harmonised and supplementary provisions on flight-deck door lcoking issues by the ICAO.

2003-181. To explore experience gained, inter alia, from installation of on-board TV monitoring systems to control the security inside passenger aircraft.

2003-182. To co-ordinate aviation security capacity building efforts for non-G8 countries and to lead in donating funds and advisors to ICAO's aviation security audit programme (AVSEC).

2003-183. We also agree to develop a secure, verifiable seafarer identity document at the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and are working together towards agreeing on seafarers and port workers security requirements compatible with trade facilitation at the International Maritime Organistaion (IMO) and the ILO.

2003-184. We will work to ensure that other necessary requirements for passenger information are developed to a global standard.

Bioterrorism poses unique, grave threats to the security of all nations, and could endanger public health and disrupt economies.

We commit to concrete national and international steps to: 2004-19. expand or, where necessary, initiate new biosurveillance capabilities to detect bioterror attacks against humans, animals, and crops; improve our prevention and response capabilities;

2004-20. increase protection of the global food supply;

2004-21. and respond to, investigate, and mitigate the effects of alleged uses of biological weapons or suspicious outbreaks of disease.

We reaffirm our commitment to promote and implement relevant international standards in appropriate fora such as ICAO and IMO. In this regard, we agree to the following shared principles, which underlie our initiative:

2004-1. Work collaboratively, cooperatively, and reciprocally to protect borders and facilitate trade and travel.

2004-2. Facilitate movement of travelers across international borders quickly and easily, while focusing enforcement resources on enhanced security procedures, including risk analysis methods.

2004-3. Permit visa-free travel and simplify and expedite visa processing when acceptable to the receiving state.

2004-4. Maximize effective information exchange among partner states as a key element of strengthening international border security.

2004-5. Work cooperatively to improve screening methods for international travelers, crews, and cargo for known or emerging threats as far in advance as possible.

2004-6. Make all possible efforts to ensure that travel documents are secure, resistant to fraud and globally interoperable.

2004-7. Ensure effective, coordinated responses to imminent threats.

The agreed SAFTI Action Plan follows and includes 28 individual action items.

2004-8. Expedite cooperative work to develop and export best practices, including methods of risk analysis, to ensure security while facilitating travel across international borders, particularly for frequent travelers, without compromising existing or future security procedures. We will ensure these best practices are fair and objective.

2004-9 Work with ICAO and others to strengthen international standardized practices for passport issuance, and encourage their adoption and implementation by all governments. We will work to effect implementation by the 2005 Summit .

2004-10. Accelerate development of international standards for the interoperability of governmentissued smart chip passports and other government-issued identity documents. We will work for implementation by the 2005 Summit .

2004-11. Develop mechanisms, where possible, for real-time data exchange with respect to validation of travel documents, visa watchlist information and advanced passenger information, while fully respecting applicable personal data protection rules. Interim progress by December 2004, with a view toward beginning implementation in 2005.

2004-12. Agree to provide effective and timely information exchange on the terrorist watchlist or lookout data of participating countries on a reciprocal basis, using procedures that satisfy security concerns and are consistent with the privacy and other laws of those countries. Status report to be provided by the end of the year; implement by the 2005 Summit .

2004-13. Agree to start providing information by December 2004 to an Interpol database that allows for real-time information sharing on lost and stolen international travel documents.

2004-14. In carrying out the SAFTI initiative, share best practices on effective cooperation between intelligence and law enforcement officials.

2004-15. Accelerate efforts to destroy excess and/or obsolete MANPADS and provide assistance to do so where needed.

2004-16. Work toward expedited adoption of the updated 2003 Wassenaar "Elements for Export Controls on MANPADS" as an international standard.

2004-17. Further strengthen controls on transfer of MANPADS production technology to deter marketing of MANPADS by countries that do not maintain strong standards of export controls.

2004-18. Establish a best practices document, that can be adopted as an international standard, on optimal methods for securely storing MANPADS.

2004-19. Develop a methodology to be used by G8 countries in assessing airport vulnerability to the MANPADS threat and effective countermeasures, taking into account the study conducted by ICAO.

2004-20. Improve methods for enhancing MANPADS identification techniques and countermeasures against smuggling.

2004-21. Collaborate to improve methodologies, techniques and systems to analyze data on passengers, crew and cargo in advance of travel. Provide a status report by December 2004; where improved approaches are agreed, seek to begin to implement them by the 2005 Summit .

2004-22. Develop procedures, working with ICAO, to ensure that all states have proper inspections and enforcement regimes to ensure that airlines and airports are complying with international standards.

2004-23. Establish a Point-of-Contact network for the communication of imminent threats to civilian air transportation and urgent security requests, and guidelines for responding.

2004-24. Accelerate efforts to develop best practices and procedures for air and ground countermeasures, including the training, qualification and use of guards and sky marshals, as appropriate; examine how to work within ICAO and CTAG to share expertise and information with others. Begin implementation of these agreed best practices and procedures by December 2004; finalize in 2005.

2004-25. Examine ways and means to collaborate, on a reciprocal basis, on the forward placement of document advisors, where this will effectively contribute to aviation security and where mutually acceptable and bilateral arrangements are worked out.

2004-26. Develop arrangements to ensure that passengers and their hold and cabin bags, once screened, are protected from unlawful interference, through the deployment of a "layered security" regime comprising background checks on staff; robust physical access controls; and arrangements to limit access to screened passengers and their bags to persons who are subject to an appropriate security system. Seek to finalize plans in 2005 for implementing the regime.

2004-27. Work to develop and promote cost effective, robust flight deck security, first by pressing for full compliance by October 2004 by all States with the requirements of the ICAO Standards for all passenger aircraft of over 45.5 metric tons or more than 60 passenger seats to be fitted with reinforced flight deck doors, and then by examining ways to reinforce flight deck security, including reinforced bulkheads. All such carriers flying within G8 airspace should be compliant on flight deck door security by October 2004. Provide progress report on bulkhead security study by 2005 Summit .

2004-28. Identify and adopt best practices within the G8, and then promote these practices internationally, to ensure that appropriate information regarding passengers in transit is provided to the transit state from the immediately preceding departure state.

2004-29. Study and assess the need for, and the feasibility of, developing guidelines similar to ICAO Standards of Aviation Security for possible application to General Aviation and Corporate/Business Aviation operations in order to enhance security regulations.

2004-30. Endorse and promote mechanisms for frequent consultation with public and private sector transportation security stakeholders.

2004-31. Expand research and development collaboration on biometric technologies, working with ICAO, to develop for practical implementation a next-generation passenger control concept. Show progress by 2005.

2004-32. Examine ways and means to further improve, simplify and expedite visa procedures to enhance security and facilitate legitimate travel when acceptable to the receiving state.

2004-33. Assess and reduce terrorism-related risk in the maritime domain through focused cooperative efforts, beginning with voluntary self audits and the development of a port facilities security auditing methodology and checklist among the G8 and within the International Maritime Organization, taking into account the concept of the ICAO audit program for aviation security.

2004-34. Endorse increased support for capacity building through CTAG to willing states to improve their travel document approval and issuance systems, and border controls.

2004-35. Undertake, through CTAG, to examine how the G8 and other states or organizations can assist states in meeting and sustaining these new security requirements.

2005:6 - Countering terrorism in Africa, including through co-operation with the AU Anti- Terrorism Centre in Algiers.

2005:1 - The G8 determined that ICAO has developed interoperable technical specifications for smart chip passports that are now being used as the basis for the production of these documents. The G8 will maintain a watching brief on future developments.

2005:2 - The G8 is working on a Statement of Principles on negotiating bilateral mechanisms for sharing terrorist screening information. The final statement will be completed by November 2005.

2005:3 - Work under action items 14 and 21 has been merged. Work on 14 is divided into its cargo and passenger elements, and both are making solid progress. Best practice papers will be prepared and discussed in November 2005.

2005:4 - A G8 aviation security emergency Point of Contact Network has been established and tested. We will continue testing the Network periodically to ensure its credibility and effectiveness among G8 Member States. It is intended to expand the Network to include all 188 Member States of ICAO, which has agreed to host the Network on a secure website.

2005:5 - Examine ways and means to further improve, simplify and expedite visa procedures to enhance security and facilitate legitimate travel when acceptable to the receiving state. The G8 is developing a comprehensive work plan to address this action item. The work plan will be completed by November 2005.

2005:6 - G8 members will conduct self audits and share experience in order to prepare recommendations for the IMO, with European members coordinating through the European Commission, on possible amendments to the checklist and guidance.

2005:1 - We have carried forward initiatives to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction to terrorists and other criminals, reinforce international political will to combat terrorism, secure radioactive sources and - as announced at Sea Island - ensure secure and facilitated travel. Today we commit ourselves to new joint efforts. We will work to improve the sharing of information on the movement of terrorists across international borders,

2005:2 - to assess and address the threat to the transportation infrastructure,

2005:3 - and to promote best practices for rail and metro security.

2005:4 - We leave Gleneagles with a renewed commitment to work with partners in the UN and in other key international and regional fora. This tragedy strengthens our resolve to reach early agreement on a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.

2005:5 - We have established a G8 aviation security contact network, and are enhancing our co-operation against trans-national document fraud. We have developed a methodology to assess port security. We will continue to strengthen and broaden this co-operation, encouraging the active engagement of the relevant international organisations, to raise international standards of transport security.

2006 - 261: In the attached statement, we express our resolve to support and strengthen the United Nations' (UN) counter-terrorism efforts and to enhance the role of the entire UN system in coordinating its important work in this area.

2006 - 262: We will report next year at our Summit in Germany on the results of our efforts.

