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Growth and Responsibility:
The Prospective Agenda for the
2007 G8 Heiligendamm Summit

Laura Sunderland
Senior Researcher, G8 Research Group
June 3, 2007

See also G8 Finance Ministers Prospective AgendaG8 Foreign Ministers Prospective Agenda


This prospective agenda is compiled by the G8 Research Group from public sources as an aid to researchers and other stakeholders interested in the 2007 G8 Summit, which will be hosted by Germany in Heilgendamm on June 6-8. It will be updated periodically as the Heiligendamm Summit planning evolves and as more information becomes available about its intended and actual agenda.

G8 Summit, Heiligendamm, June 6-8, 2006

On May 31, 2007, ITAR-TASS World Service reported that according to Russian sherpa Igor Shuvalov, 10-12 documents will be adopted by the leaders in Heiligendamm.[1]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the World Economic Forum at Davos, stating that "Growth remains for all countries the basic prerequisite for achieving more employment, higher living standards and greater resource productivity. But growth is not an end in itself. It must be created equitably, not through unfair measures. Global competition must therefore in my firm opinion be placed within an international framework. It is precisely here that politics comes into play, as politics has the responsibility for this framework."[2]

On October 18, 2006, Chancellor Merkel submitted her tentative agenda for the German G8 presidency to the cabinet, which expressed its strong approval.[3] The focuses of the German presidency, according to Merkel's tentative agenda are as follows (1) investment, innovation and sustainability; (2) Africa: good governance, sustainable investment, peace and security; (3) Cooperation with Emerging Countries.[4]

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Investment, Innovation, Sustainability

On April 13, 2007, Oil Change International released a copy of a leaked draft of a G8 communiqué entitled "Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy."[5] The text of the leaked draft can be found here.

World Economy

On June 4, 2007, AFX Asia reported that according to an Italian diplomatic source clost to Prime Minister Prodi, the G8 communique will include comments on exchange rates ande monetary policy.[6]

On May 24, 2007, according to the Official German G8 Presidency website, Chancellor Merkel "has once again presented the objectives of the German Presidency in a government declaration: these include promoting worldwide economic recovery, making globalisation socially equitable and putting in place a sustainable policy on Africa."[7]

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that the G8 will discuss ways to limit dangers of international financial transfers.[8]

On December 28, 2006, German Sherpa, Bernd Pfaffenbach, stated that Germany plans to "go back to the roots of the World Economic Summit as it was previously known. We're concerned with the problems of the global economy."[9]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "In the G8 we will do our best to remind everyone in this group of nations that the original calling of the G7 was how best to move the world economy forward. In other words, the question of employment, the question of growth, the question of stability, the question of how best to confront the challenges of globalisation, including new issues such as energy and climate change, which will be very high on our agenda."[10]

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Free Trade

On June 1, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that European Commission sources involved in summit preparation stated that three themes will dominate the G8 summit: climate change, development and Africa, and trade.[11] On trade, the article states that "The Commission said that there is no question of negotiating Doha Round dossiers but is hoping that the Summit may give a "political boost" to negotiations in Geneva."[12]

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that "The G8 will seek to send a "positive signal" to encourage the World Trade Organisation's negotiations on freeing up international trade."[13]

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported Chancellor Merkel stated to the World Economic Forum in Davos that "Referring to Germany's role as president of the G8 group of industrialized countries, Ms. Merkel said free trade is an essential condition for economic growth in rich and poor nations."[14]

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Protectionism

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that Berlin has put fighting protectionism on the agenda, to ensure that it does not hamper international investment or create differing investment climates in developing and emerging markets.[15]

On April 10, 2007, the Financial Times reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said that Germany is planning to release a G8 communiqué opposing "investment protectionism," stating that "I expect a specific G8 recommendation for the first time against 'double regimes' where investment by foreign companies is discriminated against compared with domestic investment... This is a particular problem in emerging economies."[16]

On November 29, 2006, German Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that the issue of protectionism will be on the G8 agenda.[17]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that a German government official announced that the leaders will address protectionism in investment.[18],[19]

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Employment

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "the question of employment… will be very high on our agenda."[20]

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Global Imbalances

On May 4, 2007, Kyodo News reported that according to a draft copy of the G8's economic statement, the G8 will call on China to reduce its trade surplus by adopting a more flexible currency policy.[21] It goes on to state that addressing trade imbalances is crucial to economic stability.[22]

On March 30, 2007, Reuters News reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "One of the core topics to be discussed is global imbalances, so one has to look that each of the heads of state and government is in conformity with the analysis and is willing to fulfill the tasks that will be defined and agreed at the upcoming summit... What we are looking for is a common view of the heads of states and governments which is expressed to the outside. This could create more confidence in the markets... This does not necessarily mean that the leaders will say something that is relevant to daily markets... But if they e.g. declare themselves in favour of open markets and free investment flows I have the clear feeling that this will create more trust and confidence in the markets, they will accept it as a good sign."[23]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel, in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stated that "We want to continue the G8's joint efforts to reduce the strong global imbalances, for example in exchange rates or oil supplies."[24]

On December 30, 2006, German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "The goal will be to identify imbalances and to determine what can be done to ensure more balanced global growth."[25]

As of October 18, 2006, global imbalances (such as the current account deficit in the US, deficient growth in Europe and Japan and foreign exchange reserves in Asia) are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[26]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that the leaders will discuss global imbalances[27], Asian foreign-currency reserves, greater flexibility of Chinese yuan, the American twin deficit[28], [29], and the need for structural reforms in Europe and Japan in order to bring growth to those sluggish economies.[30], [31]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that Merkel will focus the summit's attention on global economic matters, such as global imbalances.[32]

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Systemic Stability and Transparency of Financial Markets and Hedge Funds

On June 5, 2007, an official from the German government told journalists in Heiligendamm that hedge funds have been discussed extensively by sherpas and finance ministers and that gradual process is being made. The official noted that the code of conduct originally envisioned by the German presidency will not be a product of this summit, but that the issue of hedge funds will continue over into the second half of the German G8 presidency.

On June 4, 2007, the Daily Telegraph reported that in a magazine interview, Chancellor Merkel stated that "There are parts of the conference programme on which negotiations have practically been concluded, for example, the hedge fund issue. Finance ministers have reached the most possible ahead of Heiligendamm."[33]

On June 3, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that German sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "we won't score our big hit [on hedge funds] in Heiligendamm."[34]

On June 2, 2007, Reuters News reported that regarding hedge funds, Merkel stated that "I would "I would have liked to see much more transparency and greater ambition for self-regulation to limit the risks for the global financial system."[35]

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that Berlin has put hedge funds on the agenda in order to maintain financial stability.[36]

On May 2, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that Germany's plan to regulate hedge funds will fail and that "Following the most recent negotiations with the partner nations, experts from the Federal Finance Ministry are no longer expecting even minimal goals to be reached at the world economic summit in Heiligendamm. It is therefore becoming increasingly less likely that at the meeting in early June Chancellor Angela Merkel and the other heads of state and government of the seven leading industrial nations and Russia (G8) will require the controversial hedge fund industry to voluntarily submit to a code of behaviour in order to contain the risks to the world economy. That timetable is too ambitious, it is said."[37] Germany hopes that Japan might take up the topic again for the summit in 2008.[38] The BBC Monitoring Europe reported that "Germany's only ally on the hedge fund issue is Italy. The United States and Great Britain are reinforcing their opposition. Japan, France, Canada and Russia are largely indifferent on the topic."[39]

