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Japan's 2008 G8:
Plans for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit

Jenilee Guebert
Senior Researcher, G8 Research Group
January 1, 2008


This report on "Japan's 2008 G8: Plans for the Hokkaido-Toyako Summit" is compiled by the G8 Research Group largely from public sources as an aid to researchers and other stakeholders interested in the 2008 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit. It will be updated periodically as plans for the 2008 Summit evolve, and as more information becomes available about Japan's plans. It continues, under a more accurate name, the earlier report on "Japan's 2008 Agenda," which now includes material on the physical summit, Japan's internal preparations and G8 ministerial meetings..


Introduction: Japan's 2008 G8

Japan will host the G8's 2008 Summit from July 7-9, 2008 at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Toyako, Hokkaido in northern Japan. The Environment, Africa, intellectual property rights, and nuclear safety should be a prominent part of the Japanese focus.

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Agenda: The Policy Summit

In a government report Japan underscored its eagerness to take the lead in helping developing nations fight global warming and facilitating international efforts to support African development as host of the G8 summit and the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in 2008.[1] (December 20, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan is set to propose tackling global warming, spurring African development, preventing nuclear proliferation and addressing high oil prices and other economic issues as four key topics for the Group of Eight nations to discuss at the summit next July in Hokkaido.[2] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda vowed that water and climate change would be at the top of the agenda for the Group of Eight summit in northern Japan next summer.[3] (December 5, 2007, The Australian)

The Japanese government has indicated three major topics for discussion at the 2008 G8 Summit which they will host in July: nuclear non-proliferation — including discussion on North Korea and Iran, Climate Change and African development.[4] (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

With CO2 emissions rising rapidly in Japan, pushing forward climate change measures will be a key agenda for Japan, as the chair of the G-8 summit in 2008.[5] (November 1, 2007, Associated Press Newswires)

Newly elected Prime Minister Fukuda announced that he would like to take up the global warming issue as one of the main topics at the G8 summit in Hokkaido's Lake Toya hot-spring resort area next year. [6] (October 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Japanese summit will focus on global warming and African development. See also "Japan Selects Hokkaido for 2008 Summit."[7] (April 16, 2007, Agence France Presse, among other sources)

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Climate Change

Japan will accept numerical targets to cut global warming emissions in a new climate change pact, reversing its stance which came under fire at this month's U.N.-led talks over the deal. Japan plans to present a proposal to divide nations into not only developed and developing countries, but also into a third group, which would include China and India, and set targets for each group. Japan is also planning to set up a five-year, $10 billion "finance mechanism" to back up developing nations' efforts to tackle global warming with low-interest loans.[8] (December 29, 2007, Reuters News)

Japan is considering pursuing tougher numerical targets for national emissions cuts in an international pact to fight global warming after the current Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012, Japanese government sources said. Potential emissions cuts would be determined for each sector in reference to the volume of emissions for 1 ton of product. National targets would then be proposed after aggregating the volumes of emissions cuts for each industrial sector in a country, according to the sources. Japan would expect all G8 countries to agree to the proposal at the upcoming summit.[9] (December 27, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan and the United States are considering convening a leaders' summit of major carbon emitters and a U.S.-led meeting of major emitters ahead of the Group of Eight summit next July in Japan, according to Japanese government sources. Holding the two meetings concurrently in Japan, the two countries plan to take the lead in building a long-term global goal of "halving greenhouse gas emissions by 2050" as a "joint conclusion" of the U.S.-led talks and the G8 summit, the sources said. Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda and U.S. President George W. Bush have agreed to this bilateral initiative, and the two nations have begun working-level talks on a plan to hold the "Environment and Energy Summit" of G8 leaders and their partners from other carbon emitters and the U.S.-led "Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change" ahead of the G8 summit in Hokkaido.[10] (December 23, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan is considering extending about 500 billion yen ($4.5 billion) over five years, possibly starting next year, to about 40 developing countries that have expressed their intention to help address climate change by implementing energy-saving targets or specific action plans, Japanese government sources said. With the Japan-led "financial mechanism" on climate change for developing countries, Tokyo is poised to take the lead in negotiations to craft a global framework to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which will expire in 2012, especially in the run-up to the Group of Eight summit in Hokkaido next July. Japan will ask its G8 peers to join the fund so that it can announce specific programs in the initiative and the amount of funds involved as a tangible result of the G8 summit.[11] (December 8, 2007, Kyodo News)

