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Japan's 2008 G8:
Plans for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit

Jenilee Guebert
Senior Researcher, G8 Research Group
September 21, 2007


This report on "Japan's 2008 G8: Plans for the Hokkaido-Toyako Summit" is compiled by the G8 Research Group largely from public sources as an aid to researchers and other stakeholders interested in the 2008 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit. It will be updated periodically as plans for the 2008 Summit evolve, and as more information becomes available about Japan's plans. It continues, under a more accurate name, the earlier report on "Japan's 2008 Agenda," which now includes material on the physical summit, Japan's internal preparations and G8 ministerial meetings..


Introduction: Japan's 2008 G8

Japan will host the G8's 2008 Summit at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Toyako, Hokkaido in northern Japan from July 7-9, 2008. Japan is still in the process of compiling and determining the 2008 agenda; however, sources to date suggest that the Environment, Africa, Intellectual Property Rights, and Nuclear Safety will be a prominent part of the Japanese focus.

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Agenda: The Policy Summit

On April 16, 2007, Agence France Presse (among other sources) reported that the Japanese summit will focus on global warming and African development. See also "Japan Selects Hokkaido for 2008 Summit."[1]

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Climate Change

On September 14, 2007, Nikkei Report noted that a new Liberal Democratic Party president is to be selected on September 23, 2007, meaning Prime Minister Abe will be unable to attend meetings on climate change in New York on September 24 (as well as the United National General Assembly the following day). The Prime Minister was to attend the meetings in order to prepare for the upcoming discussions at the 2008 G8 summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.[2]

On September 12, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that with Japanese Prime Minister Abe stepping down, there may be a need to review G8 strategy for the 2008 summit. Abe had proposed cutting global greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2050, and it was likely to be included in discussions on climate change at the summit.[3]

On September 8, 2007, according to the Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies, "Japanese Prime Minister Abe and Russian President Putin agreed that the two countries should cooperate in creating a framework to deal with global warming beyond 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. The international community is stepping up efforts to build a post-Kyoto framework that will be effective and include all major greenhouse gas emitters notably China, India and the United States."[4]

On August 29, 2007, according to the Associated Press Newswires, German Chancellor Merkel said Japan, as host of next year's Group of Eight summit of industrialized countries, would take center stage in the effort to promote a plan to cut emissions of so-called greenhouse gases by 50 percent by 2050." The Associate Press Newswires goes on to note that Japan had announced an 'Abe Initiative' of short- and lonGterm goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and was also calling for a new global warming pact to succeed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.[5]

On August 23, 2007, Kyodo News reported that UN official Yvo de Boer believes Japan is in a key position to tackle climate change. ''I think that the Japanese presidency of the G8 can help to develop that concept and get a clearer understanding of what G8 countries are willing and able to do to help developing countries act on climate change,'' he noted. As Japan was instrumental in the creation of the environmental protocol, de Boer said he expects that the Japanese can utilize their political leverage when they host the G8 summit in Hokkaido, July 7-9.[6]

On August 20, 2007, according to Kyodo News, Japan officials met with officials in India to discuss global warming. According to officials, discussions such as this can be expected to increase as Japan gets closer to the G8 presidency.[7]

On August 6, 2007, Kyodo News reported that German Chancellor Merkel would be in Japan from August 29-31 to visit Japanese Prime Minister Abe. Ministry officials said that "Merkel is scheduled to hold talks with Abe the day she arrives on issues such as global warming, which will be a major topic at next year's Group of Eight summit in Japan."[8]

On August 2, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported that climate change is likely to dominate the agenda at the 2008 Japan-hosted Summit.[9]

On August 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported that Japan, under Abe's administration, has been stepping up efforts to strengthen talks on climate change with emerging economies such as India and China that are among major greenhouse gas emitters, ahead of hosting next year's G8 Summit meeting in Japan.[10]

In August 2007, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan posted Prime Minister Abe`s New Proposal on Climate Change, "Cool Earth 50." In the proposal PM Abe stresses that "Through the measures I have described, I am determined to exert my utmost efforts to tackle the issue of global warming together with the people of Japan. It is my sincere hope that each and every country, be it an industrialized or developing country, will accept my invitation and walk together towards the "Cool Earth" in 2050." Abe goes on to say, "I will continue my efforts based on my proposals, and aim to produce fruit at the G8 Summit in Toyako, Hokkaido, next year. I ask for your understanding and cooperation in this endeavor."[11]

