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Performance Assessment

The 1996 Lyon Summit of the Eight
on Politicial Security and Global Issues

as of Saturday June 29, 1996, 13h00 Lyon time

[Summit Contents]
Analytical Studies

This report was prepared by members of the G8 Research Group at the University of Toronto.

On this page: Summit of the Eight Performance on Objectives | Members' Performances on National Objectives

The Summit of the Eight Performance of Priority Objectives

Overall Total C+
1. Contain and condition Russian participation B+
2. Maintain the Halifax momentum on UN reform and renewal B+
3. Ensure a 1997 Rio review with monitoring and a forest convention B
4. Keep CTBT committment with acquiesence of China and India D
5. Signal all G7 ground forces will stay in Bosnia beyond 1996 if necessary D
6. Move to prevent genocide in Burundi and sanction Nigeria F
About all issues above

Performance of Participating Members on Priority National Objectives

Country issues
Overall:                        B-
UN Reform                       A
Bosnia                          B-
Nigeria                         C
Nuclear Safety                  B+
Country issues
Overall:                        A-
Bosnia                          A
Nuclear Security                B+
Spread of infectious diseases   A-
Country issues | About grade
Overall:                        B+
Bosnia                          A+
UN Reform                       B+
Environment                     B+
Country issues
Overall:                        C-
UN Reform                       C-
Country issues | About grade
Overall:                        A-
North Korea                     B+
UN Reform                       A
Global Issues                   B
United Kingdom
Country issues
Overall:                        A-
Terrorism                       A
UN Reform                       A-
Bosnia                          A
United States
Country issues
Overall:                        A
Terrorism                       A+
Middle East                     B
Bosnia                          A
Crime                           A+
Environmental Degradation       A
European Union
Country issues
Overall:                        A-
Terrorism                       A
External Relations              A-
Country issues | About grade
Overall:                        B+
Avoid Adverse Publicity         A
Positive Publicity              C

Germany: B+

1. Bosnia (A+):

Given the fact that 66% of German ODA goes to Bosnia, Kohl was very pleased that issues relating to Bosnia loomed large on the Lyon agenda. The issue of refugees was a major consideration for Kohl at Lyon. As 200,000 asylum seekers from Bosnia come to Germany each month, Kohl stressed to the Seven that Germany could no longer continue to bear this refugee burden. Overall, the continuation of development assistance to Bosnia would be tied to certain conditions such as the issue of refugees and the implementation of the Dayton Accords.

2. UN Reform (B+):

Kohl was pleased that the momentum has continued on this issue from the Halifax Summit of last year. Kohl noted, however, that financial contributions to the UN must not be de-railed and that burden-sharing needs to continue in a fair and equitable manner.

3. Environment (B+):

As a strong proponent of sound environmental policy, Kohl was generally pleased that the G7 considered the protection of the environment as "crucial in promoting sustainable development". Having launched an initiative on climate change at Halifax in 1995, Kohl was also pleased that the leaders pushed for the successful outcome of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention by 1997. Recognizing that 1997 marked the fifth anniversary of the Rio Summit, Kohl pushed for, and was able to secure a commitment on the part of the G7 to renew their Rio commitments and work towards the "successful outcome of the 1997 special session of the UN General Assembly which would lead to their better implementation."

Back to overview at top | Country issues

Japan: A-

Japan received a good grade not only because it achieved most of its political objectives at the Lyon Summit but also for its active participation in the Summit. Again, Japan's success in the P8 discussions is due to Prime Minister Hashimoto's dynamism. Prime Minister Hashimoto came to the Lyon Summit with the objective to raise and actively discuss global issues of concern to Japan. These issues were discussed by the P8 members and many of them were incorporated in the Chairman's Statement. Unlike his predecessors, Prime Minister Hashimoto played an active role in the Summit, expressing Japan's concerns on global issues. His initiatives on a caring world and a partnership between developed and developing countries were welcomed and recognized at the Summit.

Of particular note, Japan seemed more vocal about Asia-Pacific regional security concerns. It seemed as if Japan perceived itself as an unofficial Asian representative at the G7 Summit. When asked about this at one of their briefings, the Japanese spokesman responded that obviously because of Japan's geographic proximity, of course, Japan has a vested interest in the stability of Asia; however, Japan's representation is not necessarily in any official capacity, nor is it done in consultation with any particular Asian countries. Japan's concerns for regional security in Asia-Pacific may very well be realist in motive: stability in China and especially security in the Korean Peninsula are also good for Japan's well-being. On the other hand, Japan's concerns for Asia-Pacific may also be genuine: to improve relations with Asian countries, and to redeem itself for historical injustices in this region.