Climate change will be the top agenda item of the summit. The leaders will focus their discussion on whether they can pave the way for an effective global framework to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which will expire in 2012, according to Japanese sources. Critics say the Kyoto pact is not effective as it controls only 30 percent of the world's carbon emissions and does not cover major emitters such as the United States, China and India. The G-8 leaders will also discuss their earlier pledge to "consider seriously" halving carbon emissions by 2050 from current levels as a starting point. The leaders made the pledge, based on a proposal by then Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, at the G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany, in June, 2007.[12] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan's 2007 White Paper on Official Development Assistance reflects their determination to take the lead in the international process to form a post-2012 framework on climate change as host of the Group of Eight summit and the Tokyo International Conference on African Development next year. It requests aid for fighting global warming such as by emission cuts and forest conservation.[13] (December 4, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government appointed Mutsuyoshi Nishimura, former ambassador on global environment, to the newly created post of special advisor to the Cabinet on climate change issues, Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimura said. "This [was done] to demonstrate [Japan's] stance that [they] will work with all [their] might on environment issues, which will be a major theme of the Group of Eight summit" to be held in Hokkaido, Japan, in July.[14] (December 3, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan, who will be hosting the 2008 G8 Summit, was expected to take the lead in post-Kyoto discussions at the U.N. climate change conference in Bali, Indonesia. Japan has stressed the importance of having the United States and China — the two biggest carbon emitters — agree to a post-Kyoto deal. It is crucial that all developed nations sign on to any new agreement, if there is any hope that developing countries are to commit as well.[15] (November 27, 2007, Kyodo News)

Regarding climate change, Japan has indicated that it will address long-term goals and a new framework for cutting the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming at the 2008 G8 Summit. The government has also indicated that it will invite newly emerging economies such as China and India to attend the summit meeting, and seek to build consensus among participating countries for the formulation of a post-Kyoto Protocol framework.[16] (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

As host of the 2008 G8 summit, Japan is eager to take leadership in building international consensus for a post-2012 framework on reducing emissions and tackling global warming after the current Kyoto Protocol expires. Japan has proposed setting up a new mechanism to provide incentives for developing countries to work on cutting emissions, such as by improving energy efficiencies, without affecting economic growth.

[17] (November 21, 2007, Kyodo News)

During a bilateral meeting, Japan and the United States agreed to collaborate to "make tangible progress toward the establishment of an effective framework" in the post-2012 period at the 2008 G8 summit that Japan will host in Hokkaido's Lake Toya hot-spring resort area.[18] (November 16, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan wants to play a leadership role on environmental issues, as they will be hosting the 2008 G8 summit, where global warming is expected to be a top agenda item.[19] (November 15, 2007, Reuters News)

Pushing forward climate change measures will remain a key agenda for Japan. In light of rising CO2 emissions, Tokyo has announced a plan of short- and long-term goals to reduce greenhouse gases, and is also calling for a new global warming pact to succeed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.[20]

Prime Minister Fukuda and Chancellor Merkel agreed to cooperate on climate change at the G8 summit in Japan in July 2008. Fukuda stressed the need to create "an effective international framework" in which all major greenhouse gas emitters, such as the U.S., China and India, can participate.[21] (October 24, 2007, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda urged members of his Cabinet to plan "powerful and concrete" measures to allow Japan to attain its greenhouse gas emissions reduction goal under the Kyoto Protocol. Fukuda said, "If we cannot come up with a plan to realize with certainty the 6% reduction goalÉwe will not be able to present a convincing argument at next year's G8 summit in Hokkaido." Environment minister Ichiro Kamoshita called for "the introduction of an environment tax and the promotion of a nationwide movement to tackle global warming, while Economy, Trade and Industry minister Akira Amari propose the reinforcement of voluntary action plans in the industrial sector."[22] (October 18, 2007, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda said he expects Australia to adopt a "positive stance" on addressing global warming, which will be a major item at the G8 summit in Japan in July.[23] (October 12, 2007, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda plans to take over Abe's plans to halve greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Fukuda said that he plans to take up the global warming issue as one of the main topics at the G8 summit in Hokkaido's Lake Toya hot-spring resort area next year. [24] (October 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

The US floated the idea of liberalizing trade in environmentally friendly goods during high-level bilateral talks on climate change on August 8 in Tokyo. Japan and the United States are planning to propose the "Tariff Elimination Initiative for Climate Change," which is aimed at "fighting global warming through the expansion of trade in energy-saving products that Japan excels in." According to Japanese government sources, energy-saving products will include fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, hydroelectric power generators, solar power hot-water heaters, solar cells, and wind power generators.[25] (September 26, 2007, Kyodo News)

Because a new Liberal Democratic Party president was to be selected on September 23, 2007, former prime minister Abe was unable to attend meetings on climate change in New York on September 24 (as well as the United National General Assembly the following day). The former prime minister was to attend the meetings in order to prepare for the upcoming discussions at the 2008 G8 summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.[26] (September 14, 2007, Nikkei Report)

With Japanese Prime Minister Abe stepping down, sources suggested that there may be a need to review G8 strategy for the 2008 summit. Abe had proposed cutting global greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2050, and it was likely to be included in discussions on climate change at the summit.[27] (September 12, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