On July 9, 2007, Kyodo News reported that the Japanese has decided to propose introducing an ''energy use efficiency'' index as a new international framework to tackle global warming before next year's Group of Eight summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.[12]

On June 8, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that Japan will continue the climate change debate when it hosts the summit in 2008.[8] According to Japanese Prime Minister Abe, "The achievement at the Heiligendamm summit will be a precious base for next year's summit... From this base, we want to make an effort to show big results."[13]

On March 20, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that Japanese "Prime Minister Abe will ask his cabinet ministers to develop a package of proposals to present to next year's Group of Eight summit of world leaders which Japan will host. According to a foreign ministry official, Japanese government ministers will "discuss proposals on a new framework that will ensure participation by the United States and China, the world's largest greenhouse-gas emitters."[14]

On February 18, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stated that he will lead discussions of environmental protection and climate change in Heiligendamm, where it will be a major topic.[15] Jiji Press English News Service also reported that "Environmental issues will remain at the fore at next year's G8 summit in Japan, where attendees are seen to discuss how Japan and other advanced nations should achieve their targets for cutting greenhouse gas emissions set out in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. A post-Kyoto Protocol framework for tackling global warming will also likely be on the agenda at the 2008 summit among Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States," Abe said.[16]

In the G8 leaders' 2005 official document on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development, the text read "We welcome Japan's offer to receive a report at the G8 Summit in 2008 [to take the sustainable energy dialogue forward]."[17]

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Environment

On July 10, 2007, Jiji English Press News reported that Japanese Prime Minister Abe was considering going to Switzerland to attend the World Economic Forum Meeting. Swiss President Couchepin said his country hopes Abe will attend the WEF meeting and send out a strong message on environmental issues as the leader of the country hosting the Group of Eight presidency in 2008.[18]

On July 5, 2007, Kyodo News reported that former U.S. Vice President Al Gore wants to meet with Japanese Prime Minister Abe before the 2008 G8 Summit in Japan.[19]

On July 3, 2007, ITAR-TASS World Service reported that the Japanese government intends to stress ecological concerns in every way during the 2008 G8 Summit in Japan. Therefore, the car fleet for official delegations will be made up of cars, "friendly with nature", which Japanese firms are feverishly developing.[20]

On June 8, 2007, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan noted that Prime Minister Abe is planning on taking up issues relating to the environment at the 2008 summit. Abe stated, "As an environment friendly country I would like to take up issues of the environment and climate change as the major issues to be addressed."[21]

On May 19, 2007, Kyodo News reported that Abe, while visiting Tokayo, stated that "I was convinced that it is the right place to speak about the environment, which is one of the themes next year."[22]

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Nuclear Safety

On May 20, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported that "Japan plans to discuss compiling international safety guidelines for nuclear power plants with other members of the Group of Eight nations, with an eye to reaching agreement at next year's G8 summit in Hokkaido, government sources said... The guidelines are expected to include assistance from the G8 nations on techniques for safety inspections and maintenance, as well as stipulating training for local staff and unified regulations on management in order to prevent the transfer or leakage of technologies or nuclear-related materials."[23]

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African Development

On August 21, 2007, The International Herald Tribune reported that Japan is being forced to look more closely at its role in providing Africa with aid in light of the looming G8 Summit.[24]

On August 8, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that the World Bank pledged to work closely with Japan in providing aid to poverty stricken countries, alongside the G8. "There are many things that the World Bank and Japan can do together," Zoellick was quoted as telling Omi.[25]

On August 6, 2007, Kyodo News reported that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe asked government ministries and agencies Tuesday to concert their efforts to make a success out of an international conference on economic development in Africa scheduled for May next year in Yokohama near Tokyo. Prime Minister Abe said at the outset of the first meeting of Cabinet ministers related to the African development conference, "We should take the initiative in the development of Africa and build on the results (of the Yokohama meeting) during the Group of Eight industrialized nations' economic summit meeting to be held near Lake Toya in Hokkaido.''[26]