2006 - 263: We announce a plan of action to secure global critical energy infrastructure, including defining and ranking vulnerabilities of critical energy infrastructure sites, assessing emerging and potential risks of terrorist attacks, and developing best practices for effective security across all energy sectors within our countries. We reaffirm our commitment to collaborative work, with our international partners, to combat the terrorist threat, including:

2006 - 264: implementing and improving the international legal framework on counter-terrorism;

2006: 265: ensuring national legislation is adapted, as appropriate, to address new terrorist challenges;

2006 - 266: suppressing attempts by terrorists to gain access to weapons and other means of mass destruction;

2006 - 267: engaging in active dialogue with civil society to help prevent terrorism;

2006 - 268: enhancing efforts to counter the financing of terrorism based on agreed standards;

2006 - 269: developing and implementing an effective strategy to counter terrorist propaganda and recruitment, including with regard to the use of suicide bombers;

2006 - 270: effectively countering attempts to misuse cyberspace for terrorist purposes, including incitement to commit terrorist acts, to communicate and plan terrorist acts, as well as recruitment and training of terrorists;

2006 - 271: preventing any abuse of the migration regime for terrorist purposes while at the same time facilitating legitimate travel;

2006 - 272: bringing to justice, in accordance with obligations under international law, those guilty of terrorist acts, as well as their sponsors, supporters, those who plan such acts and those who incite terrorist acts;

2006 - 273: ensuring and promoting respect for international law, including international human rights law, refugee law and humanitarian law in all our counter-terrorism efforts;

2006 - 274: promoting supply chain security, based on existing international standards and best practices;

2006 - 275: promoting international cooperation in subway, rail and road security and in raising standards in aviation, and maritime security. 2006 - 276: We reiterate our continued resolve to work together to reduce the terrorist threat while protecting fundamental rights and liberties that we have struggled so long to establish.

2006 - 277: We pledge to work with the UN to ensure that each of its programs is resultsfocused and calibrated to maximize its impact and that subsidiary bodies and their staffs are streamlined and engage with each other and with other relevant international bodies with increased cooperation and systemic coherence.

2006 - 278: We call for the Council and its counter-terrorism bodies to redouble efforts to ensure universal compliance.

2006 - 279: Keeping in mind the primary responsibility of the member States to ensure implementation of their counter-terrorism obligations, we reaffirm our commitment to such implementation and call upon all States to meet their obligations.

2006 - 280: We call on States to redouble their efforts on an urgent basis and to do so, whether or not they are a party to regional conventions.

2006 - 281: We call upon all States to ratify this instrument and look forward to its early entry into force.

2006 - 282: We reiterate our call for the UN General Assembly to conclude swiftly the draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, which will complement the broad legal framework set out in Security Council resolutions and the other international conventions and protocols related to terrorism. It is time to conclude this negotiation.

2006 - 283: We commit to work constructively with all UN Member States in concluding our deliberations on the UN strategy as soon as possible.

2006 - 284: As G8 Leaders, we pledge the sustained commitment required to identify and counter the terrorist threat, and to work together to strengthen the UN's counter-terrorism efforts.

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Crime and Drugs

1980-45. As a further step in strengthening the international trading system, we commit our governments to work in the United Nations toward an agreement to prohibit illicit payments to foreign government officials in international business transactions.

1986- We are resolved to pursue effective international action to eliminate the abuse of drugs.

1987-53. The Heads of State and Government intend to continue their fight against illegal production and distribution of drugs and to create all necessary conditions for more effective international cooperation. They will also work for the eradication of illegal cultivation of natural drugs and for its replacement with other types of production which will further the aims of social and economic development.

1988-23. We support the initiative of the Government of the United States for a special task force to be convened to propose methods of improving cooperation in all areas including national, bilateral and multilateral efforts in the fight against narcotics.

The drug problem has reached devastating proportions. We stress the urgent need for decisive action, both on a national and an international basis. We urge all countries, especially those where drug production, trading and consumption are large, to join our efforts to counter drug production, to reduce demand, and to carry forward the fight against drug trafficking itself and the laundering of its proceeds. Accordingly, we resolve to take the following measures within relevant fora: 1989-28. Give greater emphasis on bilateral and United Nations programs for the conversion of illicit cultivation in the producer countries.

1989-29. The United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC), and other United Nations and multilateral organizations should be supported, strengthened and made more effective.

1989-30. These efforts could include particular support for the implementation of effective programs to stop drug cultivation and trading as well as developmental and technical assistance.

1989-31. Support the efforts of producing countries who ask for assistance to counter illegal production or trafficking.

1989-32. Strengthen the role of the United Nations in the war against drugs through an increase in its resources and through reinforced effectiveness of its operation.

1989-33. Intensify the exchange of information on the prevention of addiction, and rehabilitation of drug addicts.

1989-34. Support the international conference planned for 1990 on cocaine and drug demand reduction.

1989-35. Strengthen the efficiency of the cooperative and mutual assistance on these issues, the first steps being a prompt adhesion to, ratification and implementation of the Vienna Convention on illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

1989-36. Conclude further bilateral or multilateral agreements and support initiatives and cooperation, where appropriate, which include measures to facilitate the identification, tracing, freezing, seizure and forfeiture of drug crime proceeds.

1989-37. Convene a financial action task force from Summit participants and other countries interested in these problems. Its mandate is to assess the results of cooperation already undertaken in order to prevent the utilization of the banking system and financial institutions for the purpose of money laundering, and to consider additional preventive efforts in this field, including the adaptation of the legal and regulatory systems so as to enhance multilateral judicial assistance.

1989-38. The first meeting of this task force will be called by France and its report will be completed by April 1990.

1990-51. We support the declaration adopted at the ministerial meeting on drugs convened by the United Kingdom that drug demand reduction should be accorded the same importance in policy and action as the reduction of illicit supply. Developed countries should adopt stronger prevention efforts and assist demand reduction initiatives in other countries.

1990-52. We endorse the report of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and commit our countries to a full implementation of all its recommendations without delay.

1990-53. As agreed at the May meeting of Task Force Finance Ministers, the FATF should be reconvened for a second year, chaired by France, to assess and facilitate the implementation of these recommendations, and to complement them where appropriate.

1990-54. Effective procedures should be adopted to ensure that precursor and essential chemicals are not diverted to manufacture illicit drugs. A task force similar to the FATF should be created for this purpose, composed of Summit participants and other countries that trade in these chemicals, with the involvement of representatives of the chemical industry.

1990-55. The task force should address the problems which concern cocaine, heroin and synthetic drugs and report within a year.

1990-56. We should support an informal narcotics consultative arrangement with developed countries active in international narcotics control. Such a group could strengthen efforts to reduce supply and demand, and improve international cooperation.

1994-39. We are alarmed by the growth of organized transnational crime, including money laundering, and by the use of illicit proceeds to take control of legitimate business. This is a world-wide problem with countries in transition increasingly targeted by criminal organisations. We are determined to strengthen international cooperation to address this situation.

1994-40. On money-laundering, we recognize the achievements of the FATF, which we set up in

1989, and reaffirm our support for its continued work over the next five years. 1994-41. In order to achieve our goal, we agree that counter-measures need to be implemented by FATF members and other countries with significant financial centers.

1994-52. We stress that organized crime and narcotics trafficking are a threat to political as well as economic and social life, and we call for increased international cooperation. We have agreed that the proposed world ministerial conference to be held in October in Naples at the initiative of the Italian government will be a most important occasion to advance such cooperation.

1995-73. Transnational criminal organizations are a growing threat to the security of our nations. To counter their criminal activities effectively, we will work to reinforce existing institutions, strengthen our cooperation, exchange of information, and assistance to other nations.

1995-74. Sanctuaries provided by some countries to transnational criminal organizations and their agents create a major difficulty in the implementation of justice. We all agree to cooperate more closely together, and with others, to ensure that they cannot escape justice by crossing borders.

1995-75. To implement our commitments in the fight against transnational organized crime, we have established a group of senior experts with a temporary mandate to look at existing arrangements for cooperation both bilateral and multilateral, to identify significant gaps and options for improved coordination and to propose practical action to fill such gaps. The group will report back to the Summit in 1996.

1996-98. Drugs represent a serious threat for our younger generations' future, our citizens' health and the integrity of our societies. We are determined to intensify our efforts in order to fight against any kind of drug trafficking and all forms of criminality in connection with it, including money laundering.

1996-99. We therefore urge all States to fully comply with their obligations under international conventions dealing with drugs abuse and illicit traffic in psychotropic substances, and are ready to strengthen our cooperation with all countries involved in this fight against drugs.

We commit ourselves to : 1996-100. Mobilize our full resources and influence to combat this danger.

1996-101. Support and enhance existing institutions that deal with transnational organized crime, including the United Nations, Interpol, and World Customs Organization.

1996-102. Encourage all States to adhere to and fully implement existing conventions, treaties and arrangements dealing with transnational organized crime.

1996-103. Resist the enormous threat posed by narcotic traffickers, by implementing the UN conventions against drugs, and intensifying efforts to put traffickers behind bars and prevent them from laundering their money.

1996-104. Share information and expertise to detect, investigate and prosecute criminals.

1996-105. Increase operational cooperation among relevant agencies.

1996-106. Deny the use of our territories to transnational organized crime.

1996-107. Take all possible steps, particularly extradition, to bring fugitives to justice.

1996-108. Provide the broadest possible mutual legal assistance.

1996-109. Deprive criminals of their illicit profits by adopting appropriate legislation and implementing recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

1996-110. Adopt the necessary legislative and regulatory measures to combat corruption. Consequently, with a view to achieving these goals :

1996-111. We ask the Senior Experts Group to ensure the active follow-up of the implementation of these recommendations and to report on their progress and developments in this field to the next Summit.