On May 1, 2007, the Financial Times reported that Chancellor Merkel will demand more transparency from the hedge fund industry.[40] They reported that "Germany, facing stiff resistance from the UK and US, where most hedge funds are based, has dropped proposals for a global database of hedge fund holdings. However, Britain plans to propose international co-operation to turn the biannual survey into a tool for monitoring any threat to the financial system from hedge funds."[41] The UK is expected to propose international cooperation to turn the survey by the Financial Service Authority of prime brokers into a tool for monitoring threats to the financial system due to hedge funds.[42]

On April 28, 2007, Reuters News reported that "A German-led initiative to rein in the activities of hedge funds has all but failed, Der Spiegel magazine reported on Saturday, citing unidentified experts from the Finance Ministry in Berlin. It is increasingly unlikely that a meeting of Group of Eight leaders in Germany in June will issue a call to hedge funds to sign up to a voluntary code of conduct to help reduce risks to the global economy, the magazine quoted the experts as saying. Germany is now hoping that Japan will carry the initiative forward during its presidency of the G8 next year, it added. Italy was the only country that supported Germany on the issue while the United States and Britain strongly opposed the initiative, the magazine said, adding that Japan, France, Canada and Russia were indifferent."[43]

On March 15, 2007, the Associated Press Newswires reported that German Finance Minister Peer Steinbrueck told a group of reporters that "We are not talking about regulation [of hedge funds] ... we are talking about the question of how to prevent potential financial crises... We are talking about investor protection .... and we are talking about market integrity."[44] According to the Associated Press Newswires "Steinbrueck said he did not believe recommendations on the hedge fund issue would be finalized by when world leaders of the Group of Eight countries attend a summit in Heiligendamm, Germany, in early June."[45] Steinbrueck stated that "The summit will not provide or will not finalize recommendations or conclusions" on hedge funds.[46]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to minimize the international capital market's systemic risks while increasing their transparency. Let me make it very clear that I see much room for improvement, especially regarding hedge funds."[47]

On December 30, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that "On financial markets, Germany will press for greater transparency and political monitoring of speculative hedge funds, which are seen by Berlin — and increasingly by some of its partners — as a destabilizing element in global finance."[48] German Sherpa Pfaffenbach stated that Merkel will likely be satisfied with "a final declaration that calls for greater transparency."[49]

On December 11, 2006, Reuters reported that Finance Minister Peer Steinbrueck had won the backing of U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and Britain's finance minister, Gordon Brown to tighten controls on hedge funds.[50] Steinbrueck stated that "With the consent of the two most important finance countries, the probability rises that we will reach concrete decisions."[51]

As of October 18, 2006, measures to improve systemic stability and the transparency of financial markets are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[52]

From October 15-18, 2006, various sources reported that leaders will address the need for hedge fund transparency[53], [54], [ 55] and the stability of financial markets.[56] German finance minister Peer Steinbruck stated that the Amaranth debacle alerted all to the "new sensitivity" in the United States to the systemic risks of hedge funds.[57] Steinbruck stated that this is a good opportunity to discuss the issue, and G7 Finance ministers are expected to discuss ways of improving hedge fund transparency during the German presidency.[58] Steinbruck stated that on hedge funds, "we are not talking about regulation here. The question is really one of transparency."[59] While the German government admits that while an agreement or solution might not be feasible, a discussion is important.[60]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss how to improve the basic conditions for a dynamic development of the world economy given that transnational mergers and acquisitions have recently been met with political resistance in the European Union and other large economies.[61]

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Freedom of Investment and Global Investment Conditions

On April 10, 2007, the Financial Times reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said that Germany is planning to release a G8 communique opposing "investment protectionism," stating that "I expect a specific G8 recommendation for the first time against 'double regimes' where investment by foreign companies is discriminated against compared with domestic investment... This is a particular problem in emerging economies."[62]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We have therefore set ourselves the goal of putting economic themes back to the forefront of the agenda during our G8 Presidency. We want to increase the options for global investment and are committed to the equal treatment of cross-border and domestic investment."[63]

On November 29, 2006, German Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "Free movement of investment and capital is an important fundament for the global economy and must be protected by reliable rules. We want to jointly work on this with our G8 partners."[64]

As of October 18, 2006, freedom of investment in both industrial and emerging countries, global investment conditions and the social dimensions of globalization are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[65]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that a German government official announced that the leaders will address protectionism in investment.[66], [ 67]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss the social dimension of globalization, the structure and reform of social security in developing countries, and investment in worker efficiency and human capital as the key to economic and social development and lasting growth.[68]

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Innovation and Trademark Piracy

On May 31, 2007, Kyodo News reported that the G8 is expected to "develop an international information network for their customs authorities to fight against pirated and counterfeit products."[69]

On May 24, 2007, according to the Official German G8 Presidency website, "The protection of intellectual property rights too should become more effective at international level. The G8 states will be discussing this in Heiligendamm, in particular with emerging economies such as China and India."[70]

On April 11, 2007, Dow Jones News Service reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said the G8 will agree to a joint position against product and brand piracy.[71]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to support innovation, as the key to growth and prosperity, and markedly advance the effective worldwide protection of intellectual property."[72]

As of October 18, 2006, the importance of innovation in knowledge-based societies and the need to protect innovation from product and trademark piracy are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[73]

On October 18, 2006, a German government official announced that the leaders will discuss promoting innovation.[74]

On October 15, various sources reported that the German federal government announced that one of the main summit issues is product piracy.[75], [ 76] Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that Germany will seek to initiate a structured dialogue with the developing countries over the protection of the intellectual property, new international agreements to make trading falsified products more difficult and strengthen the existing national and international rules.[77]

On August 1, 2006, the German G8 Sherpa office disclosed that while no definite decisions concerning key topics have officially been made, intellectual property rights will be a priority at the summit.[78]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that the central topics of the German summit will be global economic imbalances, energy and intellectual property protection.[79]

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Nuclear Energy

On May 20, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported that "Japan plans to discuss compiling international safety guidelines for nuclear power plants with other members of the Group of Eight nations, with an eye to reaching agreement at next year's G-8 summit in Hokkaido, government sources said."[80]

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Sustainable Resource Use and Climate Change

On June 5, 2007, an official from the German government told journalists in Heiligendamm that expectations on climate change have been exaggerated, and that negotiations are still going on.