On July 25, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that, in light of their future head role over the G8, the World Bank will seek out Japan's help in fighting global issues, including the reinforcement of aid to Africa. During his first visit to Japan since he became the World Bank president at the start of this month, Zoellick told reporters that he "will seek Tokyo's additional cooperation in efforts to reinforce assistance to Africa." Zoellick stressed that both climate change and the developing countries should both be on the Japanese G8 agenda. However, he went on to state that, 'If Japan wants to stress the climate change agenda, "it should also stress its African development agenda."[27]

On April 16, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that following a meeting in Tokyo between Italian Prime Minister Prodi (who will host the summit in 2009) and Japanese Prime Minister Abe, Abe stated that "As both our countries will be chairing these summits, cooperation is essential. The issues to be taken up at the G8 summit meeting are lonGterm issues."[28] Prodi stated that "It is necessary to build a joint policy towards Africa... Africa is developing economically amid globalisation. We have up until now discussed major environmental and human disasters in Africa at our G8 meetings... Africa is developing economically amid globalisation."[29]

On November 18, 2006, a senior official from Germany announced that Germany will not focus on debt relief and increased aid to Africa, stating that the 2005 report of the Commission for Africa left the issue to be taken up again by the Japanese G8 presidency in 2008.[30]

According to a report by Julius Court, of the Overseas Development Institute: "In [2008], Japan will be Chair of the G8 and host the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development — a 5-yearly gathering of African leaders and their development partners. Africa will be in the spotlight again."[31]

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Intellectual Property Rights

On July 21, 2007, Kyodo News reported that Japan is working on the first international treaty aimed at stemming production and sale of fake brand goods and illegal copies of movies and music software. Officials went on to say that Tokyo aims to reach a basic agreement on the treaty at the summit of the Group of Eight nations next July in Japan, making the protection of intellectual property a major topic on the summit agenda along with global warming.[32]

On June 9, 2007, Daily Yomiuri reported that "On intellectual property protection, the declaration recognized, for the first time as a summit meeting document, the importance of streamlining and harmonizing the international patent system. A treaty to prevent the spread of counterfeit and pirated products, which Japan aims to establish, was not included in the declaration. But it said, "We recognize the need for continued study by national experts of the possibilities of strengthening the international legal framework pertaining to intellectual property right enforcement," suggesting the treaty may be included in a document at the next G8 summit meeting to be held in Hokkaido."[33]

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Afghanistan

On August 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring South Asia reported that Japan has promised to ask the G8 countries for more cooperation in the development of Afghanistan when it assumes chairmanship of the G8 countries. "Japan stressed that the G8 role in mediating between Afghanistan and Pakistan was very important in ensuring stability in the region."[34]

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Heiligendamm Process

On June 8, 2007, the final day of the G8 2007 summit in Heiligendamm, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe commented that, "The results of this Heiligendamm Summit should provide the foundation for our work towards next year's Summit. We should like to strive to build important results on the outcome of Heiligendamm"[35]

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Other

On September 10, 2007, BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union reported that Japan's Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs made a statement which linked the G8 summit being hosted in Hokkaido in 2008 to the 'Northern Territories' problem in Russian-Japanese relations.[36]

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Process: The Physical Summit

Summit Site

On September 3, 2007, according to BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, "The planned main venue for the G8 summit is Windsor Hotel Toya Resort & Spa, which stands atop a 600-metre mountain overlooking Lake Toya.[37]

On June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported the summit will be held at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa.[38]

On June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported that the government has officially decided that the 2008 Summit will be held July 7-9.[39]

On April 24, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that the Japanese government plans to host the summit in July, 2008.[40]

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Government Preparations: External

On September 14, 2007, Nikkei Report noted that a new Liberal Democratic Party president is to be selected on September 23, 2007, meaning Prime Minister Abe will be unable to attend meetings on climate change in New York on September 24 (as well as the United National General Assembly the following day). The Prime Minister was to attend the meetings in order to prepare for the upcoming discussions at the 2008 G8 summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.[41]

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Government Preparations: Internal