We must intensify our efforts to implement the Lyon recommendations. In the coming year we will focus on two areas of critical concern: 1997-31. First, the investigation, prosecution, and punishment of high-tech criminals, such as those tampering with computer and telecommunications technology, across national borders;

1997-32. Second, a system to provide all governments the technical and legal capabilities to respond to high- tech crimes, regardless of where the criminals may be located.

1997-35. We will continue our work to strengthen document security, and improve strategies to combat alien smuggling, attacking the problem at the source and transit the destination countries.

1997-36. Our governments will also move further ahead with efforts to strengthen international legal regimes for extradition and mutual legal assistance, to ensure that no criminal receives safe haven anywhere in the world.

1997-37. We are determined to intensify our efforts to combat the production, trafficking and use of illicit drugs, which represent a global threat to the safety of our citizens, and the wellbeing of our societies and institutions. We have asked our appropriate government agencies to build on their established patterns of cooperation to address this common threat. In particular, we will:

1997-38. study mechanisms that would assist in the development of healthy, drug-free economies in all States;

1997-39. support further efforts to share relevant information on money-laundering, chemical precursors, new synthetic drugs, trafficking patterns and methods, and other data; and

1997-40. will work together to strengthen the capabilities of law enforcement institutions to combat illicit drugs.

1997-41. Our governments will work together to develop the agenda for the UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs in June 1998.

1997-83. We will also continue our active demining assistance programs. Transnational Organized Crime

1997-84. The Senior Experts' Group has overseen follow-up and implementation of the recommendations agreed upon in Lyon to combat transnational organized crime. To strengthen their operational effectiveness, our enforcement experts will consider joint project proposals to target and disrupt major transnational criminal organizations and activities.

1997-85. To help bring criminals to justice, we have agreed upon practical extradition and mutual assistance measures.

1997-86. Our experts are vigorously pursuing arrangements to ensure extradition, transfer for trial or effective domestic prosecution of nationals, and rapid and efficient coordination among law enforcement authorities.

1997-87. To combat illicit firearms trafficking more effectively, we have agreed to promote close operational cooperation among our experts and relevant law enforcement agencies in other states (including to facilitate prompt responses to firearms tracing requests) and to strengthen direct exchange of information with each other, including scientific and technological information for law enforcement purposes.

1997-88. To counter the illegal smuggling of people across our borders, we pledged to assure that our laws and practices effectively target the organized criminal groups involved.

1997-89. Recognizing that forged and stolen travel or other official documents are a key precondition for many forms of transnational crime, we have adopted measures to counter document fraud.

The significant growth in computer and telecommunications technologies brings with it new challenges: global networks require new legal and technical mechanisms that allow for a timely and effective international law enforcement response to computer-related crimes. To that end, we will: 1997-90. work together to enhance abilities to locate, identify, and prosecute criminals;

1997-91. cooperate with and assist one another in the collection of evidence; and

1997-92. continue to develop training for law enforcement personnel to fight high- technology and computer-related crime.

Denver. We therefore pledge ourselves to a shared international effort: 1998-14. to take action against corruption, for example by making every effort to ratify the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention by the end of 1998;

There must be no safe havens either for criminals or for their money. We have therefore agreed a number of further actions to tackle this threat more effectively: 1998-49. We fully support efforts to negotiate within the next two years an effective United Nations convention against transnational organised crime that will provide our law enforcement authorities with the additional tools they need.

1998-50. We agree to implement rapidly the ten principles and ten point action plan agreed by our Ministers on high tech crime.

1998-51. We call for close cooperation with industry to reach agreement on a legal framework for obtaining, presenting and preserving electronic data as evidence, while maintaining appropriate privacy protection, and agreements on sharing evidence of those crimes with international partners. This will help us combat a wide range of crime, including abuse of the internet and other new technologies.

1998-52. We agreed to establish Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) where we do not already have them, in line with our national constitutions and legal systems, to collect and analyse information on those engaged in money laundering and liaise with the equivalent agencies in partner countries.

1998-53. We agreed on principles and the need for adequate legislation to facilitate asset confiscation from convicted criminals, including ways to help each other trace, freeze and confiscate those assets, and where possible, in accordance with national legislation, share seized assets with other nations.

1998-54. We agree on the need to explore ways of combating official corruption arising from the large flows of criminal money.

1998-55. We are deeply concerned by all forms of trafficking of human beings including the smuggling of migrants. We agreed to joint action to combat trafficking in women and children, including efforts to prevent such crimes, protect victims and prosecute the traffickers.

1998-56. We commit ourselves to develop a multidisciplinary and comprehensive strategy, including principles and an action plan for future cooperation amongst ourselves and with third countries, including countries of origin, transit and destination, to tackle this problem. We consider the future comprehensive UN organised crime convention an important instrument for this purpose.

1998-57. We endorse joint law enforcement action against organised crime and welcome the cooperation between competent agencies in tackling criminal networks. We agree to pursue further action, particularly in dealing with major smuggling routes and targeting specific forms of financial fraud.

1998-58. We urge the Lyon Group to intensify its on-going work and ask our Ministers to report back to our next Summit on progress on the action plan on high tech crime, the steps taken against money laundering and the joint action on trafficking in human beings.

1998-59. For its part, the G8 is committed to partnership and shared responsibility in the international community to combat illicit drugs. This should include reinforced cooperation to curb illicit trafficking in drugs and chemical precursors, action to reduce demand in our countries, including through policies to reduce drug dependency, and support for a global approach to eradicating illicit crops.

1999-10. We agreed to deepen our cooperation on law enforcement, fighting organized crime and money laundering, including as they relate to capital flight.

1999-41. We reaffirm our commitment to tackle the drug issue, in particular through active implementation of the conclusions of the 1998 UN General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Program.

2000-55. "We reaffirm our support for the adoption by the end of 2000 of the UN Transnational Organized Crime Convention and three related Protocols on firearms, smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons for the establishment of an effective legal framework against transnational organized crime (TOC)."

2000-56. "We appreciate the work undertaken by the Lyon Group in the fight against TOC, and request them to report back to our next meeting".

2000-57. "We also endorse the results of the Moscow G8 Ministerial Conference on Combating Transnational Organized Crime".

2000-58. "We will promote dialogue with industry, including at the joint Berlin meeting in October"

2000-59. "We remain committed to reducing demand in our own countries, and to countering the threat from the production and trafficking of illicit drugs globally".

2000-60. "We will work with other countries, the UN system and other groups to reduce both supply and demand."

2000-61. "We will support regional initiatives to end narcotics production and trafficking." We are also committed to strengthen international cooperation to:

2000-62. Combat the illicit diversion of precursor chemicals for the production of illegal drugs;

2000-63. Address the growing new threat from amphetamines and other synthetic drugs, and will convene an ad hoc meeting of drugs experts by the end of this year;

2000-64. Accelerate the pace of work on asset confiscation;

2000-65. Examine, by means of an international conference hosted by the UK, the global economy of illegal drugs.

2000-66. "We hereby declare our commitment to take all necessary national and international action to effectively combat financial crime, in line with international standards".

2000-67. "We renew our commitment to combat corruption through increased transparency"

2000-68. "We call for the ratification and effective implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention by all signatory parties".

2000-69. "We will prepare for the launch of negotiations in the UN on a new instrument again corruption, and instruct the Lyon Group to pursue work on this issue."

2000-70. "We must assist in capacity-building efforts in the more vulnerable jurisdictions to strengthen their criminal justice systems."

2000-71. "We reaffirm the need for effective cooperation among competent authorities and for measures to be taken in cooperation with civil society."

2001-8. We reaffirm our support for the multilateral effort against abuses of the global financial system and endorse our finance ministers' recommendations to address this challenge.

We shall help developing countries promote: 2001-13. legal frameworks and corporate governance regimes to fight corruption

2001-52. We reaffirm our commitment to combat transnational organised crime. To this end, we strongly endorse the outcome of the G8 Justice and Interior Ministers Conference held in Milano this year.

2001-53. Following up on the G8 ad hoc Meeting of Drug Experts held in Miyazaki last year and the recent London Conference on the global economy of illegal drugs, we will strengthen efforts to curb the trafficking and use of illegal drugs.

Intensifying support for the adoption and implementation of effective measures to combat corruption, bribery and embezzlement - including by: 2002-57. Working to secure the early establishment of a UN Convention on Corruption, and the early ratification of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime;

2002-58. Strengthening and assisting the implementation and monitoring of the OECD Convention on Bribery and assisting anti-bribery and anti-corruption programmes through the international financial institutions (IFIs) and the multilateral development banks;

2002-59. Intensifying international cooperation to recover illicitly acquired financial assets;

2002-60. Supporting voluntary anti-corruption initiatives, such as the DAC Guidelines, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, and the UN Global Compact;

2002-61. Supporting the role of parliamentarians in addressing corruption and promoting good governance; and,

2002-62. Assisting African countries in their efforts to combat money laundering, including supporting World Bank/IMF efforts to improve coordination in the delivery of technical assistance to combat money laundering and terrorist financing in African countries.

2003-36. We reaffirm our commitment to fight financial abuses and to encourage wider accession to and ratification of the U.N. Convention on Transnational Organised Crime so that money laundering, corruption and other relevant crimes are universally criminalized and that all countries have the power to identify, trace, freeze or seize and ultimately confiscate and dispose of assets from the proceeds of these crimes.

2003-37. We reaffirm our commitment to fight financial abuses and to require that our own financial institutions establish procedures and controls to conduct enhanced due diligence on accounts of "politically exposed persons" and thereby to detect and report transactions that may involve proceeds of foreign official corruption.