On June 4, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that Canadian Prime Minister Harper told a meeting of the German-Canadian business club that "In the long run, I believe Chancellor Merkel and I are on the same page on this point at least: all countries must embrace ambitious reduction targets, so that the International Panel on Climate Change's goal of cutting emissions in half by 2050 can be met."[81]

On June 2, 2007, Reuters News reported that "German Chancellor Angela Merkel said it was "non-negotiable" that the United Nations should take the lead in global efforts to combat climate change."[82] Merkel stated that "I will not go for a 'lazy compromise' ... I will not get involved in diluting definite scientific findings like those of the U.N.'s Intergovernmental panel on climate change… Some things will be in the final document, others will not. You will see that there are differing opinions from the fact that some things might not be in the final document."[83] Merkel also noted that she is not expecting agreement on her target of two degrees Celsius.[84]

On June 2, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported that on climate change, a senior Candian official stated that "We're special, we're unique in the G8. We're not like Europe. We're not like the United States in all respects. We'll be looking for a result that both advances things on an international level but is also true to Canadian requirements… There's no one set solution for everybody."[85]

On June 1, 2007, Agence France Press reported that according to the European Commission, on climate change "Discussions will be "difficult"… and it would be "unrealistic" to expect the US to make a commitment at Heiligendamm to binding objectives. The Commission acknowledged that "the conditions were not in place" for such an advance, even if the Americans had already "made much headway." The objective at this stage is therefore bringing G8 partners, "as close as possible to the goal and objectives approved by the EU in March."[86]

On June 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach, when asked if the negotiations on climate change might fail, responded "I hope not, but it also cannot be ruled out."[87]

On June 1, 2007, Upstream reported that Japan will reject any German proposal for compulsory greenhouse gas emissions reductions.[88] Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman Mitsui Sakaba was quoted in Reuters stating that "We cannot agree with this because we should think first about how we can invite non-Kyoto members such as the US; fixing the target should come much later."[89]

On June 1, 2007, the Guardian reported that US President Bush proposed creating a "new global framework" to curb greenhouse gases stating that "by the end of the next year, America and other nations will set a long-term global goal for reducing greenhouse gases. To help develop this goal, the United States would convene a series of meetings of nations that produced most greenhouse gas emissions, including nations with rapidly growing economies like India and China."[90] President Bush plans to meet with a group of 15 countries.[91]

On June 1, 2007, China Economic Review reported that China's new climate change plan "will increase use of renewable energy and bio-fuels, and include measures to capture methane gas emissions via methods such as carbon sequestration in efforts to mount a more aggressive international defense of its environmental policies."[92]

On May 31, 2007, Associated Press Newswires reported that Chinese President Hu will release a new set of climate change policy initiatives prior to the G8 summit.[93] The plan is set to focus on short-term goals such as energy conservation and developing new technology to trap greenhouse gases, with benchmarks to be met by 2010.[94]

On May 28, 2007, the Canadian Press reported that Canadian Environment Minister John Baird stated that "we strongly support the… European proposal to have a commitment to reduce greenhouse gases by 50 per cent."[95]

On May 28, 2007, Nikkei Report reported that Japanese Prime Minister Abe has proposed a framework to cut global greenhouse gas emissions by half by 2050 and plans to lobby his G8 counterparts to have the communiqué reflect this target.[96]

On May 27, 2007, the Canadian Press reported that Chancellor Merkel told German parliament "As the G8 we must come to a common understanding on how we can fight climate change. But as I stand here today, I am not sure that we will manage this in Heiligendamm."[97]

On May 27, 2007, the Observer reported that Russia, India and China, along with the US, has been resistant to the climate change language in the proposed German communiqué.[98] According to sources close to the sherpa negotiations last week, the US position has begun to soften, and while they will not move on the proposal to cut greenhouse gas emissions below 1990 levels by 2050, they are interested in agreeing on a global stabilization target in principle.[99]

On May 26, 2007, the Associated Press Newswire, reported that "James Turner, a Greenpeace spokesman, said the group was confident the leaked comments were made by a U.S. official. "The document is from a stable and trusted source,""[91] The leaked copy of Climate Change: Challenge and Opportunity for the World / Energy Security, Efficiency, and Climate Change: Challenge and Opportunity for the World was made available by Greenpeace and is available at here.

On May 24, 2007, according to the Official German G8 Presidency website, Chancellor Merkel stated that "The Summit in Heiligendamm is to give a strong signal for compliance with social and environmental standards."[101] It went on to state that "In the field of climate protection, Merkel is convinced that the industrialised countries must act as trailblazers. Only then will the less developed economies follow."[ 102]

On May 24, 2007, according to the Official German G8 Presidency website, Chancellor Merkel stated that in order to deliver on the Gleneagles pledges to Africa, the G8 will discuss "supporting development-policy projects with the cash generated by auctioning off CO2 emission reduction certificates."[103]

On May 22, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported that according to the draft G8 statement, the United States seeks to eliminate the following sentences: "We firmly agree that resolute and concerted international action is urgently needed in order to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and sustain our common basis of living," and "To this end we will, in the face of the U.N. Climate Change Conference at the end of this year, send a clear message on the further development of the international regime to combat climate change."[104] The United States wants the communiqué to read: "Addressing climate change is a long-term issue that will require global participation and a diversity of approaches to take into account differing circumstances."[105]

On May 21, 2007, Reuters News reported that U.S. President George Bush stated when asked if he expects an agreement on climate change to come out of the summit "Too early to tell right now. I would hope so. I hope we can reach an agreement on some basic principles ... I think we can reach agreement on principles."[106]

On May 21, 2007, Kyodo News reported that "German Chancellor Angela Merkel told a meeting of environmental experts last week in Berlin that reaching an agreement on binding targets has become extremely difficult, according to the sources and a participant at the meeting."[107]

On May 20, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that Japanese Prime Minister Abe is expected to unveil his plan to combat global warming just prior to the G8 summit, and may suggest at the summit a target of halving global greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 from the current level.[108]

On May 17, 2007, Reuters News reported that US chief climate negotiator, Harlan Watson, stated that "We don't believe targets and timetables are important, or a global cap and trade system... It's important not to jeopardise economic growth."[109] Referring to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's recent report which says carbon dioxide emissions should be halved by 2050, Watson stated "That's not on our agenda... The IPCC came out with a range of scenarios, a long-term target is a political not a scientific objective."[110]

On May 15, 2007, the Guardian reported that British Prime Minister Tony Blair believes he is close to persuading US President George Bush to accept the ambitious plan drafted for the summit.[111] Blair and Bush will meet in Washington on May 16, 2007.[112] According to the Guardian, the British are pushing for the following inclusions in the agreement:

"* An agreement to stabilise the world temperature rise above pre-industrial levels at no higher than 2C (4F), or cut world greenhouse gas emissions by 50% below 1990 levels by 2050.

* An agreement to give companies and countries new technology "rewards" if they stopped cutting down forests.

* A new programme of energy efficiency, modelled on the EU scheme to cut C02 emissions by 20% by 2020 using simple techniques, such as energy-efficient lightbulbs and green cities.

* A new commitment to help poor countries in Africa adapt to the change."[113]

On May 13, 2007, the Washington Post reported that negotiators from the US are trying to weaken the language of the 18 page draft climate change declaration, dated April 2007.[114] The US is seeking to eliminate a section of the document that pledges to limit the increase in global temperatures this century to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide to 50% below 1990 levels by 2050.[115] The draft also shows that the US is seeking to eliminate a section of the declaration that says "We acknowledge that the U.N. climate process is the appropriate forum for negotiating future global action on climate change." The US similarly proposed eliminating the opening section that states "We underline that tackling climate change is an imperative, not a choice. We firmly agree that resolute and concerted international action is urgently needed in order to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and sustain our common basis of living."[116] The US proposed deleting sections that call on the developed world to modify activities that are linked to global warming, and eliminating a sentence that reads "Therefore we will increase the energy efficiency of our economies so that energy consumption by 2020 will be at least 30 percent lower compared to a business-as-usual scenario."[117]

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that "De Maiziere said leaders of the Group of Eight most industrialised nations will discuss the way forward on fighting climate change and global warming after the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse emissions expires in 2012... Germany hopes that a new treaty on emissions to be negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations will engage emerging nations such as South Africa, Brazil, China, India and Mexico."[118]