"[Former] Japanese Prime Minister Abe and Russian President Putin agreed that the two countries should cooperate in creating a framework to deal with global warming beyond 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. The international community is stepping up efforts to build a post-Kyoto framework that will be effective and include all major greenhouse gas emitters notably China, India and the United States."[28] (September 8, 2007, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

German Chancellor Merkel said Japan, as host of next year's Group of Eight summit of industrialized countries, would take centre stage in the effort to promote a plan to cut emissions of so-called greenhouse gases by 50 percent by 2050." Japan had announced an 'Abe Initiative,' after the former prime minister, of short- and long term goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and was also calling for a new global warming pact to succeed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.[29] (August 29, 2007, Associated Press Newswires)

UN official Yvo de Boer believes Japan is in a key position to tackle climate change. "I think that the Japanese presidency of the G8 can help to develop that concept and get a clearer understanding of what G8 countries are willing and able to do to help developing countries act on climate change," he noted. As Japan was instrumental in the creation of the environmental protocol, de Boer said he expects that the Japanese can utilize their political leverage when they host the G8 summit in Hokkaido, July 7-9.[30] (August 23, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan officials met with officials in India to discuss global warming. According to officials, discussions such as this can be expected to increase as Japan gets closer to the G8 presidency.[31] (August 20, 2007, Kyodo News)

German Chancellor Merkel was in Japan from August 29-31 to visit former Japanese prime minister Abe. Ministry officials said that "Merkel is scheduled to hold talks with [former prime minister] Abe [on August 29] on issues such as global warming, which will be a major topic at next year's Group of Eight summit in Japan."[32] (August 6, 2007, Kyodo News)

Climate change is likely to dominate the agenda at the 2008 Japan-hosted Summit.[33] (August 2, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Japan, under former prime minister Abe's administration, has been stepping up efforts to strengthen talks on climate change with emerging economies such as India and China that are among major greenhouse gas emitters, ahead of hosting next year's G8 Summit meeting in Japan.[34] (August 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan posted former prime minister Abe`s New Proposal on Climate Change, "Cool Earth 50." In the proposal the former PM Abe stresses that "Through the measures I have described, I am determined to exert my utmost efforts to tackle the issue of global warming together with the people of Japan. It is my sincere hope that each and every country, be it an industrialized or developing country, will accept my invitation and walk together towards the "Cool Earth" in 2050." Abe goes on to say, "I will continue my efforts based on my proposals, and aim to produce fruit at the G8 Summit in Toyako, Hokkaido, next year. I ask for your understanding and cooperation in this endeavor."[35] (August 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

The Japanese decided to propose introducing an "energy use efficiency" index as a new international framework to tackle global warming before next year's Group of Eight summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.[36] (July 9, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan will continue the climate change debate when it hosts the summit in 2008. According to former Japanese Prime Minister Abe, "The achievement at the Heiligendamm summit will be a precious base for next year's summit... From this base, we want to make an effort to show big results."[37] (June 8, 2007, Agence France Presse)

The communiqué from the 2007 summit indicated that "To maintain the momentum of our commitment to the [Global Energy Security Principles, we] will prepare national reports, with the assistance of the IEA, evaluating G8 member states' efforts to adhere to those principles, for delivery at the 2008 G8 summit.[38] (June 8, 2007)

The 2007 G8 communiqué states that the following commitments will be reviewed at the 2008 summit in Japan: "enhancing resiliency to climate variability and climate change in a way that fully supports our common goal of sustainable development; our willingness to continue and enhance cooperation with and support for developing countries in adapting to climate change and enhancing their resilience to climate variability, in particular those most vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change; our willingness to work with developing countries on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation measures to help integrating them in national development planning; our commitment to assist with climate research and risk assessments including through helping developing countries benefit from satellite observation systems; [our] endeavour under the Montreal Protocol to ensure the recovery of the ozone layer by accelerating the phase-out of HCFCs in a way that supports energy efficiency and climate change objectives; [and the continued exercising of leadership in the development of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)."[39] (June 8, 2007)

Japanese "Prime Minister Abe will ask his cabinet ministers to develop a package of proposals to present to next year's Group of Eight summit of world leaders which Japan will host. According to a foreign ministry official, Japanese government ministers will "discuss proposals on a new framework that will ensure participation by the United States and China, the world's largest greenhouse-gas emitters."[40] (March 20, 2007, Agence France Presse)

Former Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stated that he will lead discussions of environmental protection and climate change in Heiligendamm, where it will be a major topic.[41] Jiji Press English News Service also reported that "Environmental issues will remain at the fore at next year's G8 summit in Japan, where attendees are seen to discuss how Japan and other advanced nations should achieve their targets for cutting greenhouse gas emissions set out in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. A post-Kyoto Protocol framework for tackling global warming will also likely be on the agenda at the 2008 summit among Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States," Abe said.[42] (February 18, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