2003-38. We reaffirm our commitment to fight financial abuses and to support issuance in June by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) of a revised 40 Recommendations that includes strong customer due diligence provisions, enhanced scrutiny for politically exposed persons and a requirement to make corruption and bribery a predicate offence for money laundering.

2003-39. We reaffirm our commitment to fight financial abuses and to encourage all countries to work to come into compliance with the revised FATF Recommendations, and to apply the Basel Committee's guidance on customer due diligence for their banking sectors.

2004-20. Support developing countries' ability to attract knowledge-based investment and promote innovation by working with them to curb piracy and counterfeiting, which increasingly damage domestic as well as international business.

2004-1. Participating G8 countries will support them (compacts) by providing bilateral technical assistance and political support. With each compact partner, participants will develop action plans that set forth our joint efforts to achieve measurable improvements in these areas.

2004-2. Participating G8 governments will work with partner countries to enlist the support and engagement of private companies, organizations and civil society, as well as international institutions.

G8 governments met their Evian goal of seeing conclusion of the UN Convention Against Corruption, which establishes high international standards of public integrity, transparency and accountability, and facilitates the recovery of illicitly acquired assets that have been transferred abroad. To ensure that this important new international agreement is implemented effectively, we will:

2004-3. Remain committed to become parties to the Convention and call for rapid signature and completion of all necessary steps to ratify and implement the Convention, and support the 170 convening in Vienna of a multilateral "Friends of the Convention" process for promoting active and effective implementation.

2004-4. We are committed to translating the words of this Convention into effective actions and assisting third countries, particularly developing countries, in accomplishing the objectives of the Convention.

2004-5. establishing G8 accelerated response teams;

2004-6. enhancing G8 asset recovery case coordination; and

2004-7. holding G8 asset recovery workshops.

To meet these goals, we will ensure that:

2004-8. each of our countries has rules in place by Summer 2005, where possible, to require due diligence for "politically exposed persons" accounts;

2004-9. each of our countries has rules in place, preferably by 12/31/04, to require wire transfer originator information;

2004-10. we create G8 best practices for modalities of disposition and return; and

2004-11. we explore effective measures to recover assets in corruption cases.

2004-12. We will direct our experts to examine and improve efforts to achieve this objective and review progress at our next Summit.

2004-13. We will adhere rigorously to our updated 2004-2007 enforcement review schedule, honour our pledges to serve as lead examiners or examinees, and send our prosecutors and other law enforcement officials to participate in peer reviews.

2004-14. We will encourage efforts of our private sectors to develop and implement corporate compliance programs to promote adherence to laws against foreign bribery, and welcome the positive steps already taken by certain industries to develop specific principles relevant to their specific activities to promote such compliance.

2004-15. All G8 countries committed to implement the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) revised 40 recommendations adopted in June 2003.

2004-16. We will develop a diplomatic strategy to urge speedy consideration of ratification of the TOC Convention and coordinate with others, including donors to the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, to provide technical assistance to promote implementation of the Convention.

2004-17. We reaffirm our pledge at Evian to "work towards including in our regional and bilateral trade agreements provisions requiring transparency in government procurement, the awarding of concessions, as well as provisions on trade facilitation."

2004-18. We reaffirm our commitment to further enhance transparency and supervisory standards in financial markets in particular non-compliant off-shore centers. We ask our Finance Ministers to carry this work forward.

We are deepening these efforts at home and abroad, with the aim of reducing substantially global trade in pirated and counterfeit goods, and efficiently combating the transnational networks that support it. In particular, we will take further concrete steps to:

2005:1 - strengthen and highlight analysis of the underlying trends, issues and domestic and international enforcement actions;

2005:2 - promote and uphold laws, regulations and/or procedures to strengthen effective intellectual property enforcement, where appropriate, in areas such as the seizure and retention of suspected counterfeit or pirated goods, the destruction of such goods and the equipment used to produce them, and the use of clear, transparent and predictable judicial proceedings, policies and guidelines related to intellectual property enforcement;

2005:3 - Enhance detection and deterrence of the distribution and sale of counterfeit goods through the internet and combat online theft;

2005:4 - improve co-ordination of anti-counterfeiting and anti-piracy crime strategies, and ensure closer co-operation among enforcement officials, including through shared risk analysis, exchange of best practice, enhanced existing cooperation at international borders, and between governments and the private sector;

2005:5 - raise awareness among government officials and the public of the health risks, economic damage and growth of organized crime groups resulting from counterfeiting and piracy;

2005:6 - work closely with developing country partners to strengthen legislation and build to help to improve national anti-countefeiting, anti-piracty and enforcement capacities through shared best practices, training and technical assistance, to help achieve our shared development goals.

2005:7 - we will convene this autumn to lay out the work plan to implement these steps and will review progress during future presidencies.

2006 - 229: We, the Leaders of the G8, renew our commitment to fight corruption, in particular at the highest levels, and to improve transparency and accountability.

2006 - 230: We underscore our commitment to prosecute acts of corruption and to preventing corrupt holders of public office from gaining access to the fruits of their kleptocratic activities in our financial systems.

2006 - 231: We have committed to seek, when appropriate and in accordance with national laws, to deny entry and safe haven to public officials found guilty of corruption, enforce rigorously our anti-bribery laws, and establish procedures and controls to conduct enhanced due diligence on accounts of "politically exposed persons."

2006 - 232: We maintained our commitment to implement and promote the FATF recommendations, the UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime, and the UN Convention Against Corruption. We note the critical contribution of non-governmental organizations in the fight against corruption.

Today, we advance our commitment against high level large-scale public corruption. We commit to: 2006 - 233: continue to investigate and prosecute corrupt public officials and those who bribe them, including by vigorously enforcing our laws against bribery of foreign public officials to ensure that the supply side of corruption is effectively prosecuted consistent with domestic legislation;

2006 - 234: work with all the international financial centers and our private sectors to deny safe haven to assets illicitly acquired by individuals engaged in high level corruption.

2006 - 235: In this framework, we reiterate our commitment to take concrete steps to ensure that financial markets are protected from criminal abuse, including bribery and corruption, by pressing all financial centres to attain and implement the highest international standards of transparency and exchange of information;

2006 - 236: implement fully our commitments to seek, when appropriate and in accordance with national laws, to deny entry and safe haven, to public officials found guilty of corruption, developing a compendium of our best practices and promoting information sharing on those identified as corrupt;

2006 - 237: work together and with international and regional development institutions to rigorously combat fraud and corruption and misuse of public resources, to support national efforts to combat corruption by building capacity and strengthening the rule of law, fiscal transparency and accountability, and reforming public procurement systems and to develop and promote mechanisms that support effective return of recovered assets.

2006 - 238: We call upon the Presidents of the Multilateral Development Banks to submit to their memberships by September 2006 a sound, coordinated and comprehensive anticorruption strategy in accordance with relevant international conventions and consistent across countries, and with a view to improved efforts against corruption;

2006 - 239: support the global ratification and implementation of the UN Convention Against Corruption and call upon those States that have not already ratified the UNCAC to do so at the earliest date possible.

2006 - 240: We also commit to target our assistance to prevent corruption through transparency and accountability while enhancing capacity to detect, prosecute, and recover the proceeds of large-scale corruption, and building strong systems to prevent exploitation and promote responsible and accountable leadership.

2006 - 241: We will work together at the conference of State Parties to promote effective implementation of our shared commitments;

2006 - 242: ensure vigorous implementation of the OECD Anti-bribery Convention by parties to the Convention, including through ensuring that domestic law adopted in this framework is effectively implemented and through further effective peer review evaluation;

2006 - 243: promote governance and greater fiscal transparency, notably through the Sea Island Compacts and by supporting the implementation of EITI;

2006 - 244: work towards including in our regional and bilateral trade agreements provisions promoting transparency in government procurement and concessions, as well as provisions on trade facilitation; and

2006 - 245: fight vigorously against money laundering, including by prosecuting money laundering offences and by implementing the revised recommendations of the FATF-related customer due diligence, transparency of legal persons and arrangements which are essential to tackling corruption.

2006 - 246: We reaffirm our commitment to strengthening individual and collective efforts to combat piracy and counterfeiting, especially trade in pirated and counterfeit goods and note that such efforts will contribute to the sustainable development of the world economy, including through innovations, as well as to health and safety of consumers all over the world. We consider it necessary to take, in the near term, the following concrete measures which will form the basis of a G8 work plan on piracy and counterfeiting:

2006 - 247: to create in each G8 country a website providing businesses and individuals with information on mechanisms available and procedures necessary to secure and enforce their intellectual property rights in that country, on threats posed by piracy and counterfeiting to public health, safety and the national interests of countries, consumers and business communities, as well as on measures taken at the national and international levels to combat intellectual property rights violations, and on relevant legislation and law enforcement practices;

2006 - 248: to engage the OECD in preparing and focusing its report estimating the economic consequences of piracy and counterfeiting on national economies and right holders, and public health and safety;

2006 - 249: in cooperation with WIPO, WTO, OECD, Interpol and WCO to develop and begin implementing technical assistance pilot plans within the G8 in interested developing countries to build the capacity necessary to combat trade in counterfeit and pirated goods;

2006 - 250: to improve border enforcement through increased customs co-ordination and exchange of enforcement information and best practices designed to better target the trade of counterfeit goods and combat intellectual property crime at the borders, including by examining effective strategies already being implemented within the G8 Customs Administrations as models for broader cooperation;

2006 - 251: to prepare recommendations aimed at improving G8 member countries' cooperative actions to combat serious and organized intellectual property rights crimes.

2006 - 252: We instruct our experts to study the possibilities of strengthening the international legal framework pertaining to IPR enforcement.