On September 12, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that with Japanese Prime Minister Abe stepping down, there may be a need to review G8 strategy for the 2008 summit. The article goes on to note that Abe had proposed cutting global greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2050, and that it was likely to be included in discussions on climate change at the summit.[42]

On July 4, 2007, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released the Secretariat which has been established for the 2008 Summit. Secretariat for the G8 Summit was established in the Foreign Minister's Secretariat on July 1 (Sun), and the opening ceremony was held on July 2 (Mon) in the presence of Mr. Taro Aso, Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Office will be in charge of the management and logistics, including press-related matters, of the Hokkaido Toyako Summit, which will be held in the Toyako area in Hokkaido, and the G8 Foreign Ministers' Meeting in Kyoto. Mr. Hiroshi Fukada, former Deputy Director-General of the International Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was appointed Secretary General for the G8 Summit, and about 20 other officials were assigned to the Office on July 1.[43]

On July 1, 2007, Kyodo News reported that the Japanese Foreign Ministry set up a preparatory committee for the 2008 Japan-hosted G8 Summit. ''As several thousands of media personnel from around the world will gather for the summit, it is a good opportunity for Japan to issue its message to the world,'' Foreign Minister Taro Aso said in an address at the committee's launch.[44]

On June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported that a government spokesperson stated that the Japanese government will set up a G8 preparatory committee headed up by Chief Cabinet Secretary Shiozaki and composed of Cabinet Secretariat officials and senior ministry and agency officials.[45] The committee will liaise with government organs, prepare the summit venue, press centre, facilities and security, and coordinate member delegations' accommodations.[46] Prime Minister Abe is quoted as instructing cabinet to make "thorough preparations for smoothly receiving" the leaders, and according to the BBC "Kensei Mizote, chairman of the National Public Safety Commission, vowed to take "all possible security measures" by assembling police forces nationwide amid "concerns over possible violence by anti-globalization activists and terror attacks by Islamic radicals."[47] The foreign ministry will set up its own preparatory committee, according to Foreign Minister Taro Also, to be established in July to coordinate climate change policy.[48]

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Cost

On September 3, 2007, according to BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, "the Japanese government decided to earmark about 11.48 billion yen to prepare for the Group of Eight summit to be hosted by Japan next year in the Lake Toya hot-spring resort area in Hokkaido, Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Junzo Matoba said." The money will be used for preparing a media centre, a fibre optics system and measures to deal with snow accumulation in the northernmost prefecture, Matoba said.[49]

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Security

On August 12, 2007, according to Kyodo News, Japanese and German officials have agreed to exchange information and cooperate over security issues for the 2008 Summit in Japan. "Japan's NPA and Hokkaido prefectural police officials in charge of summit security will be sent to Germany to step up the information exchanges," officials said.[50]

On July 14, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported that the Japan coast-guard held a drill in preparation for the 2008 G8 Japan-hosted Summit. "The exercise involved 300 people, eight patrol vessels, three helicopters and two aircraft on the assumption a suspicious boat tried to get away after being seen by a helicopter."[51]

On July 3, 2007, the Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies reported that a special headquarters for ensuring security at the 2008 G8 Summit had become operational. "The head of the headquarters, Deputy Commissioner General of the Japanese National Police Agency Hiroto Yoshimura stressed at the first meeting of this structure that not only the area of the G8 leaders' conference, but also the whole country may become a target for terrorist sorties and terrorists may try to stage large-scale sabotage actions. He especially stressed the danger emanating from "Islamic radicals." The headquarters leader said the Japanese police will get new equipment and will undergo reinforced training for the prevention and suppression of both terrorist attacks and massive disorders."[52]

On July 2, 2007, Kyodo Press reported that Japan's National Police Agency launched a panel to devise plans for the 2008 G8 Summit.[53]

On June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific reported that a government spokesperson stated that the Japanese government will set up a G8 preparatory committee headed up by Chief Cabinet Secretary Shiozaki and composed of Cabinet Secretariat officials and senior ministry and agency officials.[54] The committee will liaise with government organs, prepare the summit venue, press centre, facilities and security, and coordinate member delegations' accommodations.[55] Prime Minister Abe is quoted as instructing cabinet to make "thorough preparations for smoothly receiving" the leaders, and according to the BBC "Kensei Mizote, chairman of the National Public Safety Commission, vowed to take "all possible security measures" by assembling police forces nationwide amid "concerns over possible violence by anti-globalization activists and terror attacks by Islamic radicals."[56] The foreign ministry will set up its own preparatory committee, according to Foreign Minister Taro Also, to be established in July to coordinate climate change policy.[57]