On May 11, 2007, Reuters News reported that according to a draft declaration dated April 2007, the US objects to proposed G8 pledges to: (a) cut greenhouse gas emissions by 50% below 1990 levels by 2050; (b) limit global warming to two degrees Celsius this century; (c) use the UN as the best forum to tackle climate change.[119] The US reportedly also rejects a section saying that carbon markets are key to developing technologies that are climate-friendly.[120] An anonymous source stated that the US has "rejected any mention of targets and timetables, don't want the U.N. to get more involved and refuse to endorse carbon trading because it must by definition involve targets."[121] Another source stated that "It is an open question whether Merkel will be prepared to accept a watered-down declaration or break with G8 tradition and declare a failure on climate change... Either way the ink will still be wet when the final declaration is made."[122]

On May 10, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that Chancellor Merkel stated on May 8 that "Climate protection will play a role at the summit in Heiligendamm... I hope that the summit will send a clear signal with an eye to the negotiations in Indonesia and what we will do once the Kyoto Protocol runs out in 2012."[123]

On May 8, 2007, Kyodo News reported that Japanese Prime Minister Abe will propose steps to halve greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 during the Summit.[124] Abe has agreement from US President Bush on the issue.[125] Abe aims to seek consensus at the German summit to compile an action plan for the post-Kyoto framework during the 2008 summit hosted in Japan.[126]

On May 4, 2007, Dow Jones International News reported that a German government spokesperson stated that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report approved by delegated in Bangkok is "very important and significant" to put to the leaders at the G8 summit.[127]

On May 3, 2007, Reuters News reported that Michael Muller, a junior minister in the Environment Ministry, said that the blueprint for fighting climate change, developed at the UN climate change talks in Bangkok, will be high on the agenda of the G8 summit meeting.[128]

On April 13, 2007, the Dow Jones News Service, citing a Financial Times report, stated that according to a leaked draft communiqué, G8 heads of government "would "contribute our fair share" to limit global warming by ensuring global greenhouse gas emissions peak in the next 10 to 15 years and then cutting them 50% by 2050 from 1990 levels.[129]

On April 10, 2007, the Financial Times reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said that on energy and climate change, emerging economies should play a more "positive role," stating that "A country such as India could improve its international image by being seen to act" on greenhouse gas emissions reductions.[130]

On April 6, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that Chancellor Merkel, referring to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, said "This report confirms that climate change is a fact... We therefore need to act rapidly and decisively to bring down the rate at which temperatures are increasing worldwide and to curb the levels of carbon dioxide emissions... I will raise the issue at the G8 summit in Heiligendamm in June. My aim is to make all nations take responsibility for climate protection."[131]

On April 4, 2007, Associated Press Newswires reported that scientists and diplomats from more than 120 countries have produced a 21-page draft text, based on the 1,400 page assessment by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on the impact of global warming, to be presented at the G8 summit.[132] At the summit, the EU is expected to press President Bush to sign agree to international talks on emissions cuts.[133]

On March 17, 2007, Associated Press Newswires reported that Chancellor Merkel said that she hopes to achieve a step in the right direction against climate change during the G8 Summit.[134] She stated that "With this, Europe has a leading role, and we believe that we can also create more jobs and more export opportunities for people in the European Union through more innovation in these areas... Beyond that, we think Europe will inspire others with its example to implement more attractive and better climate production targets — I mean, for example, the United States of America, India and China... We want to bring up this issue at the G-8 summit in Heiligendamm in June, and I hope that there will then be a step in the right direction, that more people in the world will say they are ready to do something about climate change."[135]

On March 7, 2007, Reuters News reported that, regarding the European Commission's efforts on climate change, Chancellor Merkel stated "The more ambitious and challenging the targets are from this council, the easier it will be for us as the G8 president to say: Europe has taken its own important step and now others — the United States, China, India and the big emerging countries — must follow... I believe Europe can be a role model. Europe has to commit itself, but then Europe has good prospects for getting into dialogue with other countries to do their share, and the German G8 presidency will be lobbying for that."[136]

On March 1, 2007, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated that he will discuss the issue of climate change with the G8 leaders at the summit.[137]

On February 16, 2007, Upstream reported that following a meeting between UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Merkel stated that climate change was a top item on the agenda of both her G8 and EU presidencies.[138] Merkel will host a G8 conference in May to discuss technical details of a climate change agreement to be presented at the G8 Summit in June.[139] Blair suggested that the G8's dialogue with outreach countries is important to reach a climate change deal that the US will accept.[140]

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported that "Elliot Morley met with Environment Minister John Baird in Ottawa [on January 24, 2007,] to encourage Canada to do more at home and internationally. Specifically, the Labour MP and former British environment minister is pushing for Canada and 11 other countries that join Britain in a group known as "G8 plus five" to craft a climate-change plan for this year's G8 meeting in Germany. The plan would then be finalized at the next meeting in Japan for 2008."[141] Representatives from the G8+5 will meet in Washington to discuss the plan and present "initial policy papers" on February 14, 2007, with senior US senators and congressmen.[142] The Globe and Mail reported that "World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz will speak at the event, as will Republican senator and presidential hopeful John McCain."[143]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to supply impulses for climate protection, greater energy efficiency and increased security of supply."[144]

On January 20, 2007, the Straits Times reported that "Germany currently holds the presidency of the European Union as well as the G-8, whose summit this summer will focus on climate change."[145]

On December 29, 2006, Chancellor Merkel stated that she will push energy and climate change as priorities for her G8 Presidency.[146]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Press reported that the energy issue area will be focused on Germany attempting to "make progress on drawing up a successor agreement to the so-called Kyoto Protocol on climate protection, which runs out in 2012."[147]

On December 7, 2006, a German spokesperson from the foreign ministry stated that during Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier's visit to the United States he will discuss G8 priorities, including energy and climate change.[148]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "energy and climate change… will be very high on our agenda."[149]

On December 1, 2006, Merkel said that climate change will play a "major role" in Germany's G8 presidency.[150] Merkel has appointed two special advisors, Hans Joachim Schnellnhuber, head of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Research, and Lars Goeran Josefsson of the energy company Vattenfall to develop German policy that is in line with the views of science and industry.[151] Merkel stated that "Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing mankind… On the one hand we need the know-how ... and on the other we need support from the private sector."[152] She also stated that she wants to use her presidency to "convince more people that something must be done about climate change… It is one of the biggest challenges we face. The G8 presidency is pre-destined for the discussion of this sort of issue."[153]

As of October 18, 2006, the need for sustainable resource use, energy efficient, climate change and the Kyoto Process are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[154] Kyoto was singled out to "play an important role" on the agenda.[155]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that the discussion of the world economy would not be a pure "capitalist agenda."[156] It will include the social dimensions of the world economy, responsible resource use, alternative energy, climate change[157] and energy efficiency. [158], [159] One official stated that nuclear power will not be on the agenda.[160] Energy efficiency is a key theme, both in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ensuring efficient use of oil and gas supplies in the face of high prices.[161]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss climate change and the future of the Kyoto protocol.[162] Merkel wants the G8 to set verifiable and attainable goals to increase the use of alternative fuels, particularly biofuels.[163] On climate change, Merkel seeks a new quality of cooperation regarding access to raw materials between producer, transit and consumer countries, because "the world-wide competition for resources so far has few rules."[164]