2006 - 253: We will continue to give priority to enhancing cooperation with a view to substantially reducing the global trade in pirated and counterfeit products, and to taking effective measures against transnational networks supporting such trade.

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Regional Security

1979-32. The Governments represented will, as part of an international effort, significantly increase their contributions to Indochinese refugee relief and resettlement - by making more funds available and by admitting more people, while taking into account the existing social and economic circumstances in each of their countries.

1979-33.The Heads of State and Government request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to convene a conference as soon as possible with a view to attaining concrete and positive results. 1979-34. They extend full support to this objective and are ready to participate constructively in such a conference.

1980-52. We are also ready to support any initiative to this end, such as that of the Islamic Conference.

1980-53. And we shall support every effort designed to contribute to the political independence and to the security of the States of the region.

1980-54. Those governments represented at this meeting which have taken a position against attendance at the Olympic Games vigorously reaffirm their positions.

1981-32. Together with other States and regional organizations, we are resolved to do what is necessary to enhance regional security and to ensure a peace built on the independence and dignity of sovereign nations.

1981-33. Recalling the statement on refugees adopted at the Venice Summit, we are seriously concerned over the growing plight of refugees throughout the world. We reaffirm our support for international relief efforts and our appeal to all governments to refrain from actions which can lead to massive flows of refugees.

1983-34. As leaders of our seven countries, it is our first duty to defend the freedom and justice on which our democracies are based. To this end, we shall maintain sufficient military strength to deter any attack, to counter any threat, and to ensure the peace. Our arms will never be used except in response to aggression.

1984-31. We encourage the parties to seek a peaceful and honorable settlement. We shall support any efforts designed to bring this about, particularly those of the United Nations Secretary General.

1988-24. We declare our support for the convening of a properly structured international conference as the appropriate framework for the necessary negotiations between the parties directly concerned.

1988-25. We reaffirm our support for Security Council Resolution 598, which was adopted unanimously.

1988-26. We express our warm appreciation for the efforts of the Secretary-General to work for a settlement on this basis and reiterate our firm determination to ensure implementation of this mandatory resolution by a followup resolution.

1988-27. We condemn the use of chemical weapons by either party, deplore proliferation of ballistic missiles in the region, and renew our commitment to uphold the principle of freedom of navigation in the Gulf.

1989-39. This repression has led each of us to take appropriate measures to express our deep sense of condemnation to suspend bilateral Ministerial and high-level contacts, and also to suspend arms-trade with China, where it exists.

1989-40. Furthermore, each of us has agreed that, in view of current economic uncertainties, the examination of new loans by the World Bank be postponed.

1992-39. We reaffirm our commitment to cooperate on existing refugee problems.

1992-41. The needs of hundreds of thousands of refugees and displaced persons require further significant financial support. We are willing to contribute and ask others also to make fair contributions.

1993-24. We commit ourselves to assist the Secretary General of the United Nations to implement UN Security Council Resolution 836 by sending troops, by air protection of the UNPROFOR, by financial and logistical contributions or by appropriate diplomatic action.

1993-25. Sanctions should be upheld until the conditions in the relevant Security Council Resolutions are met.

1993-26. The flow of humanitarian aid to Bosnia must be increased.

1993-27. We are determined to keep up the pressure on Iraq and Libya to implement all relevant UN Security Council Resolutions in full.

1994-27. In the Middle East, economic development is essential to underpin the peace process. Thus, along with others, we are providing financial and technical assistance to the Palestinian Authority and are working to promote cooperation and development in the region.

1994-42. We reiterate our resolve to enforce full implementation of each and every relevant UN Security Council resolution concerning Iraq and Libya until they are complied with, and recall that such implementation would entail the reassessment of sanctions.

1994-43. We declare our unequivocal support for the indefinite extension of the Treaty in 1995.

1995-15. We agree on the need to actively support the peace process in the Middle East. Such support would include the establishment of a new institution and financing mechanism enhancing regional cooperation. We therefore urge the Task Force already at work to continue its deliberations with an aim to arriving at a suitable proposal in time for the Amman summit next October.

Disasters and other crises complicate the development challenge and have exposed gaps in our institutional machinery. To help prevent and mitigate emerging crises, including those with human rights and refugee dimensions, we will ask:

1995-26. the UN Secretary-General to explore means to improve the analysis and utilization of disaster and conflict-related early warning information, particularly through the High Commissioners on Human Rights and Refugees;

1995-27. the Bretton Woods institutions and the UN to establish a new coordination procedure, supported as necessary by existing resources, to facilitate a smooth transition from the emergency to the rehabilitation phase of a crisis, and to cooperate more effectively with donor countries;

1995-28. the bodies involved in the provision of humanitarian assistance to cooperate more closely with the Department of Humanitarian Affairs in its assigned coordination role.

1995-76. We reiterate our resolve to enforce full implementation of each and every relevant UN Security Council resolution concerning Iraq and Libya until they are complied with, and recall that such implementation would entail the reassessment of sanctions.

1996-112. We will continue supporting all efforts of these organizations and all inter-regional initiatives aimed at developing and reinforcing cooperation between the different regions of the world in the areas of political, economic and cultural matters.

1996-113. We welcome the enormous achievements attained in the Middle East peace process over the past several years. We are strongly committed to the full implementation of all agreements reached, and we will continue to provide our full support to those who take risks for peace.

1996-114. We reaffirm our determination to enforce full implementation of all UN Security Council resolutions concerning Iraq and Libya only full compliance with which could result in the lifting of all sanctions.

1996-115. We call on the international community to join us in providing political and financial support for the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO).

1997-74. We shall do our utmost to reinvigorate implementation of the Oslo Accords and to uphold the principles of Madrid, including the exchange of land for peace.

1997-75. We confirm our determination to obtain full compliance with all UN Security Council resolutions related to Iraq and Libya. Only full compliance with these resolutions could result in the lifting of sanctions.

1997-144. The authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina must uphold fully the right of refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes in a peaceful and orderly manner. We will support those communities that work cooperatively to support returns. Those who fail to do so will lose access to economic assistance.

1998-69. We remain determined to work with all the parties - Israel, the Palestinians, Syria, Lebanon - for a comprehensive peace.

1999-45. We affirm our commitment to a meeting of the international donor community in July to address short-term humanitarian and other needs for Kosovo, and a subsequent meeting in the fall after a full assessment of needs has been developed pursuant to the assistance coordination process chaired by the European Commission and the World Bank.

2001-54. We support the idea of convening a donors conference following the establishment of durable peace and a successful conclusion of a political agreement between the parties.

2001-55. We reaffirm our support for the implementation of the Agreed Framework, including KEDO.

2002-14. We stressed our commitment to work for peace in the Middle East, based on our vision of two states, Israel and Palestine, living side by side within secure and recognized borders. We agreed on the urgency of reform of Palestinian institutions and its economy, and of free and fair elections.

2002-15. We support the Transitional Authority of Afghanistan. We will fulfil our Tokyo Conference commitments and will work to eradicate opium production and trafficking.

We are determined to make conflict prevention and resolution a top priority, and therefore we commit to:

Supporting African efforts to resolve the principal armed conflicts on the continent - including by: 2002-27. Providing additional support to efforts to bring peace to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan, and to consolidate peace in Angola and Sierra Leone within the next year;

2002-28. Assisting with programmes of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; at the appropriate time,

2002-29. Taking joint action to support post-conflict development in the Great Lakes Region and Sudan; and,

2002-30. Endorsing the proposals from the UN Secretary-General to set up, with the Secretary- General and other influential partners, contact groups and similar mechanisms to work with African countries to resolve specific African conflicts.

Providing technical and financial assistance so that, by 2010, African countries and regional and sub-regional organizations are able to engage more effectively to prevent and resolve violent conflict on the continent, and undertake peace support operations in accordance with the United Nations Charter - including by: 2002-31. Continuing to work with African partners to deliver a joint plan, by 2003, for the development of African capability to undertake peace support operations, including at the regional level;

2002-32. Training African peace support forces including through the development of regional centres of excellence for military and civilian aspects of conflict prevention and peace support, such as the Kofi Annan International Peace Training Centre; and,

2002-33. Better coordinating our respective peacekeeping training initiatives. Supporting efforts by African countries and the United Nations to better regulate the activities of arms brokers and traffickers and to eliminate the flow of illicit weapons to and within Africa - including by: 2002-34. Developing and adopting common guidelines to prevent the illegal supply of arms to Africa;

2002-35. Providing assistance in regional trans-border cooperation to this end.

2002-36. Supporting African efforts to eliminate and remove antipersonnel mines.

Working with African governments, civil society and others to address the linkage between armed conflict and the exploitation of natural resources - including by: 2002-37. Supporting United Nations and other initiatives to monitor and address the illegal exploitation and international transfer of natural resources from Africa which fuel armed conflicts, including mineral resources, petroleum, timber and water;

2002-38. Supporting voluntary control efforts such as the Kimberley Process for diamonds, and encouraging the adoption of voluntary principles of corporate social responsibility by those involved in developing Africa's national resources;

2002-39. Working to ensure better accountability and greater transparency with respect to those involved in the import or export of Africa's natural resources from areas of conflict;

2002-40. Promoting regional management of trans-boundary natural resources, including by supporting the Congo Basin Initiative and trans-border river basin commissions.

Providing more effective peace-building support to societies emerging from or seeking to prevent armed conflicts - including by: 2002-41. Supporting effective African-led reconciliation efforts, including both pre-conflict and post conflict initiatives; and,

2002-42. Encouraging more effective coordination and cooperation among donors and international institutions in support of peace-building and conflict prevention efforts - particularly with respect to the effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants, the collection and destruction of small arms, and the special needs of women and children, including child soldiers.