1. North Korea: A-

North Korea and its implication for stability in the Korean Peninsula was Japan's major concern for regional security in Asia-Pacific. Japan came to the Lyon Summit with the objective to raise the North Korean issue and to receive a firm financial commitment from the European Union to the Korean Energy Development Organization (KEDO). Although Japan did not get a firm financial commitment from the EU at the Summit, it was not a complete failure for Japan. Prior to the Summit, the EU had already submitted a proposal supporting the KEDO. It is only a matter of time for the EU to make an offer of financial commitment. What is notable is that there was a collective support by the P8 members regarding KEDO: "We call on the international community to join us in providing political and financial support for the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO)." What is also notable is that the North Korean issue was recognized and incorporated in the Chairman's Statement in Section II(4) under Regional Situation. The P8 members urged and endorsed the ongoing dialogue and cooperation between North and South Korea to achieve a permanent peace on the Korean Peninsula.

2. UN Reform: B+

UN reform is an important issue for Japan; and, at Lyon, Japan continued to pursue the issue of UN reform. There was a collective commitment by the P8 members to continue to revitalize, strengthen and reform the UN system. Unfortunately, Japan's objective to seek endorsement for its proposal of reinvesting the savings from the reform process to be directed to development was overlooked in the Chairman's Statement. Nevertheless, the issue of UN reform has been an ongoing endeavour since the Halifax Summit and will continue to be an ongoing topic of discussion in the years to come. Japan has been at the forefront of pursuing UN reform and will continue to pursue their objectives in future discussions. Interestingly, Japan has not mentioned, nor pursued its intent for permanent seat in the UN Security Council. However, Japan may eventually achieve this objective in future discussions on reform. Furthermore, by taking a more active role in the international community through increased development initiatives, Japan may also gain the support of developing countries for a permanent seat.

3. Global Issues: A-

Japan raised serious concerns regarding non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament, nuclear safety and security, and the regulation of anti-personnel landmines. These concerns were given considerable recognition in the Chairman's Statement. Non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament was given considerable attention in Section I(2) of the Chairman's Statement. The P8 members affirmed the conclusion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) to prohibit nuclear weapon testing and to urge Nuclear Weapon States to exercise utmost restraint. The P8 members also reaffirmed their commitment to the objectives of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of establishing additional nuclear free zones. Nuclear safety and security was also given considerable attention in Section I(4). The P8 members reaffirmed their commitment made in Moscow to "the highest internationally recognized nuclear safety level." Regarding the illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, two initiatives were proposed to encourage more countries to adopt the "Programme for preventing and combating illicit trafficking in nuclear material," and to set a meeting dedicated to the implementation of this Programme with the participation of agencies and ministries.

Another area of particular interest to Japan was the regulation of anti-personnel land mines. On this issue, there was collective support incorporated in the Chairman's Statement: "We call upon States to spare no effort in securing a global ban on the scourge represented by the proliferation and the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel landmines...We assert the importance of reinforcing international support for landmine detection and removal efforts and for assistance to victims."

Back to overview at top | Country issues

Russia: B+

Although Russia did not receive any glowing accolades in the Chairman's Statement, it was successful in avoiding any adverse mention. Preventing any comments regarding the war in Chechnya from entering the Political communique was a key goal of the Russians in Lyon and in this they succeeded admirably. In general, the Russian delegation kept a low-profile in deference to the final round of presidential elections which would follow the G-7 Summit. Thus the Russians proved to be team-players in Lyon and were not singled out for either merit or censure.

2. ISSUE AREA: Russian Participation Grade: B+

All participants were very successful in their endeavor to treat Russia respectfully while containing its participation to global and political issues. This goal was a difficult one to achieve given the growing pressures from the Russians to be included as a full member in a new G-8, pressures which were given greater impetus by Yeltsin's call for Western support for his re-election. At Lyon a delicate balance was struck between showing Western solidarity behind the democratic forces in Russia and maintaining the present integrity of the Economic agenda and its membership. Boris Yeltsin's absence from the Summit was also instrumental in slowing the momentum towards greater Russian participation which has been gaining ground since 1994. No formula for a "Lyon-Plus" formula for increased Russian involvement was proposed, and the outlook for the next Summit in Denver is one of a "holding-pattern" for the Russians.

Back to overview at top | Country issues

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