In the G8 leaders' 2005 official document on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development, the text read "We welcome Japan's offer to receive a report at the G8 Summit in 2008 [to take the sustainable energy dialogue forward]."[43] (2005)

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Environment

Japan will propose talks on steps to ensure water supplies and basic sanitation in developing countries at the upcoming Group of Eight summit to be hosted by the country, government officials have said. At the Hokkaido Toyako summit, G8 leaders are expected to discuss what measures they can take to help the world achieve a U.N. goal of halving the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water or basic sanitation by 2015, officials said. The Japanese plan to initiate discussions on such matters. Similar issues were discussed at the 2003 Evian summit.[44] (December 26, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

With Japan and other Asia-Pacific government leaders planning to meet for a "water summit," individuals have indicated that it is also a topic that should also be on Japan's G8 agenda. The leaders are planning to discuss water shortages, lack of water infrastructure, disasters and other related challenges — issues that many of the G8 countries will be forced to think about in the near future as well.[45] (November 29, 2007, Kyodo News)

In regards to the government's stance on environmental issues, Prime Minister Fukuda said, "Japan will continue to lead international discussions to create an effective international framework in which all major greenhouse gas emitters can participate." "My Cabinet will also place top priority on environment issues, including global warming, and work with utmost efforts," he added.[46] (October 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Former Japanese Prime Minister Abe was considering going to Switzerland to attend the World Economic Forum Meeting. Swiss President Couchepin said his country hopes Abe will attend the WEF meeting and send out a strong message on environmental issues as the leader of the country hosting the Group of Eight presidency in 2008.[47] (July 10, 2007, Jiji English Press News)

Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore wanted to meet with former Japanese Prime Minister Abe before the 2008 G8 Summit in Japan.[48] (July 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Japanese government intends to stress ecological concerns in every way during the 2008 G8 Summit in Japan. Therefore, the car fleet for official delegations will be made up of cars, "friendly with nature", which Japanese firms are feverishly developing.[49] (July 3, 2007, ITAR-TASS World Service)

Former Prime Minister Abe is planning on taking up issues relating to the environment at the 2008 summit. Abe stated, "As an environment friendly country I would like to take up issues of the environment and climate change as the major issues to be addressed."[50] (June 8, 2007, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Former Prime Minister Abe, while visiting Toyako, stated "I was convinced that it is the right place to speak about the environment, which is one of the themes next year."[51] (May 19, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Nuclear Safety

During planned discussions on nuclear weapons non-proliferation the Japanese government plans to touch upon the situation around the Korean Peninsula and Iran. They also intend to propose discussions on the creation of a more effective system blocking the spread of weapons of mass destruction on the planet.[52] (December 21, 2007, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

G8 leaders will likely reaffirm coordination to prevent an outflow of nuclear technology from countries such as Iran and North Korea, according to Japanese sources. And because the summit will be held in Japan, Tokyo is considering sending a strong message to the international community about the importance of promoting disarmament and ensuring nonproliferation, as Japan is the sole country to have suffered from nuclear attacks in World War II.[53] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

As a neighbour of North Korea, the Japanese government has decided to make nuclear nonproliferation issues a key issue in the summit. Europe and the United States have also have expressed strong concern over nonproliferation issues involving Iran. The government is planning to use the summit to show that it is taking the initiative to establish a new disarmament and nonproliferation regime, in line with the wishes of the international community.[54] (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

"Japan plans to discuss compiling international safety guidelines for nuclear power plants with other members of the Group of Eight nations, with an eye to reaching agreement at next year's G8 summit in Hokkaido, government sources said... The guidelines are expected to include assistance from the G8 nations on techniques for safety inspections and maintenance, as well as stipulating training for local staff and unified regulations on management in order to prevent the transfer or leakage of technologies or nuclear-related materials."[55] (May 20, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

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African Development

Japan plans to call for a boost in international health cooperation aimed to reduce the mortality rate of infants and to better fight infectious diseases, as part of efforts to spur development in Africa.[56] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

With regards to African assistance, the Japanese government plans to discuss issues such as sustainable economic growth on the continent and poverty eradication. The government also plans to reflect the opinions of leaders from about 30 African countries who are due to participate in the fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development, to be held in Yokohama in May. The government hopes to reach agreement on new action guidelines aimed at reducing mortality rates among infants, pregnant women and new mothers, and also on measures to tackle infectious diseases.[57] (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

Japan will lead a health drive aiming to get the world back on track in meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals at the G8 Summit in 2008, according to the Japanese foreign minister. He went on to indicate that the G 8 countries were "likely to miss the Millennium Development Goals," at the rate things are currently moving. Focus will be on the promotion of research and development and the strengthening of health systems.[58] (November 24, 2007, Agence France Presse)