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Media

On September 5, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that "The Japanese Foreign Ministry's public relations officers will receive special training on media relations, ahead of important international conferences Japan will host next year, [including the G8 Summit and all of its respective meetings]."[58]

On September 4, 2007, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released that the Government of Japan has decided to establish the International Media Center for the G8 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008 at Rusutsu Resort, Rusutsu Village, Abuta District, Hokkaido.[59]

On June 18, 2007, Kyodo News reported that according to Kazuya Nashida, director of the Economic Policy Division of the Foreign Ministry's Economic Affairs Bureau, the media centre for the summit will be set up in Rusutsu Resort hotel in the village of Rusutsu. It is located 30 minutes by car from the Windsor Hotel Toya Report and Spa, where the Hokkaido-Toyako summit will be held.[60]

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Name

On May 19, 2007, Kyodo News reported that the summit will be held from July 7-9, 2008. Abe stated that the summit will officially be called the "Hokkaido-Toyako Summit" in Japanese. According to Kyodo News, "Government sources said the official name came as a compromise between the prefectural government calling for the "Hokkaido Summit" and the town government favouring the "Toyako Summit." It is still unknown what Japan will officially call the summit in English."[61]

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Ministerial Meetings

On June 6, 2007, representatives from the Japanese government released the following information on ministerial meetings to journalists covering the Heiligendamm summit:

On May 29, 2007, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released dates for ministerial meetings: G8 Foreign Ministers on June 26-27 in Kyoto, G8 Development Ministers in early April in Tokyo and the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development on May 28-30 in Yokohama.[63]

On May 19, 2007, Mainichi News reported that "Finance ministers will meet in the western city of Osaka, foreign ministers in the ancient capital of Kyoto and environment ministers in the nearby port town of Kobe. Justice and home affairs ministers are slated to meet in Tokyo, while labor ministers will convene in the northern coastal city of Niigata. The Tokyo suburb of Chiba will host a Group of Twenty conference on global warming and clean energy, and Yokohama will hold talks on African development."[64]

On April 24, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that the first ministerial meeting is set to be held in March 2008.[65] The Japanese government is also considering holding a meeting of justice and internal affairs ministers in Tokyo.[66]

On April 23, 2007, Kyodo News reported that the following cities have informally been selected to host ministerial meetings in 2008: Kyoto will host the foreign ministers meetings, Osaka will host the finance ministers meeting, Kobe will host the environment ministers and Niigata will host the labour ministers.[67]

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Finance

On September 14, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service reported that Japanese sources have said that the Group of Seven is planning on seeking advice for an international group of financial regulators and investors on how to deal with 'U.S. subprime mortgage woes.' If everything goes as planned, the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) will likely submit advice to the G7 meeting that is going to be held in February 2008. In May 2007, the FSF also responded to a G7 request for advice on hedge funds, to which they proposed a full review of the industry's business practices.[68]

On September 2, 2007, according to a report in the AFX International Focus, Japan's new finance minister called for the Group of Seven industrialized nations to learn lessons from financial market turbulence triggered by turmoil in the US credit market. The G7 will hold its regular meeting in Washington in October.[69]

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Foreign Affairs

On July 17, 2007, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released the following information regarding the First Liaison meeting for the 2008 Summit. On July 10 (Tue) from 4:10 p.m., the First Liaison Meeting for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit 2008 chaired by Mr. Taro Aso, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, was held at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Aso stated that the G8 Summit would be Japan's most important diplomatic event next year, and hence needed to be a success. He stressed that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as a whole, must make its utmost efforts for its preparations in cooperation with the related ministries and other stakeholders. Following Mr. Aso's remarks, Mr. Hiroshi Fukada, the Secretary General for the G8 Summit, reported on the progress of the preparations as well as other logistical considerations for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit and the G8 Foreign Ministers' Meeting. The establishment of this Liaison Meeting was announced by Mr. Aso on June 12 (Thu) when the Cabinet approved the holding of the Hokkaido Toyako Summit.[70]