On October 3, 2006, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told reporters that environmental protection will be high on the agenda in 2007 and that Russia is "preparing to hand over the relay to the German friends."[165]

On September 28, 2006, Deutsche Welle reported that Merkel named climate change as her presidency's top priority for the summit.[166] Merkel also stated that she will use Germany's EU presidency to push for reduced energy use and more energy efficiency.[167] Merkel stated that "To prevent global warming, the nations with the largest emissions of gases that are causing climate change have to take part… That's why we will make this an important issue once again on the agenda during our G8 presidency… China, India and other countries are now much more aware of the risks… As a result, the ground is now more fertile than it once was… We urgently need agreements for the period after 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Germany will do all it can within its realm as president of both the G8 and the EU ... We have a great chance next year to have an international impact."[168]

On August 1, 2006, the German G8 Sherpa office disclosed that while no definite decisions concerning key topics have officially been made, energy and climate change will be priorities at the summit.[169]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that a central topic of the German summit will be energy.[170]

On July 19, 2006, Deutsche Welle reported that sustainable, renewable and environmentally sound energy policy will be a topic for the summit.[171]

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Africa: Good Governance, Sustainable Investment, Peace and Security

On June 5, 2007, a German government official told journalists in Heiligendamm that the African outreach session will be held on Friday, June 8, from 9-10:15. The United Nations Secretary-General will participate, and the group will discuss peace and security, conflict prevention and the reform partnership.

There is a leaked copy of the Growth and Responsibility in Africa Draft Summit Declaration dated May 17, 2007, available here.

On June 1, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that European Commission sources involved in summit preparation stated that three themes will dominate the G8 summit: climate change, development and Africa, and trade.[172] On development and Africa, the article stated that "Leaders are expected to "confirm" their commitments and promises made at the Summits of Gleneagles (2005) and Saint Petersburg (206) and "reiterate their very strong financial and political support for development in Africa," explained Commission sources. Issues also include good governance, corruption, human rights, investment and a stepping up in the fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria."[173]

On April 17, 2007, the Associated Press Newswires reported that during a meeting with Bono, Chancellor Merkel promised that Africa will play "an outstanding role" at the G8 summit.[174]

As of October 17, according to the Financial Times, the second part of the draft agenda has four chapters: "durable economic growth for the development of Africa," "good public governance," "peace and security as conditions for development," and "the fight against HIV and Aids."[175]

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Health and HIV/AIDS

On May 31, 2007, Kyodo News reported that the G8 is planning to enhance coordination in strengthening health systems by supporting financing systems to ensure universal healthcare access.[176]

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that with regards to Africa, the G8 will discuss fighting the AIDS epidemic.[177]

On April 3, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that at the G8 summit Chancellor Merkel will announce that Germany will give ¢¥2 billion to Africa over four years, half for combating AIDS and half to finance better education and training in Africa.[178]

On March 27, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul said that the G8 leaders will announce more funding for AIDS at the summit, stating that "We have to replenish the Global Fund to Fight Aids. It is important that the G8 makes a contribution."[179] Wieczorek-Zeul did not set a specific figure for funding.[180]

On March 12, 2007, the official German G8 Presidency website stated that regarding HIV/AIDS "we will make headway in Heiligendamm."[181]

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that a top goal for Africa is combating AIDS.[182]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel, in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stated that "In the past, the G8 states have launched major initiatives, most importantly the Global Fund on Combating AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. However, I also want to say that we can't stop there. In September we'll be holding a conference in Germany at which we intend to assess the activities of this Fund and, above all, at which we have to ensure that it is replenished. With regard to AIDS, we want to make the fate of women and children a top priority of Germany's Presidency."[183]

As of October 18, 2006, strengthening health care systems and the fight against HIV/AIDS are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[184]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African discussion will include assistance for public health and the fight against HIV/AIDS.[185]

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Official Development Assistance

On June 5, 2007, an official from the German government told journalists in Heiligendamm that regarding ODA, the German presidency believes that the G8 should focus on monitoring what was pledged at Gleneagles. The official stated that negotiations on whether or not the G8 will come up with a specific global figure is still being negotiated.

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African Economic Development and Democratic Development

On May 24, 2007, according to the Official German G8 Presidency website, Chancellor Merkel stated that in order to deliver on the Gleneagles pledges to Africa, the G8 will discuss "supporting development-policy projects with the cash generated by auctioning off CO2 emission reduction certificates."[186]

On May 24, 2007, according to the Official German G8 Presidency website, Chancellor Merkel "has once again presented the objectives of the German Presidency in a government declaration: these include promoting worldwide economic recovery, making globalisation socially equitable and putting in place a sustainable policy on Africa."[187]

On May 22, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that German Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development, Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, stated that a G8 initiative to give Africans access to small loans "will be an important point at the summit."[188]

On May 22, 2007, All Africa reported that German Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development, Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, stated that Africa is a priority for the G8 summit.[189]

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that with regards to Africa, the G8 will discuss fighting the AIDS epidemic and increasing the flow of "effective investment" to Africa, with preference given to those states adhering to principles of good governance.[190]

On April 25, 2007, Spiegel International reported that following a meeting between Chancellor Merkel and former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Merkel said that she wants to ensure that Gleneagles promises to Africa are met, stating that "We are going to take things up where Gleneagles ended... We don't need to have more conference and set more goals."[191]

On April 23, 2007, ANSA English Media Service reported that Chancellor Merkel responded to a letter by Pope Benedict urging G8 leaders to cancel the debt of the world's poorest countries by promising that her G8 and EU presidencies will be used to push for "progress in the fight against poverty" and African development.[192]

On April 3, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that at the G8 summit Chancellor Merkel will announce that Germany will give ¢¥2 billion to Africa over four years, half for combating AIDS and half to finance better education and training in Africa.[193]

On March 27, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul said that "The G8 will do everything it can to institute micro-financing to which the poorest in Africa can have access, in particular women" and that giving poor Africans access to micro-credit would be at the top of the agenda during the G8 leaders summit.[194]

On March 3, 2007, Deutsche Welle reported that "German parliamentarians have backed the Berlin government's resolve to make better co-operation with African nations a top priority during Germany's current EU and G8 presidencies."[195]

On February 26, 2007, Donald Kaberuka, President of the African Development Bank told Ugandan newspaper Daily Monitor that the G8 is expected to unveil a microfinance initiative for Africa at the summit.[196] He stated that "I have been reliably informed that the upcoming G8 German Presidency is proposing to the G8 and non-G8 a special micro-finance initiative for Africa... I fully welcome and endorse this initiative and I expect over the coming few months, the African Development Bank as well as the World Bank to collaborate closely with the initiators in conceptualising and targeting the initiative."[197]

On February 13, 2007, the Financial Times reported that Germany's development Minister said the G8 is expected to pledge new finance to create a micro-credit fund for African entrepreneurs in order to promote investment.[198] The Financial Times also reported that "[Germany] is co-ordinating a pre-G8 summit declaration by multinational companies from G8 countries, pledging to increase business with African countries, the minister said."[199]

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that a top goal for Africa is a "pact of sustained economic growth." With the World Bank, Germany will seek to establish regional micro-finance funds to give poor groups access to loans.[200]