Only the United Kingdom and Japan are on-track for keeping their promises on aid for Africa, according to Data, a London-based development pressure group, that estimates an extra $6.2 billion in aid for Africa is needed this year alone to keep the G8 on track towards its 2010 targets.[59] (October 14, 2007, Financial Times)

Japan is being forced to look more closely at its role in providing Africa with aid in light of the looming G8 Summit.[60] (August 21, 2007, The International Herald Tribune)

The World Bank pledged to work closely with Japan in providing aid to poverty stricken countries, alongside the G8. "There are many things that the World Bank and Japan can do together," Zoellick was quoted as telling Omi.[61] (August 8, 2007, Agence France Presse)

Former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe asked government ministries and agencies to concert their efforts to make a success out of an international conference on economic development in Africa scheduled for May next year in Yokohama near Tokyo. Abe said at the outset of the first meeting of Cabinet ministers related to the African development conference, "We should take the initiative in the development of Africa and build on the results (of the Yokohama meeting) during the Group of Eight industrialized nations' economic summit meeting to be held near Lake Toya in Hokkaido."[62] (August 6, 2007, Kyodo News)

In light of their future head role over the G8, the World Bank will seek out Japan's help in fighting global issues, including the reinforcement of aid to Africa. During his first visit to Japan since he became the World Bank president at the start of this month, Zoellick told reporters that he "will seek Tokyo's additional cooperation in efforts to reinforce assistance to Africa." Zoellick stressed that both climate change and the developing countries should both be on the Japanese G8 agenda. However, he went on to state that, 'If Japan wants to stress the climate change agenda, "it should also stress its African development agenda."[63] (July 25, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

The Heiligendamm communiqué noted, "On a high-level meeting in fall 2007, the G8 presidency will monitor the progress towards [Strengthening Financial Markets in Africa] and if necessary identify the need for additional action until the next Summit [in Japan].[64] (June 8, 2007)

Following a meeting in Tokyo between Italian Prime Minister Prodi (who will host the summit in 2009) and former Japanese Prime Minister Abe, Abe stated, "As both our countries will be chairing these summits, cooperation is essential. The issues to be taken up at the G8 summit meeting are long term issues."[65] Prodi stated that "It is necessary to build a joint policy towards Africa... Africa is developing economically amid globalisation. We have up until now discussed major environmental and human disasters in Africa at our G8 meetings... Africa is developing economically amid globalisation."[66] (April 16, 2007, Agence France Presse)

A senior official from Germany announced that Germany will not focus on debt relief and increased aid to Africa, stating that the 2005 report of the Commission for Africa left the issue to be taken up again by the Japanese G8 presidency in 2008.[67] (November 18, 2006)

"In [2008], Japan will be Chair of the G8 and host the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development — a 5-yearly gathering of African leaders and their development partners. Africa will be in the spotlight again." [68] (According to a report by Julius Court, of the Overseas Development Institute)

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Intellectual Property Rights

A working version of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) treaty is set to be ready for the next G8 meeting in Tokyo. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development estimates the international trade in counterfeit goods is worth $200 billion.[69] (December 7, 2007, Australian Financial Review)

Japan is working on the first international treaty aimed at stemming production and sale of fake brand goods and illegal copies of movies and music software. Officials went on to say that Tokyo aims to reach a basic agreement on the treaty at the summit of the Group of Eight nations next July in Japan, making the protection of intellectual property a major topic on the summit agenda along with global warming.[70] (July 21, 2007, Kyodo News)

"On intellectual property protection, the declaration recognized, for the first time as a summit meeting document, the importance of streamlining and harmonizing the international patent system. A treaty to prevent the spread of counterfeit and pirated products, which Japan aims to establish, was not included in the declaration. But it said, "We recognize the need for continued study by national experts of the possibilities of strengthening the international legal framework pertaining to intellectual property right enforcement," suggesting the treaty may be included in a document at the next G8 summit meeting to be held in Hokkaido."[71] (June 9, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

The communiqué from the 2007 G8 summit in Heiligendamm indicated that the pilot plan on technical assistance (launched in partnership with certain developing countries) would be "reviewed by the G8 in 2008."[72] (July 8, 2007)

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Economy

The G-8 leaders are expected to study measures to strengthen policy coordination to better cope with surging and volatile oil prices, and to cushion their impact on the world economy.[73] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Afghanistan