2002-43. Working to enhance African capacities to protect and assist war-affected populations and facilitate the effective implementation in Africa of United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to civilians, women and children in armed conflict - including by supporting African countries hosting, assisting and protecting large refugee populations

2004-1. We commit ourselves today to a Partnership for Progress and a Common Future with the governments and peoples of the Broader Middle East and North Africa. This partnership will be based on genuine cooperation with the region's governments, as well as business and civil society representatives to strengthen freedom, democracy, and prosperity for all.

2004-2. We pledge to provide support and assistance for the electoral process leading to national elections for the Transitional National Assembly no later than January 31, 2005.

2004-3. We express our shared commitment, and urge others, to support the economic revitalization of Iraq, focusing on priority projects identified by the Interim Government.

2004-4. We welcome the success of the recent International Reconstruction Fund Facility donors' conference in Doha, and commit to meeting before the next conference in Tokyo later this year to identify how each of us can contribute to the reconstruction of Iraq.

2004-5. We will work with each other, within the Paris Club, and with non-Paris Club creditors, to achieve that objective in 2004.

2004-6. To help reestablish the ties that link Iraq to the world, we will explore ways of reaching out directly to the Iraqi people - to individuals, schools, and cities - as they emerge from decades of dictatorship and deprivation to launch the political, social, and economic rebirth of their nation.

2004-7. We will focus our efforts to reduce illiteracy and increase access to education, especially for girls and women.

2004-8. In the economic sphere, creating jobs is the number one priority of many countries in the region. To expand opportunity, and promote conditions in which the private sector can create jobs, we will work with governments and business leaders to promote entrepreneurship, expand trade and investment, increase access to capital, support financial reforms, secure property rights, promote transparency and fight corruption. Promotion of intra-regional trade will be a priority for economic development of the Broader Middle East and North Africa.

2004-1. We pledge our countries' assistance in ending the conflicts in Sudan and in providing humanitarian aid to those in need.

2004-1. The G8 countries will join with others in the international community, led by the Quartet, to restore momentum on the Roadmap, to enhance humanitarian and economic conditions among the Palestinian people and to build democratic, transparent and accountable Palestinian institutions.

2004-2. We will also work to help ensure security and stability in Gaza and the areas of the West Bank from which Israel withdraws. We call on both sides to end all acts of violence.

2004-3. In furtherance of these goals, the G8 calls upon the Quartet to meet in the region before the end of this month, engage with Israeli and Palestinian representatives and set out its plans for taking forward in practical terms its declaration of May 4.

2005:1 - We support Mr Wolfensohn's intention to stimulate a global financial contribution of up to $3bn per year over the coming three years. Domestic and international investors should be full partners to this process. We are mobilising practical support for Mr Wolfensohn's efforts and look forward to further development of his plans and their presentation to the Quartet and the international community in September.

2005:2 - The global significance of this conflict requires strong international engagement. We underline our resolve to support both sides in meeting their Roadmap commitments and call on others to do the same.

2005:1 - We commit ourselves to helping Iraq complete the process of transition as set out in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546 and in accordance with Iraq's Transitional Administrative Law.

2005:2 - We reaffirm our intention to reduce Iraq's debt by implementing the terms of the November 2004 Paris Club agreement. We call on other creditors to provide debt relief on generous terms comparable to or even better than those agreed by the members of the Paris Club in November 2004.

2005:3 - We are committed to assisting the Iraqis in the reconstruction of their country.

2005:1 - We, the leaders of the G8 and of Africa, renew our resolve today to see an end to the crisis in Darfur - a crisis that has seen thousands killed, some two million displaced and fearful to return home, and that threatens to undermine a hard-won peace agreement for Southern Sudan, itself the scene of over twenty years of brutal civil war. To this end we have already provided diverse and significant assistance, and we commit here to continuing that support.

2005:2 - We are committed to supporting the Sudanese people as they implement this agreement, and establish a more transparent and democratic system of government.

2006 - 307: We will support the economic and humanitarian needs of the Lebanese people, including the convening at the right time of a donors conference.

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Conflict Prevention

1983-38. We commit ourselves to devote our full political resources to reducing the threat of war.

1995-62. We, for our part, are determined to coordinate more closely our individual efforts to assist in the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts.

1996-121. Recalling UN Security Council Resolution 1022, including the provisions on sanctions, we support the High Representative and the Commander of IFOR and will, as necessary, act following their recommendations.

1996-122. We are ready to consider the application of sanctions instruments to any Party to the Peace Agreement.

1996-123. Economic reconstruction is vital to lasting peace. We call upon all donors to accelerate payment of their pledges for 1996 and to make every effort to disburse at least 50 % of 1996 pledges by December 1996 and 100 % by June 1997.

1996-124. Economic assistance should be provided to all Parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina depending upon their compliance with the peace process.

1996-125. We confirm our full support for the High Representative in the exercising of his coordination role.

1996-126. In order to strengthen the rule of law, we are prepared to provide technical legal assistance. We shall ensure that the means available to the International Police Task Force and its effectiveness be increased.

1997-59. We applaud African leadership in developing effective local capacities in conflict prevention, peacekeeping and post-conflict reconciliation and recovery. We will support African peacebuilding initiatives at the regional, sub-regional and national levels, in particular by the Organization of African Unity (OAU), taking into account the recent OECD Guidelines on Conflict, Peace, and Development Cooperation, and we will help to forge active partnerships with the United Nations and other donors.

1997-139. We, the Leaders of the Eight, reaffirm our commitment to full implementation of the Peace Agreement, and to the goal of Bosnia and Herzegovina becoming a single democratic, prosperous and multi-ethnic nation.

1997-140. We welcome the accomplishments since the 1995 Peace Agreement. Significant challenges remain but we are determined to accelerate the implementation of the Peace Agreement and to reinforce the progress made in the last eighteen months.

1997-141. We firmly endorse the political declaration adopted at the Sintra Ministerial on May 30, 1997, and join the Steering Board in demanding intensification of effort by the Parties toward fulfillment of their obligations under the Peace Agreement.

1997-142. We will continue to provide materials and financial support for the International Police Task Force's efforts to restructure, train, and equip police, in order to establish public order and safety for all the Bosnian people consistent with international democratic standards.

1997-143. When the Parties meet the necessary conditions, we are prepared to implement the full reconstruction program and to support considerable debt reduction by the Paris Club.

1998-25. We will look for ways to enhance the capacity of Africa-based institutions to provide training in conflict prevention and peacekeeping.

2000-26. implement measures to prevent conflict, including by addressing the issue of illicit trade in diamonds

2000-92. We commit ourselves to work for their implementation particularly with respect to economic development and conflict prevent, children in conflict, and international civilian police."

2000-93. "We therefore call for an international conference, whose results shall be submitted to the UN, building on the UN Security Council Resolution 1306 and inter alia the "Kimberley" process launched by the Government of South Africa, to consider practical approaches to breaking the link between the illicit trade in diamonds and armed conflict, including consideration of an international agreement on certification for rough diamonds."

2000-94. "We invite the international community to exercise restraint in conventional arms exports, and are committed to work jointly to this end".

2001-21. In particular we look to countries affected by conflict to turn away from violence. When they do, we confirm that we will strengthen our efforts to help them take the measures needed to receive debt relief.

2002-12. We agreed to work with African partners to deliver a joint plan by 2003 for the development of African capability to undertake peace support operations.

2002-17. This will lead us to focus our efforts on countries that demonstrate a political and financial commitment to good governance and the rule of law, investing in their people, and pursuing policies that spur economic growth and alleviate poverty. We will match their commitment with a commitment on our own part to promote peace and security in Africa, to boost expertise and capacity, to encourage trade and direct growth-oriented investment, and to provide more effective official development assistance.

2004-1. Today, we committed to an Action Plan to expand global capability for peace support operations that is available for any international peace support operation or mission on a timely basis. We undertake specific activities and coordinate our efforts closely to ensure the maximum benefit to our partners and ourselves. Therefore, we commit, consistent with our national laws, to:

2004-2. Train and, where appropriate, equip a total of approximately 75,000 troops worldwide by 2010, in line with commitments undertaken at Kananaskis and Evian. This effort will have a sustained focus on Africa and other nations that can contribute to peace support operations both in Africa and elsewhere.

2004-3. We are also committed to training and exercises to ensure that those troops will maintain their skills after their initial training.

2004-4. By playing an active part in the AU-hosted annual consultation, setting up donor contact groups in African capitals (as foreseen in the Evian plan), and conducting coordination meetings with interested parties, we will more fully coordinate assistance by G8 members and others related to peace support operations and their related activities.

2004-5. To this end, we will establish G8 expert-level meetings to serve as a clearinghouse for exchanging information for as long as will be needed to accomplish this goal.

2004-6. Build peace support operations capabilities in other regions by 2010.

2004-7. Member states are also committed to providing training and exercises to help ensure that those troops trained maintain their newly learned skills.

2004-8. Work with interested parties, before the next Summit, to develop a transportation and logistics support arrangement, which will help provide countries with transportation to deploy to peace support operations and logistics support to sustain units in the field.

2004-9. Increase our contribution to the training of carabinieri/gendarme-like forces both by continuing to support existing centers dedicated to that purpose, notably those in France and Italy, and those in Africa, and by supporting new initiatives in that respect.

2004-10. In particular, we will support the Italian initiative to establish, on a multinational basis, an international training center that would serve as a Center of Excellence to provide training and skills for peace support operations.