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported Chancellor Merkel stated to the World Economic Forum in Davos that "Another highlight of the German G8 presidency is the question of how Africa can be better integrated into the world economy."[201]

On January 25, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that "Germany also plans to unveil a proposal at the summit to increase foreign investment in African countries that fight corruption and promote democracy."[202]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "...the question of how we can better integrate Africa into the global economy is another priority of Germany's G8 Presidency... We want more to be invested on this continent and growth and employment to be placed on a broader basis... What we need more, above all, is a responsible approach to natural resources and the development of independent African capacities for conflict management and post-conflict peacebuilding. This not only makes things easier for private investments. It also strengthens the position of African states as equal partners when it comes to access to and control of Africa's raw materials. For one thing must not be allowed to happen, namely that Africa is again treated unfairly in the 21st century in a fight for raw materials."[203]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that Germany's Africa agenda will move away from "the multi-billion-dollar debt relief agreed in Gleneagles and urge African countries to take a more hands-on approach, fighting corruption and pushing for more democracy so as to create better conditions for increased foreign investment."[204]

As of October 18, 2006, African economic development, encouraging private investment (by supporting democracy, anti-corruption measures and resource sovereignty) are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[205]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African discussion will include ensuring good governance, fighting corruption, and encouraging growth and investment in Africa.[206] It will also include reducing violence and giving Africa back its ability to govern its own resources.[207] Another source stated that the African agenda will include energy and environment.[208]

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Africa: Energy and Natural Resources

On June 5, 2007, an official from the German government told journalists in Heiligendamm that regarding natural resources, the social elements of players will be considered.

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that the promotion of a sustained energy supply is a central goal, and that climate change affects developing countries in particular.[209] Wieczorek-Zeul stated that it is important to make progress in Africa on developing renewable energy sources, while also ensuring that Africa adapts to climate change and preserves forests.[210]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel stated that "... What we need more, above all, is a responsible approach to natural resources... This not only makes things easier for private investments. It also strengthens the position of African states as equal partners when it comes to access to and control of Africa's raw materials. For one thing must not be allowed to happen, namely that Africa is again treated unfairly in the 21st century in a fight for raw materials."[211]

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Partnership for Reform

On March 27, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that "Germany holds the presidency of the G8 and Merkel's cabinet is reported to have drafted a proposal that each member of the club sign a partnership agreement with an African country, with preference given to democratic, investor-friendly states."[212] EU Development Commissioner Louis Michel stated that along with efforts to combat corruption, selection will be based on "countries that seek to provide their populations with access to vital services like health and education."[213]

As of October 18, 2006, G8 partnerships for reform with African countries and a new policy approach to Africa are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[214]

On October 18, 2006, a spokesperson for the German Treasury stated that in the context of Africa, Germany is expected to propose that each G8 country should sign a partnership agreement with an African country,[215] with preference given to those countries that are undertaking political reform and are seeking to attract foreign investment.[216] Regarding the New Partnership with Africa, German officials told journalists that "The basic argument is that we need a new and stable framework for investment in Africa." Africa countries that are pursuing good governance, fighting corruption and using raw materials responsibly will be rewarded with partnership agreements and business deals.[217]

On October 18, 2006, the German cabinet discussed a 17-page proposed agenda for the summit, produced by German sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach.[218] The document outlined Germany's plan to have each G8 member sign a partnership agreement with an Africa country that "that [is] willing to enter reform partnerships to be especially supported," with preference given to democratic states that are investor-friendly.[219], [ 220]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, Merkel will focus on African countries that advance social and political reforms and open their country for private investments.[ 221] She stated that donor countries should particularly support "those countries, which are ready for reform partnerships."[222] Merkel will focus on the Gleneagles Africa Action Plan.[223]

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African Outreach

On June 5, 2007, a representative from the German government told journalists in Heiligendamm that the African outreach countries would participate in a session along with the United Nations Secretary General, to discuss peace and security, conflict prevention and an African Reform Partnership.

As of October 18, 2006, according to Merkel's tentative G8 agenda, African representatives will be invited to participate in some summit sessions.[224]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African participants will attend the summit (although which countries will attend has yet to be determined).[225]

On October 15, 2006, officials reported that Germany plans to invite the heads of government from African countries to a separate summit on Africa in Germany before the G8 summit.[226] The focus of the summit will be to encourage private investment in Africa.[227] The African summit is being organized by German Cooperation Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, and will be held in Germany, tentatively in May, 2007.[228]

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Cooperation with Emerging Countries

On June 5, 2007, an official from the German government told journalists in Heiligendamm that the outreach countries would participate, along with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, in a session to generate momentum for Doha and discuss how to implement the Millennium Development Goals. On what the German Presidency calls the Heiligendamm process, the official said that they are developing a structured process of dialogue, with an interim report in Japan next year and a final report in Italy in 2009.

On June 4, 2007, Dow Jones International News reported that Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announced that he would propose to his G8 colleagues that they develop a fund to pay developing countries to reduce the rate at which they cut down forests.[229]

On April 10, 2007, the Financial Times reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said that the outreach countries "must be accounted for" by including them in some sessions but not offering them full membership.[230] Pfaffenbach stated that this initiative, called the "Heligendamm process" will mark a new step toward integration, as the outreach countries have previously only participated on an ad hoc basis.[231] Pfaffenbach stated that any plan to expand the G8 was doomed, but the idea of giving the outreach countries "the opportunity to regularly play a role in influencing the development of the international economy" has been met by "positive reactions from other G8 countries."[232]

On January 25, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that a senior economics official stated that German will suggest inviting leaders from Africa, Asia and Latin America to all G8 summits. "Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach said the economic power of Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa "must be accounted for" by routinely giving them a place at the table of the eight most industrialised nations... The new initiative to include them will be called the "Heiligendamm process" after the Baltic Coast resort, he added."[233] Stating there is "no chance of agreeing on enlarging" the G8, Pfaffenbach stated that instead it is important that the P5 states have "the opportunity to regularly play a role in influencing the development of the international economy."[234]

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported that Chancellor Merkel pledge that "A summit in June will also include "a new form of dialogue" with emerging countries such as Brazil, India, Russia and China."[235]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "we must realize that only a unified G8 approach can help persuade the emerging economies, with their dynamic economic growth, to join us in our shared global responsibility. Any other approach will fail. Therefore my aim is for Germany's G8 Summit, in Heiligendamm in June, to place special emphasis on new forms of dialogue with the major emerging economies, i.e. Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa. The Summit will initiate that dialogue and pass it on to other international organizations because we need a coherent, joint approach in the many international bodies."[236]

On December 30, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that Germany "wants to include Mexico, India, China, Brazil and South Africa, countries that are not members of the G8, in the climate talks."[237]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that "A top-ranking government official from Beijing is to be present in Heiligendamm, as well as representatives from other countries such as India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa, where the talks will cover wage levels and social standards, as well as product piracy."[238]

As of October 18, 2006, according to Merkel's tentative G8 agenda, China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa will be invited to attend the summit.[239] Specific issues will be discussed, but Merkel's tentative agenda states that "the unity of the G8 as a group based on shared values is to be preserved."[240]

On October 18, 2006, German officials confirmed that China, Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa will be invited to the summit, but that the G8 will not be expanded.[241] Agence France Presse reported that the outreach countries will participate in the discussions on counterfeit products, rules governing working conditions, and the climate change.[242] Another source suggested that the outreach countries will attend the discussion on the framework conditions of globalization.[243]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that Merkel rejected a proposal to extend G8 membership to include China, India, Brazil, South Africa and Mexico.[244] This proposal was supported by the UK.[245]