As a Japanese law authorizing assistance in Afghanistan came to an end, the country has decided to take steps to continue its efforts. Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimura said he and three other Cabinet members related to foreign aid decided that Japan will take initiatives in Afghan aid through international conferences, including as chair of the G8 summit.[74] (November 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Prime Minister Fukuda explained to Chancellor Merkel that "his government is making its 'best efforts' to have parliament enact a new law that would allow Japan to continue its refuelling mission in support of the U.S.-led antiterrorism operations in an near Afghanistan, while touching on Germany's contributions to the fight against terrorism."[75] (October 24, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan has promised to ask the G8 countries for more cooperation in the development of Afghanistan when it assumes chairmanship of the G8 countries. "Japan stressed that the G8 role in mediating between Afghanistan and Pakistan was very important in ensuring stability in the region."[76] (August 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring South Asia)

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Heiligendamm Process

The Japanese government has indicated that they will invite emerging economies such as China and India to attend the 2008 Summit. They will attempt to build consensus among participating countries for the formulation of a post-Kyoto Protocol framework.[77] (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

On the final day of the 2007 G8 Summit, former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe commented that, "The results of this Heiligendamm Summit should provide the foundation for our work towards next year's Summit. We should like to strive to build important results on the outcome of Heiligendamm"[78] (June 8, 2007)

The 2007 G8 communiqué noted that at "the G8 Summit in Japan in 2008 will receive an interim report on the progress made [in regards to the Heiligendamm Process] and at the G8 Summit in Italy in 2009 a final report on the outcomes of the Dialogue Process will be presented.[79] (June 8, 2007)

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Other

Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda has indicated he is contemplating inviting South Korean President-elect Lee Myung Bak to the 2008 G8 summit. Hinting that he may posit the idea to invite leaders from South Korea and other Asian countries to the summit next summer, Fukuda said he wanted to discuss the option with other countries by raising the issue of past summit meetings in Europe, such as one held at Gleneagles in Scotland in 2005, to which African countries close to European nations were invited to attend.[80,81] (December 22, 2007, Daily Yomiuri, KBS World News-English Edition)

The Japanese government is planning a pre-summit tour of the northern territories for foreign reporters, sources have indicated. It has been suggested that Japanese authorities are doing so with the intention to attract attention to the territorial issue with Russia. According to its organisers, journalists will be able to watch the (four South Kuriles Islands claimed by the Japanese — Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan and Khabomai) "northern territories" from the northern coast of Hokkaido. According to government sources "a lecture on the history of the territorial issue with putting emphasis on how they were illegally occupied by the Soviet Union during the Second World War" will be delivered to the participants in the free press tour. At the same time officials in Tokyo are planning to abstain from mentioning this problem in the chairman's statement at the G8 summit.[82] (December 21, 2007, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

The G8 leaders are likely to raise North Korea's past abduction of Japanese nationals, the independence of Kosovo from Serbia and the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region.[83] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan plans to hold the first meeting of the leaders' personal representatives (also known as "sherpas") around Jan. 10, 2008 in Japan to start preparations for the upcoming annual meeting. Sherpas or their deputies will meet about once a month to shape the issues on the agenda.[84] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda has sought the cooperation of the World Bank for the upcoming G8 summit.[85] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Model G8 Youth Summit will be held in Japan from March 10 to 15, 2008. The selected venue is Yokohama Shoko-Kaigijyo, Yokohama Symposia, Keio University Yagami and Mita campuses. It was first held in 2006 in Russia, and the second followed in Germany. For more information about the 2008 Model G8 Youth Summit, you can locate their website: http://www.modelg8japan.org/.[86] (December 5, 2007)

Tokyo is hoping that the outcome of the third East Asian Summit, schedule to occur on November 21, involving 16 Asian and Pacific countries will be reflected in discussions at the G8 summit next year, Fukuda was quoted as telling Lee (Prime Minister of Singapore).[87] (November 2, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Junior Eight (J8) Summit, a gathering of young people from all over the world, will be held in Chitose City in the region of Lake Shikotsu from July 1 to 10, 2008. It will be held under the joint auspices of the United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF), who favoured the Lake Shikotsu venue.[88] (October 26, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda and Germany Chancellor Merkel have agreed to work closing in dealing with North Korea and reforming the United National Security Council.[89] (October 24, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan is likely to invite Australia to attend the meeting as one of a handful of observer nations.[90] (October 23, 2007The Australian)

Japan's Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs made a statement which linked the G8 summit being hosted in Hokkaido in 2008 to the 'Northern Territories' problem in Russian-Japanese relations.[91] (September 10, 2007, BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union)

In the 2007 G8 communiqué it was noted that G8 countries would report on progress in the policies and measures on energy efficiency outlined in the communiqué at the G 8 summit in 2008.[92] (June 8, 2007)

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Process: The Physical Summit

Summit Site

The Japanese government held a conference at the hotel that will be the site for the Hokkaido Toyako G8 Summit in 2008. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss ways to promote tourism in Japan.[93] (October 1, 2007, HBC G8: Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008)