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G20

On May 10, 2007, Associated Press Newswires reported that a G20 conference on global warming and clean energy will be held in Toyko.[71]

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Gleneagles Dialogue

From September 9-11, 2007, according to sources at the German Federal Government, "the energy and environment ministers from the 20 major enegry-consuming countries will meet in Berlin for the third 'Gleneagles Dialogue.' Following the meeting in Berlin, another conference is to be held in Japan in the spring of 2008. The results of the Gleneagles Dialogue will be reported at the 2008 G8 Summit under the Japanese presidency." [72]

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Japan's G8 Team

Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister

Taro Aso, Minister for Foreign Affairs

Hiroshi Fukada, Secretary General for the G8 Summit

Fumio Kishida, Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs, Quality-of-Life Policy, Science and Technology Policy, "Challenge Again" Initiative, and Regulatory Reform

Kazuya Nashida, Director of the Economic Policy Division of the Foreign Ministry's Economic Affairs Bureau

Junzo Matoba, Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary

Kensei Mizote, Minister of State for Disaster Management, Chairman of the National Public Safety Commission

Yasuhisa Shiozaki, Chief Cabinet Secretary, Minister of State for the Abduction Issue, Head of the G8 Preparatory Committee

Hiroto Yoshimura, Deputy Commissioner General of the Japanese National Police Agency

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Notes

1 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

2 Nikkei Report, (September 14, 2007), "Japan's Prime Minister To Miss NY Climate Meet, UN Assembly."

3 Jiji Press English News Service (September 12, 2007), "Japan worried over Abe Resignation Impact on Ties with the U.S."

4 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agency (September 8, 2007), "Japan, Russia agree to speed up peace treaty talks."

5 Agence France Presse (August 29, 2007), "Germany's Merkel discusses Afghan mission, global warming with Japanese leader."

6 Kyodo News (August 23, 2007), "Japan in key position to tackle climate change: U.N. official."

7 Kyodo News (August 20, 2007), "India wants to work with Japan on global warming."

8 Kyodo News (August 6, 2007), "German leader Merkel to visit Japan on Aug. 29-31."

9 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (August 2, 2007), "Japanese finance minister calls for post-Kyoto framework at APEC meeting."

10 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (August 1, 2007), "Japanese, Indian foreign ministers lay ground work for PM Abe's India trip."

11 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (August 2007), "Cool Earth 50."

12 Kyodo News (July 9, 2007), "Introduction of 'energy use efficiency' index to be proposed."

13 Agence France Presse (June 8, 2007), "Japan to take over G8 climate change debate."

14 Agence France Presse (March 20, 2007), "Japan aims to lead post-Kyoto climate change fight."

15 Jiji Press English News Service (February 18, 2007), "Japan's Abe Ready to Lead Talks on Green Efforts at G8 Summit."

16 Jiji Press English News Service (February 18, 2007), "Japan's Abe Ready to Lead Talks on Green Efforts at G8 Summit."

17 G8 Official Document (July 8, 2005), "Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development," accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/climatechange.html

18 Fiji Press English News Service (July 10, 2007), "Abe May Attend World Economic Forum Meeting."

19 Kyodo News (July 5, 2007), "Gore urges Japanese to back Live Earth concerts, seeks 90% emission cut."

20 ITAR-TASS World Service (July 3, 2007), "G8 summiteers in Japan to drive 'ecological cars'."

21 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (June 8, 2007), "Press Conference by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Following his visit to Germany for the G8 Summit Meeting in Heiligendamm."

22 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

23 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (May 20, 2007), "Japan wants to discuss nuclear plant safety guidelines at G8."

24 The International Herald Tribune (August 21, 2007), "As Japan looks ahead to hosting a Group of Eight (G8) summit that will focus on Africa, along with a major international conference on African development, it is being forced to rethink its own aid program for the continent."