On July 17, 2006, Chancellor Merkel stated that Mexico, Brazil and other countries invited to the 2006 summit will be invited to attend the G8 summit in 2007.[246]

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Regional Issues

Sudan

On June 4, 2007, BBC Monitoring Middle East reported that on May 31, 2007, foreign minister Bernard Kouchner told reporters that the G8 leaders will consider a French proposal to create "humanitarian corridors" in Chad or the Central African Republic to allow aid to be safely delivered to civilians in Darfur and will also consider creating a Darfur "contact group."[247]

On June 2, 2007, Reuters News reported that the G8 is expected to discuss Darfur.[248]

On June 1, 2007, Reuters News reported that a senior Canadian official stated that regarding Darfur "I think we can expect that leaders will spend a lot of time discussing how they [send a] message back to Africa, to the government of Sudan and to others, their strong expectation that there be no foot-dragging or intransigence."[249]

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North Korea

On June 2, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that the G8 will denounce North Korea's nuclear test in October 2006 as a threat to international peace and security.[250] The G8 will demand that North Korea dismantle its nuclear program.[251]

On May 27, 2007, Dow Jones International News reported that according to a Japanese government source, the G8 will denounced North Korea's October 2006 nuclear test, calling it "a threat to peace and stability" and calling for North Korea to resolve "outstanding issues of concern."[252] The leaders will urge the country to implement denuclearization steps, end existing nuclear programs and abandon nuclear weapons.[253] The leaders will declare their support for the UN Security Council call for tougher sanctions on North Korea.[254] The leaders will also reinforce the importance of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[255]

On May 21, 2007, Daily Yomiuri reported that according to Japanese government sources the G8 Chairman's Statement will call on North Korea to resolve the abduction issue, address concerns over Pyongyang's nuclear and missile issues, and urge North Korea to take steps towards denuclearization as laid out at the six-party talks in February.[256]

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Iran

On June 5, 2007, an official from the German government told journalists in Heiligendamm that Iran is a topic to be discussed over lunch on Thursday, June 7. The official stated that the German government attaches value to the UN framework being used for sanctions, and that the opportunity will be used to discuss Iran without pressure to reach an agreement.

On May 27, 2007, Dow Jones International News reported that according to a Japanese government source, the G8 will express serious concerns regarding uranium enrichment in Iran.[257]

On May 21, 2007, Daily Yomiuri reported that the G8 Chairman's Statement "likely will address concerns over Iran's nuclear development and ask for the country to comply with a U.N. Security Council resolution that will impose new sanctions unless Tehran halts uranium enrichment programs."[258]

On May 8, 2007, Reuters News reported that according to a senior official from a G8 member state the G8 will back "further measures" against Iran and calls for increasing pressure if it fails to comply with UN demands to suspend its nuclear enrichment program, according to the current G8 draft statement on non-proliferation.[259] The draft also states that the G8 "will support adopting further measures should Iran refuse to comply with its obligations."[260]

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Middle East

On July 19, 2006, Chancellor Merkel announced to Russian reporters that "The topics will depend on the situation in the world then and will probably include a discussion on Iran, the Middle East conflict."[261]

On December 7, 2006, a German spokesperson from the foreign ministry stated that during Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier's visit to the United States he will discuss G8 priorities, including reviving the Middle East peace process.[262]

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Social Dimensions of Globalization

On June 5, 2007, an official from the German government told journalists in Heiligendamm that regarding what Chancellor Merkel describes as "the social face of globalization," the leaders will discuss topics such as lending standards and ecological standards.

On May 24, 2007, according to the Official German G8 Presidency website, Chancellor Merkel "has once again presented the objectives of the German Presidency in a government declaration: these include promoting worldwide economic recovery, making globalisation socially equitable and putting in place a sustainable policy on Africa."[263]

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that the G8 will "discuss the social impact of globalisation."[264]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "with changed political conditions, with right and fair conditions, we can shape globalization. Germany will make its contribution towards this during its Presidencies of the European Union and the G8."[265]

On December 14, 2006, Xinhua reported that setting up "common political standards for globalization" will be on the agenda.[266]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "the question of how best to confront the challenges of globalisation" will be on the agenda.[267]

As of October 18, 2006, the social dimensions of globalization are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[268]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss the social dimension of globalization.[269]

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Russian Participation

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported that Chancellor Merkel pledge that "A summit in June will also include "a new form of dialogue" with emerging countries such as Brazil, India, Russia and China."[270]

On December 27, 2006 ITAR-TASS World Service reported that German State Secretary of Economics and Technology and G8 sherpa, Bernd Pfaffenbach, said in an interview that Germany will actively promote full Russian membership in the G8, including finance ministers meetings.[271]

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Other Attendance

According to the Official German Presidency Media handbook, United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon, International Monetary Fund Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato y Rigaredo, a representative from the World Bank Group, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretary-General Angel Gurria, International Energy Agency Executive Director Claude Mandil and Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union Alpha Oumar Konare will attend the G8 summit.

On June 1, 2007, Agence France Press reported that UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon will attend the G8 summit.[272]

According to the Official German Presidency Website, "The German G8 Presidency is continuing the dialogue based on trust with African partners. Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa, Algeria, Senegal and Ghana (which currently holds the Chair of the African Union) will be represented at "Outreach Africa" in Heiligendamm."[273]

On May 15, 2007, IPR Strategic Information Database reported that Chancellor Merkel has invited Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to attend the G8 Summit, along with other representatives from the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD).[274]

On May 14, 2007 Reuters News reported that IMF chief Rodrigo Rato will attend the G8 summit.[275]

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Physical Preparations

On May 28, 2007, the Hindu reported that the G8 summit hotel is being protected by "two minesweepers, 16,000 police, 11,000 soldiers, and several Awacs planes."[276]

On May 9, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Interior Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble will temporarily introduce border controls at the country and sea borders and at airports "in order to prevent the arrival of potential criminal and violent perpetrators in Germany."[277]

On May 2, 2007, the Financial Times reported that 16,000 police and 1,100 soldiers will provide summit security.[278]

On April 25, 2007 BBC Monitoring European reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "The G8 Summit does not in fact represent any target for attack[,]" and insisted that all issues raised by G8 critics will be taken seriously and put on the G8 agenda.[279]

On April 10, 2007, the Times reported that the security costs for the summit will approach ¥100 million (£68 million).[280] Approximately 16,000 police, backed by soldiers will monitor the 13km security wall, two US naval vessels will monitor the coast, and a Royal Navy vessel will patrol the 11km maritime security zone.[281] 6,000 journalists are expected to attend the summit.[282]

On February 17, 2007, Deutsche Welle reported that the 14km long security fence being constructed will cost 12.4 million euros ($16.3 million) to build.[283] They also reported that approximately 10,000 police officers will be tasked with monitoring the fence during the Summit.[284] The air force, navy and special forces will provide Summit security.[285] Birgit Schwebs, deputy leader of the Left Party in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania's state parliament stated that "Mecklenburg is paying 13 million euros for the fence alone… The current official estimate is that our G8 summit in Heiligendamm will cost a round 92 million euros just for security."[286] Schwebs stated that the German government has promised 24 million euros to reimburse some Summit costs.[287]