Many people from Toyako are upset that former Prime Minister Abe will not be attending Japan's 2008 G8 Summit. The mayor of Toyako town, Yoshio Nagasaki said, "I believe Prime Minister Abe had a great determination towards next year's summit. It's such a shame he won't be able to attend it." Others, including a souvenir shop owner, expressed similar feelings, "I think that it would be better if the person who decided on the summit attend it. I really wanted Prime Minister Abe [to] gaze out at Lake Toyako from the venue he spoke [of] in the conference."[94] (September 13, 2007, HBC G8: Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008)

"The planned main venue for the G8 summit is Windsor Hotel Toya Resort & Spa, which stands atop a 600-metre mountain overlooking Lake Toya.[95] (September 3, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The summit will be held at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa.[96] (June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government has officially decided that the 2008 Summit will be held July 7-9.[97] (June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government plans to host the summit in July, 2008.[98] (April 24, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

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Government Preparations: External

Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga will visit India and Vietnam on January 3-8 as part of Japan's preparations for the Group of Eight summit next summer in Hokkaido. He plans to discuss global warming and financial cooperation.[99] December 28, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Because a new Liberal Democratic Party president was to be selected on September 23, 2007, former Prime Minister Abe was unable to attend meetings on climate change in New York on September 24 (as well as the United National General Assembly the following day). Abe was to attend the meetings in order to prepare for the upcoming discussions at the 2008 G8 summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.[100] (September 14, 2007, Nikkei Report)

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Government Preparations: Internal

Prime Minister Fukuda may not be able to have the impact he desires at the upcoming TICAD conference and G8 summit due to strains in the Japanese Diet. With political deadlock and disagreement, it may be harder to push certain issues onto the agenda with the enthusiasm hope for.[101] (December 28, 2007, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda is considering a cabinet shuffle in mid-January, 2008. He will consider the upcoming G8 summit before he makes his final decision.[102] (December 28, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

According to Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimura, a panel is being convened at the request of Prime Minister Fukuda to provide detailed information for occasions, including the upcoming G8 summit.[103] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

In the strongest hint yet that he favoured postponing elections until after Japan hosts the G8 summit in July, [Fukuda] said he could "give a fairly high level of guarantee" that his administration could hang on. "I hold the authority to call an election. In the absence of dissolution of the lower house, we shall host the G8 summit."[104] (November 12, 2007, Financial Times)

With Japanese Prime Minister Abe having stepped down, sources have suggested that there may be a need to review G8 strategy for the 2008 summit. Abe had proposed cutting global greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2050, and it is still likely to be included in discussions on climate change at the summit.[105] (September 12, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released the Secretariat which had been established for the 2008 Summit under former Prime Minister Abe. The Secretariat for the G8 Summit was established in the Foreign Minister's Secretariat on July 1, and the opening ceremony was held on July 2 in the presence of Mr. Taro Aso, former Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Office was to be in charge of the management and logistics, including press-related matters, of the Hokkaido Toyako Summit, which will be held in the Toyako area in Hokkaido, and the G8 Foreign Ministers' Meeting in Kyoto. Mr. Hiroshi Fukada, former Deputy Director-General of the International Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was appointed Secretary General for the G8 Summit, and about 20 other officials were assigned to the Office on July 1.[106] (July 4, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Former Prime Minister Abe's Japanese Foreign Ministry set up a preparatory committee for the 2008 Japan-hosted G8 Summit. "As several thousands of media personnel from around the world will gather for the summit, it is a good opportunity for Japan to issue its message to the world," Former foreign minister Taro Aso said in an address at the committee's launch.[107] (July 1, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Japanese government set up a G8 preparatory committee under former Prime Minister Abe headed up by former Chief Cabinet Secretary Shiozaki and composed of Cabinet Secretariat officials and senior ministry and agency officials, a government spokesperson stated.[108] The committee was intended to liaise with government organs, prepare the summit venue, press centre, facilities and security, and coordinate member delegations' accommodations.[109] Former Prime Minister Abe was quoted as instructing his cabinet to make "thorough preparations for smoothly receiving" the leaders, and according to the BBC "Kensei Mizote, chairman of the National Public Safety Commission, vowed to take "all possible security measures" by assembling police forces nationwide amid "concerns over possible violence by anti-globalization activists and terror attacks by Islamic radicals."[110] The foreign ministry was to set up its own preparatory committee, according to former minister Taro Aso, which was to be established in July to coordinate climate change policy.[111] (June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

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Cost

The Japanese Foreign Ministry's initial fiscal 2008 budget, which is up 1.3 percent from the current year's initial budget, includes 13.42 billion yen for G-8 summit-related expenses.[112] (December 23, 2007, Kyodo News)

"The Japanese government decided to earmark about 11.48 billion yen to prepare for the Group of Eight summit to be hosted by Japan next year in the Lake Toya hot-spring resort area in Hokkaido, former Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Junzo Matoba said." "The money [was to] be used for preparing a media centre, a fibre optics system and measures to deal with snow accumulation in the northernmost prefecture.[113] (September 3, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