The initiatives will be carried out by:

2004-11. Operating training programs, including "train the trainer" courses and pre-deployment training for specific missions;

2004-12. Developing a common doctrine and common operational standards for employing carabinieri/gendarme-like forces in peace support operations, specifically with regard to crowd control, combating organized crime, high risk arrests, prison security, protection of sensitive facilities, election security, VIP security and border control;

2004-13. Providing interoperability training with the relevant military forces; and

2004-14. Interacting with academic and research institutions in related areas, such as humanitarian law, human rights, criminal law, prison management, and civil-military cooperation.

2005:3 - to provide extra resources for Africa's peacekeeping forces so that they can better deter, prevent and resolve conflicts in Africa

2005:1 - We back the African Union and the other African institutions which must continue to develop their capacity for promoting lasting peace and stability on the continent. In this regard, we are progressing with our Sea Island commitment to train and, where appropriate equip, some 75,000 troops by 2010 to take part in peace support operations worldwide, with a sustained focus on Africa.

2005:2 - We commend and will continue to support the African Union's mission in Sudan (Darfur), just as we are contributing to UNMIS's operation in southern Sudan. We will enhance our support for the development of Africa's capacity to resolve conflicts and keep the peace, consistent with our national laws, by:

2005:3 - Providing co-ordinated technical assistance to the African Standby Force and helping to establish planning elements at the African Union HQ and its regional brigades.

2005:4 - Supporting the AU in developing its ability to deploy unarmed military observer missions, civilian policing operations and gendarmerie/carabinieri-like forces as part of stabilisation and peace support operations.

2005:5 - Providing support, including flexible funding, for African peace support operations including transport, logistics and financial management capacity.

2005:7 - Supporting efforts from regional and international organisations to reinforce African capacity to promote peace and stability. We will also help Africa prevent conflict and ensure that previous conflicts do not re-emerge, by:

2005:8 - Working in partnership with the AU and sub-regional organisations, including by providing resources to develop their planned Continental Early Warning System and implement the AU Panel of the Wise to address and mediate conflicts before they erupt into violence.

2005:9 - Enhancing the capabilities of the AU and African sub-organisations, building on the existing G8 Action Plan for Expanding Global Capability for Peace Support Operations,as well as commitments from the Evian and Kananaskis Summits. To support this, we will work to promote within our respective governments mechanisms for more effective and flexible crisis response and promote faster, more comprehensive and coordinated partner responses engaging ourselves, the UN, key regional organisations and other partners.

2005:10 - Maximising the contribution of local and multinational companies to peace and stability including through working with the UN Global Compact and developing OECD guidance for companies working in zones of weak governance.

2005:11 - Working to implement UN sanctions regimes more effectively by improved coordination of existing monitoring mechanisms and more efficient use of independent expertise.

2005:12 - Acting effectively in the UN and in other fora to combat the role played by 'conflict resources' such as oil, diamonds and timber, and other scarce natural resources, in starting and fuelling conflicts.

2005:13 - Improving the effectiveness of transfer controls over small arms and light weapons, including at inter alia the review conference of the UN Programme of Action on small arms and light weapons in 2006, and taking effective action in Africa to collect and destroy illicit small arms. = We will give greater attention and resources to reconstruction and reconciliation in post-conflict countries by:

2005: 14- Providing rapid and flexible multilateral and bilateral debt relief for post-conflict countries, where appropriate.

2005:15 - Allocating grant financing for reconstruction needs, including the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) into civilian society of former combatants. We will work urgently with other partners to improve the timeliness, predictability, effectiveness and availability of humanitarian assistance by:

2005:16 - Helping to fund sufficiently the urgent needs of millions of Africans caught up in the humanitarian emergencies identified by the UN in Africa, especially in the so-called 'forgotten humanitarian crises', so that co-ordinated emergency funding is available in time to save lives at risk.

2005:17 - Working with the UN to improve the tracking, reporting, and co-ordination of the resources provided for humanitarian emergencies.

2006 - 217: continuing, in cooperation with the EU, UN and other partners, to assist the AU and African sub-regional organisations in further developing the African Standby Force including transportation and logistics support arrangements;

2006 - 285: The G8 Heads of State commit as a group to establish a more coordinated approach with each other and key external partners to conflict prevention, stabilization and reconstruction that ties together existing initiatives - both inside and outside the G8 - and builds on them, by committing to the following measures:

2006 - 286: G8 experts will invite representatives from the UN and appropriate regional organizations from a range of disciplines (development, security and diplomacy) to meet as soon as possible in 2006 after the conclusion of the UN General Assembly to discuss feasibility of implementation of the following measures.

2006 - 287: Uphold previous G8 commitments to increase global capability for peace support operations, particularly in Africa, including through support to the Centre of Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU) in Vicenza, Italy, also including further discussion on possibility of creation of a transportation and logistics support arrangement (TLSA) in 2006, that would address a key capabilities gap in timely reaction to crises, by providing countries with transportation to deploy peace support units and their logistics support in the field.

2006 - 288: In order to facilitate the UN's rapid and efficient response to crises, G8 states commit to pursuing reforms in the United Nations to ensure that resources are available in advance to the UN as it works to establish new peacekeeping and peace support operations: pre-positioning equipment in Brindisi, an increase in pre-authorization funds to support DPKO's planning, and the authority to identify personnel in advance of a UNSC resolution mandating a new PKO;

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Democratization

1989-50. We reaffirm our commitment to freedom, democratic principles and human rights.

1989-51. We reaffirm our belief in the rule of law which respects and protects without fear or favor the rights and liberties of every citizen, and provides the setting in which the human spirit can develop in freedom and diversity.

1989-52. Human rights are a matter of legitimate international concern. We commit ourselves again to encouraging and promoting universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

1990-58. We acknowledge some of the recent developments in China, but believe that the prospects for closer cooperation will be enhanced by renewed political and economic reform, particularly in the field of human rights. We agree to maintain the measures put into place at last year's Summit, as modified over the course of this year.

1990-59. We will keep them under review for future adjustments to respond to further positive developments in China. For example, in addition to existing lending to meet basic human needs, we will explore whether there are other World Bank loans that would contribute to reform of the Chinese economy, especially loans that would address environmental concerns.

1990-60. We also welcome the positive developments that have taken place in South Africa, especially the launching of talks between the government and representatives of the black majority. We will continue to support this process and we call on all parties to refrain from vioaflence or its advocacy.

1990-61. We reaffirm our commitment to the fundamental principles we seek to realize in our own societies, and we underscore that political and economic freedoms are closely linked and mutually reinforcing.

1990-62. Each of us stands ready to help in practical ways those countries that choose freedom, through the provision of constitutional, legal, and economic know-how and through economic assistance, as appropriate.

In drawing from our different constitutional and historical experiences, we stand ready, individually and jointly in relevant fora, to: 1990-63. assist in the drafting of laws, including bills of rights and civil, criminal, and economic framework laws;

1990-64. advise in the fostering of independent media;

1990-65. establish training programs in government, management, and technical fields;

1990-66. develop and expand people-to-people contacts and exchange programs to help diffuse understanding and knowledge.

1991-40. It is for the peoples of Yugoslavia themselves to decide upon their future. We will do whatever we can, with others in the international community, to encourage and support the process of dialogue and negotiation in accordance with the principles enshrined in the Helsinki Final Act and the Paris Charter for a new Europe, in particular respect for human rights, including rights of minorities and the right of peoples to self-determination in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations and with the relevant norms of international law, including those relating to territorial integrity of states. The normalisation of the present situation will allow us to contribute to the indispensable economic recovery of the country.

1991-41. In addition to its own domestic efforts, South Africa also needs the help of the international community, especially in those areas where the majority have long suffered deprivation: education, health, housing and social welfare. We will direct our aid for these purposes.

1993-17. While encouraging changes in policy reforms and performance are taking place in many developing countries, many are still confronted with major economic and social difficulties, particularly in Africa. We will continue to strengthen our support for their self-help efforts based on the principles of good governance.

To carry out this responsibility, we have agreed that, in Halifax next year, we will focus on two questions: 1994-2. What framework of institutions will be required to meet these challenges in the 21st century? How can we adapt existing institutions and build new institutions to ensure the future prosperity and security of our people?

1994-28. We warmly welcome South Africa's transition to full democracy. This will open new opportunities for trade and inward investment. We will provide further assistance to help strengthen economic and social development, in particular for the poorest groups.

1994-49. We are determined to strengthen efforts to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, aggressive nationalism, antisemitism and other forms of intolerance.

1994-50. The international community should equip itself with more efficient means to respond in a prompt way to humanitarian emergencies world-wide. We shall seek to improve our capabilities through the UN and other appropriate mechanisms to fulfill such requirements.

1995-12. encourage countries to follow participatory development strategies and support governmental reforms that assure transparency and public accountability, a stable rule of law, and an active civil society;

1995-60. We reaffirm our commitment to the UN, whose Charter lays down the fundamental principles for an international order based on peace and security, sustainable development, and respect for human rights.

1995-68. We reiterate our firm belief in the necessity for the international community to promote efficient means to respond promptly to humanitarian emergencies, and support the work of the WEU in this area.

1995-69. We will work to promote good governance and democratic accountability, which are the surest guarantees of respect for universal human rights and fundamental freedoms.

1995-70. We reaffirm our support for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and his coordinating role on human rights throughout the UN system

1995-77. We will continue to support efforts by African leaders to prevent conflict and enhance the welfare of their populations through democratization, structural reform, and economic liberalization.

1995-78. Each of us will pursue our respective dialogues with China in the interests of a more stable and prosperous world.

1996-71. We reaffirm our support for the High Commissioner for Human Rights as coordinator of human rights within the United Nations system and commend his contribution in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention and peacebuilding.

1996-72. We will take care to ensure that women as well as men benefit fully and equally from the recognition of human rights and fundamental freedoms, which were reiterated on the occasion of the Beijing Conference, and that the rights of children be respected.