25 Agence France Presse (August 8, 2007), "World Bank chief pledges closer cooperation with Japan."

26 Kyodo News (August 6, 2007), " Abe calls for gov't wide efforts to step up aid in Africa."

27 Jiji Press English News Service (July 25, 2007), "World Bank Pres. To Visit Japan in Early Aug."

28 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

29 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

30 Hugh Williamson and Alan Beattie (October 18, 2006), "Germany to focus G8 on Africa investment," Accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/01a1136a-5ed6-11db-afac-0000779e2340.html

31 Julius Court (2005), "Live8, the G8 and Africa: How bold will Japan be?," Overseas Development Institute, Accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.odi.org.uk/rapid/Projects/UK_Japan/docs/DY_OpEd.pdf

32 Kyodo News (July 21, 2007), "Japan, U.S., Europe eye drafting treaty against counterfeit goods."

33 Eiji Hirose (June 9, 2007), "G8 eyes more flexible yuan," Daily Yomiuiri

34 BBC Monitoring South Asia (August 12, 2007), "Afghan daily says G8 to mediate with Pakistan."

35 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (June 8, 2007), "Press Conference by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Following his visit to Germany for the G8 Summit Meeting in Heiligendamm."

36 BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (September 10, 2007), "Russia criticizes Japanese minister's statement on disputed lands."

37 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (September 3, 2007), "Japan sets asides funds for 2008 G8 summit."

38 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

39 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

40 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

41 Nikkei Report, (September 14, 2007), "Japan's Prime Minister To Miss NY Climate Meet, UN Assembly."

42 Jiji Press English News Service (September 12, 2007), "Japan worried over Abe Resignation Impact on Ties with the U.S."

43 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (July 4, 2007), "Establishment of Secretariat for the G8 Summit."

44 Kyodo News (July 1, 2007), "Foreign Ministry sets up preparatory panel as G9 summit liaison."

45 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

46 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

47 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

48 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

49 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (September 3, 2007), "Japan sets asides funds for 2008 G8 summit."

50 Kyodo News (August 12, 2007), "Japan, German police cooperate on security for G8 summit in Hokkaido."

51 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (July 14, 2007), "Japan coast guard holds drill in preparation for 2008 G8 summit."

52 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (July 3, 2007), "Japan HQ for ensuring 2008 G8 summit security starts work."

53 Kyodo News (July 2, 2007), "Japan police begin work to devise G8 summit policing plans."

54 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

55 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

56 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

57 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

58 Jiji Press English News Service (September 5, 2007), Japan Planning Media Relations Training before G8 Summit."

59 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (September 4, 2007), "G8 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit (Location of the International Media Center)."

60 Kyodo News (June 18, 2007), "Media center for G8 summit to be set up in Rusutsu Resort."

61 Kyodo News (May 19, 2007), "Japan to host G8 summit next year from July 7-9: Abe," accessed: May 22, 2007: http://home.kyodo.co.jp/modules/fstStory/index.php?storyid=315544

62 Japanese Government (2007), "the Japan G8 Presidency in 2008: Locations of Ministers Meetings," Available in the G8 Information Centre archives.

63 MOFA (May 29, 2007), "Announcement of the Schedule of the G8 Ministerial and other Meetings in 2008," accessed July 3, 2007, http://www.mofa.go.jp/announce/event/2007/5/1173657_848.html

64 Mainichi News (May 19, 2007), "Japan to hold 2008 G8 summit on July 7-9," accessed May 22, 2007: http://mdn.mainichi-msn.co.jp/business/news/20070519p2g00m0bu019000c.html

65 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

66 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

67 Kyodo News (April 23, 2007), "G8 ministerial meetings set in Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Niigata."

68 Jiji Press English News Service (September 14, 2007), "G7 to Seek Financial Experts Advice on Subprime Woes."

69 AFX International Focus (September 2, 2007), "Japanese finance minister says G7 should learn lessons from US credit woes."

70 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (July 17, 2007), "First Liaison Meeting for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit 2008."

71 Associated Press Newswires (May 10, 2007), "Japan picks far-flung cities for ministerial meetings during 2008 G8 summit."

72 The Press and Information Office of the Federal Government of Germany (September 9, 2007), "Gleneagles Dialogue - Third meeting of the Energy and Environment Ministers."

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