On January 15, 2007, Reuters News reported that construction has begun on a 2.5 meter high, 12 km long steel and cement wall "topped by barbed wire, video monitors and movement sensors" to protect the G8 leaders during the Summit.[288] "To prevent anyone from tunneling beneath the fence, construction workers have rammed 50-cm long steel grating into the ground."[289]

On December 27, 2006 BBC Monitoring Europe reported that "For a few days at the beginning of June, around 15 heads of state and government from all over the world will be visiting the Baltic Coast resort. And a swarm of 2,000 delegates and 4,000 journalists, in itself a logistical feat, will be fighting to get to the G8 summit."[290]

On November 22, 2006, the German Federal Office of Criminal Investigations President, Joerg Ziercke, announced that approximately 10,000 police officers will be on duty during the Summit.[291] Between 50,000 to 100,000 participants are expected to demonstrate at counter-summit events.[292]

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Notes

1 ITAR-TASS World Service (May 31, 2007), "About 10-12 documents to be adopted at G8 summit - aide."

2 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

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205 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

206 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

207 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

208 Reuters (October 18, 2006), "Lobby groups welcome Germany focus on Africa for G8."

209 BBC Monitoring European (February 1, 2007), "Minister says Africa 'top issue' of Germany's EU, G8 presidencies."

210 BBC Monitoring European (February 1, 2007), "Minister says Africa 'top issue' of Germany's EU, G8 presidencies."

211 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

212 Agence France Presse (March 27, 2007), "G8 mulls micro-credit help, more AIDS funding for Africa."

213 Agence France Presse (March 27, 2007), "G8 mulls micro-credit help, more AIDS funding for Africa."

214 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

215 Joe De Capua (October 18, 2006), "VOA News: Germany to make Africa Priority at Next G8 Summit," The Voice of America.

216 All Africa (October 18, 2006), "German Cabinet Announced Africa to be Focus of 2007 G8 Summit."

217 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

218 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

219 Deutsche Welle (October 16, 2006), "Germany to Push for G8 Partnerships with Africa."

220 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

221 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

222 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

223 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

224 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

225 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

226 All Africa (October 18, 2006), "German Cabinet Announced Africa to be Focus of 2007 G8 Summit."

227 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

228 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

229 Dow Jones International News (June 4, 2007), "Brazil Pres to Propose G8 Pay Poor Nations For Saving Forests."

230 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

231 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

232 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

233 Agence France Presse (January 25, 2007), "Germany wants emerging nations at all G8 summits."

234 Agence France Presse (January 25, 2007), "Germany wants emerging nations at all G8 summits."

235 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

236 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

237 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

238 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

239 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

240 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

241 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

242 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

243 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

244 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

245 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

246 Regnum (July 17, 2006), "German chancellor does not know G8 agenda for 2007," Accessed July 23, 2006. www.regnum.ru/english/674931.html.

247 BBC Monitoring Middle East (June 4, 2007), "Sudan: G8 to examine French proposal for "humanitarian corridors" in Darfur."

248 Nick Antonovics (June 2, 2007), "France mulls EU-led force for eastern Chad," Reuters News.

249 Reuters News (June 1, 2007), "G8 to tell Sudan no foot-dragging on Darfur—Canada."

250 Jiji Press News Service (June 2, 2007), "G-8 summit to denounce N.Korean N-test as threat to peace."

251 Jiji Press News Service (June 2, 2007), "G-8 summit to denounce N.Korean N-test as threat to peace."

252 Dow Jones International News (May 27, 2007), "G8 Leaders To Denounce N Korean Nuclear Test - Kyodo."

253 Dow Jones International News (May 27, 2007), "G8 Leaders To Denounce N Korean Nuclear Test - Kyodo."

254 Dow Jones International News (May 27, 2007), "G8 Leaders To Denounce N Korean Nuclear Test - Kyodo."

255 Dow Jones International News (May 27, 2007), "G8 Leaders To Denounce N Korean Nuclear Test - Kyodo."

256 Daily Yomiuri (May 21, 2007), "G-8 summit to press North Korea on abductions."

257 Dow Jones International News (May 27, 2007), "G8 Leaders To Denounce N Korean Nuclear Test - Kyodo."

258 Daily Yomiuri (May 21, 2007), "G-8 summit to press North Korea on abductions."

259 Louis Charbonneau (May 8, 2007), "G8 to back further measures against Iran—diplomats," Reuters News.

260 Louis Charbonneau (May 8, 2007), "G8 to back further measures against Iran—diplomats," Reuters News.

261 Jabeen Bhatti (July 19, 2006), "German H8 Presidency: Changes in Style and Substance," Deutsche Welle. Accessed July 23, 2006. www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2103556,00.html.

262 Associated Press Newswires (December 6, 2006), "German foreign minister to visit U.S. as Berlin prepares for EU, G-8 presidency."

263 Germany G8 Presidency (May 24, 2007), "We aim to give globalization a human face," accessed May 29, 2007: http://www.g-8.de/nn_92160/Content/EN/Artikel/2007/05/2007-05-24-merkel-regierungserklaerung-g8-heiligendamm__en.html

264 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

265 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

266 Xinhua (December 14, 2006), "Merkel outlines goals for Germany's EU presidency," accessed December 15, 2006, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-12/14/content_5489800.htm

267 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

268 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

269 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

270 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

271 [ ]ITAR-TASS World Service (December 27, 2006), "Russia pins hopes on Germany presidency of EU, G8."

272 Agence France Presse (June 1, 2007), "UN chief off to Panama, Spain, then G8 summit in Germany."

273 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm (2007), "Who will be taking part in the 2007 G8 Summit?" Accessed May 18, 2007: http://www.g-8.de/Webs/G8/EN/G8Summit/Participants/participants.html

274 IPR Strategic Information Database (May 15, 2007), "Egypt Participates in G-8 summit in Germany."

275 Reuters News (May 14, 2007), "IMF chief slams rich nations over aid promises."

276 Kate Connolly (May 28, 2007), "Wall of steel for G8 summit," the Hindu.

277 BBC Monitoring European (May 9, 2007), "Germany wants to reintroduce border controls during G8 summit."

278 Hugh Williamson (May 2, 2007), "FT.com site: Germany aims to please G8 guests," Financial Times.

279 BBC Monitoring European (April 25, 2007), "German government sees no cause to oppose G8 summit, hopes protests peaceful."

280 Roger Boyes (April 10, 2007), "100,000 protestors prepare to disrupt G8 summit," The Times.

281 Roger Boyes (April 10, 2007), "100,000 protestors prepare to disrupt G8 summit," The Times.

282 Roger Boyes (April 10, 2007), "100,000 protestors prepare to disrupt G8 summit," The Times.

283 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

284 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

285 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

286 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

287 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

288 Reuters News (January 15, 2007), "New wall for G8 leaders prompts protests in Germany."

289 Reuters News (January 15, 2007), "New wall for G8 leaders prompts protests in Germany."

290 BBC Monitoring Europe (December 27, 2006), "German Report Previews Forthcoming German EU, G8 Presidency."

291 BBC Monitoring European (November 22, 2006), "German authority fears terror attacks during 2007 G8 summit."

292 BBC Monitoring European (November 22, 2006), "German authority fears terror attacks during 2007 G8 summit."

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