1996-73. We support fully the efforts of the International Tribunals aimed at the prosecution and trial of persons indicted for serious violations of human rights in the Former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda and commit ourselves to making available to the Tribunals adequate resources for the fulfillment of their mandates.

1996-74. All over the world, we actively support the process of democratization, which is an essential guarantee of respect for human rights. We will provide assistance in the organization of free and impartial elections and in strengthening democratic institutions and standards.

1996-75. We are firmly determined to continue to provide assistance to populations in need, and we call for the coordination and rationalization of efforts in order to provide assistance more effectively.

1996-119. We shall contribute substantially to the preparation of the elections scheduled by the OSCE on 14 September 1996. To this end, we are increasing our assistance to the OSCE, inter alia by contributing to the deployment of 2,000 observers and the development of independent media.

1996-120. We support the High Representative in his work of preparation with the Parties of the establishment of the new institutions : the collective Presidency, the Council of Ministers, the Parliament, the Constitutional Court and the Central Bank. We shall provide the future authorities with the necessary constitutional and legal assistance.

1997-6. We discussed the progress that has been made since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit in defining and promoting sustainable development, and we commit ourselves to taking action in areas critical to advancing this agenda. Sustainable development demands the full integration of environment, economic and social policies; should be based upon democratic governance and respect for human rights; and should have poverty eradication as one of its ultimate objectives.

1997-49. We will support African efforts to promote democracy and good governance, improve the integrity of public institutions, enhance the transparency of government spending, in particular of procurement, and develop national anti-bribery regulations.

1997-55. We will work with African countries to ensure adequate and well-targeted assistance for those countries which have the greatest need and carry out the necessary broad-based reforms. This assistance will include support for democratic governance, respect for human rights, sound public administration, efficient legal and judicial systems, infrastructure development, rural development, food security, environmental protection and human resource development, including health and education of their people.

1997-56. In this regard, we will work to strengthen cooperation among concerned institutes to facilitate and coordinate capacity building efforts.

1997-61. We will continue to give full support to the International Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and work to ensure that the international community and States concerned bring to justice through due process persons responsible for violations of human rights and international humanitarian law.

1997-62. We will work to ensure adoption and ratification of international instruments designed to provide protection to these groups, in particular the speedy adoption of an International Labor Organization Convention on the eradication of intolerable forms of child labor.

1997-63. We will work through multilateral and regional organizations, particularly with the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD as well as in partnership with nongovernmental organizations and young democracies.

1997-64. We have asked our Ministers to pursue these efforts and to make recommendations for consideration at our next Summit.

1997-65. We will actively work to eliminate corruption in aid-funded procurement.

1997-66. We will take prompt steps to criminalize, in an effective and coordinated manner, bribery of foreign public officials, and to implement previous undertakings on the taxdeductibility of such bribes.

1997-145. All authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina must work to accelerate the development of democratic institutions, including accelerating efforts to establish independent news media. We shall contribute the necessary support for the conduct of municipal elections.

We therefore pledge ourselves to a shared international effort: 1998-13. to provide effective support for the efforts of these countries to build democracy and good governance, stronger civil society and greater transparency,

1999-20. We commit ourselves to promote effective implementation of the International Labor Organization's (ILO) Declaration On Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-up.

1999-23. We will continue to provide substantial support and assistance to developing and transition economies in support of their own efforts to open and diversify their economies, to democratize and improve governance, and to protect human rights.

1999-46. The G8 warmly welcomes Nigeria's return to civilian rule and democracy. The G8 will assist positive change in Nigeria by continued support for democracy and human rights, good governance, transparency and accountability and the reduction of poverty.

2001-56. We have decided today to forge a new partnership to address issues crucial to African development. We are committed to promoting this objective with our African partners and in multilateral fora-in the UN, the World Bank and the IMF, and in the new Round of WTO negotiations. Our partnership will support the key themes of the New African Initiative, including: o Democracy and political governance o Prevention and reduction of conflict o Human development, by investing in health and education, and tackling HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria, including through the Global AIDS and Health Fund o Information and communications technologies o Economic and corporate governance o Action against corruption o Stimulating private investment in Africa o Increasing trade within Africa and between Africa and the world o Combating hunger and increasing food security

2002-10. Assuming strong African policy commitments, and given recent assistance trends, we believe that in aggregate half or more of our new development assistance commitments announced at Monterrey could be directed to African nations that govern justly, invest in their own people and promote economic freedom.

2002-23. In this way we will support the objectives of the NEPAD. This will help ensure that no country genuinely committed to poverty reduction, good governance and economic reform will be denied the chance to achieve the Millennium Goals through lack of finance.

The task of strengthening institutions and governance is thus both urgent and of paramount importance, and for this reason, we commit to: Supporting the NEPAD's priority political governance objectives - including by: 2002-44. Expanding capacity-building programmes related to political governance in Africa focusing on the NEPAD priority areas of: improving administrative and civil services, strengthening parliamentary oversight, promoting participatory decision-making, and judicial reform;

2002-45.Supporting African efforts to ensure that electoral processes are credible and transparent, and that elections are conducted in a manner that is free and fair and in accordance with the NEPAD's commitment to uphold and respect "global standards of democracy";

2002-47. Supporting the reform of the security sector through assisting the development of an independent judiciary and democratically controlled police structures.

Giving increased attention to and support for African efforts to promote and protect human rights - including by: 2002-52. Supporting human rights activities and national, regional and sub-regional human rights institutions in Africa;

2002-53. Supporting African efforts to implement human rights obligations undertaken by African governments; and,

2002-54. Supporting African efforts to promote reconciliation and to ensure accountability for violations of human rights and humanitarian law, including genocide, crimes against humanity and other war crimes.

2002-87. Our aim is to assist countries through the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative to reduce poverty by enabling them to exit the HIPC process with a sustainable level of debt. The HIPC Initiative will reduce, by US$19 billion (net present value terms), the debt of some 22 African countries that are following sound economic policies and good governance. Combined with traditional debt relief and additional bilateral debt forgiveness, this represents a reduction of some US$30 billion - about two-thirds of their total debt burden - that will allow an important shift of resources towards education, health and other social and productive uses.

2002-108. Supporting African countries in increasing access to, and making the best use of, ICT in support of governance, including by supporting the development and implementation of national e-strategies and e-governance initiatives aimed at increased efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of government.

2003-21. We Will focus bilateral assistance on countries demonstrating commitment to improve performance on transparency, good governance and rule of law.

2004-22. Coordinate and share information and lessons learned on democracy programs in the region, taking into account the importance of local ownership and each country's particular circumstances;

2004-23. Work to enhance existing democracy programs or initiate new programs;

2005:4 - to give enhanced support for greater democracy, effective governance and transparency, and to help fight corruption and return stolen assets

2005:7 - The G8 leaders agreed to back this plan with substantial extra resources for countries which have strong national development plans and are committed to good governance, democracy and transparency.

2005:18 - We will support African countries' efforts to make their governments more transparent, capable and responsive to the will of their people; improve governance at the regional level and across the continent; and strengthen the African institutions that are essential to this. In response to this African commitment, we will: Help strengthen the AU and NEPAD, including through:

2005:19 - support, including flexible funding, for the African Union and other pan-African institutions such as the Pan-African Parliament;

2005:20 - support to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), while respecting African ownership, such as through contributions to the APRM Secretariat Trust Fund;

2005:21 - appropriate and co-ordinated support to African countries in the implementation of their good governance national strategies, including their country action plans for implementation of APRM recommendations.

2005:22 - Support greater transparency in public financial management, including revenues, budgets and expenditure, licences, procurement and public concessions, including through increased support to capacity building in those African countries that are taking credible action against corruption and increasing transparency and accountability.

2005:23 - Support African partners in signing and ratifying the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption and provide support towards the implementation of the AU Convention.

2005:24 - Work vigorously for early ratification of the UN Convention Against Corruption and start discussions on mechanisms to ensure its effective implementation.

2005:25 - Work to establish effective mechanisms, consistent with the provisions of UNCAC and previous G8 commitments, within our own administrations for the recovery of assets, including those stolen through corruption, taking into account final disposal of confiscated property where appropriate, and to return assets to their legitimate owners.

2005:26 - Reduce bribery by the private sector by rigorously enforcing laws against the bribery of foreign public officials, including prosecuting those engaged in bribery;

2005:27 - strengthening anti-bribery requirements for those applying for export credits and credit guarantees, and continuing our support for peer review, in line with the OECD Convention;

2005:28 - encouraging companies to adopt anti-bribery compliance programmes and report solicitations of bribery;

2005:29 - and by committing to co-operate with African governments to ensure the prosecution of those engaged in bribery and bribe solicitation.

2005:30 - Take concrete steps to protect financial markets from criminal abuse, including bribery and corruption, by pressing all financial centres to obtain and implement the highest international standards of transparency and exchange of information.

2005:31 - We will continue to support Financial Stability Forums ongoing work to promote and review progress on the implementation of international standards, particularly the new process concerning offshore financial centres that was agreed in March 2005, and the OECD's high standards in favour of transparency and exchange of information in all tax matters.

2006 - 204: We will support the educational elements that develop critical thinking, and the open exchange of knowledge, which build both democratic societies and well-functioning economies with opportunities for all.

2006 - 219: working towards ratifying the UN Convention Against Corruption as soon as possible, with successful discussions on monitoring and implementation mechanisms at the Conference of State Parties later this year ;

2006 - 228: We will review progress, and identify the next steps to support Africa's successful development, at the 2007 G8 Summit in Germany. Our goal remains a democratic, prosperous and peaceful Africa.


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