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Security

The Justice Ministry has begun preparations to put into force a hooligan provision of the immigration law to prevent antiglobalization activists from entering the country to protest the G8 summit meeting to be held in July. The provision states immigration authorities can refuse entry to people who have injured, assaulted, threatened people, killed people, or damaged buildings which have disrupted international sports events or meetings. It also disallows entry to people who have been imprisoned in Japan or other countries or have been deported before if immigration officials believe they might be involved in similar actions again.[114] (December 31, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

Innovative blast mitigation systems designed by a Welsh company to protect people and property from the effects of explosions will form part of the security measures surrounding the G8 summit in Japan in July, 2008. The Waterwall systems — which resemble bouncy castles — are made from a PVC-coated fabric and are internally reinforced and inflated with air which is then displaced by water. The system, which can be rapidly deployed, harnesses the high mass of water to dramatically reduce the effects of explosions. They can be inflated in minutes and folded away when not in use with minimal training required.[115] (December 21, 2007, The Western Mail)

The Japanese National Police Agency is calling for alert against possible terrorism by Islamic extremists and riots by anti-globalization activists ahead of the Group of Eight summit in Hokkaido's Lake Toya resort area next July, according to its 2007 security report which was recently released. Saying Japan is becoming home to many Muslims, the NPA also indicates concern that terrorists may take advantage of the local community and implicates them in possible radical activities. The agency also points to possible harmful activities against Japan by China and Russia. Naming China in particular, the report says, "Researchers and students are sent to Japan to engage in information gathering activities with skillful and diverse methods for an extended period of time."[116] (December 10, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan will make the utmost efforts to prevent terrorist attacks during the Group of Eight summit to be held in Hokkaido Prefecture in July 2008, the National Police Agency has said. Citing the simultaneous terrorist attacks in London during the G8 summit in Britain in 2005, the agency called for enhanced vigilance, particularly with regard to public transport systems. Some foreign antiglobalization organizations are calling protest rallies in Japan and Japanese radicals are increasingly cooperating, the report said, adding that some Japanese radicals took part in protests during the G-8 summit in Germany this year. On North Korea, Japan will further strengthen its investigations and crackdown on illegal activities by North Korean agents and related individuals, the report said.[117]

Japanese and German officials have agreed to exchange information and cooperate over security issues for the 2008 Summit in Japan. "Japan's NPA and Hokkaido prefectural police officials in charge of summit security will be sent to Germany to set up the information exchanges," officials said.[118] (August 12, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Japan coast-guard held a drill in preparation for the 2008 G8 Japan-hosted Summit. "The exercise involved 300 people, eight patrol vessels, three helicopters and two aircraft on the assumption a suspicious boat tried to get away after being seen by a helicopter."[119] (July 14, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

A special headquarters for ensuring security at the 2008 G8 Summit is now operational, according to sources. "The head of the headquarters, Deputy Commissioner General of the Japanese National Police Agency Hiroto Yoshimura stressed at the first meeting of this structure that not only the area of the G8 leaders' conference, but the whole country is a potential target for terrorist sorties and terrorists may try to stage large-scale sabotage actions. He especially stressed the danger emanating from "Islamic radicals." The headquarters leader said the Japanese police will get new equipment and will undergo reinforced training for the prevention and suppression of both terrorist attacks and massive disorders."[120] (July 3, 2007, Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

Japan's National Police Agency launched a panel to devise plans for the 2008 G8 Summit.[121] (July 2, 2007, Kyodo Press)

A government spokesperson stated that the Japanese government was t0 set up a G8 preparatory committee headed up by former Chief Cabinet Secretary Shiozaki and composed of former Prime Minister Abe's Cabinet Secretariat officials and senior ministry and agency officials.[122] The committee was to liaise with government organs, prepare the summit venue, press centre, facilities and security, and coordinate member delegations' accommodations.[123] Former Prime Minister Abe was quoted as instructing his cabinet to make "thorough preparations for smoothly receiving" the leaders, and according to the BBC "Kensei Mizote, chairman of the National Public Safety Commission, vowed to take "all possible security measures" by assembling police forces nationwide amid "concerns over possible violence by anti-globalization activists and terror attacks by Islamic radicals."[124] The former foreign ministry was to set up its own preparatory committee, according to former Foreign Minister Taro Aso, which was to be established in July to coordinate climate change policy.[125] (June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

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Media

Before the 2008 G8 summit, the Japanese government to offer a free tour for foreign journalists over the South Kuriles chain that Japan regards its "northern territories." In the 2008 draft budget the government has planned to allocate 3.2 million yen for the organisation of the press tour of foreign correspondents accredited in Tokyo. During the trip journalists will be able to watch the "northern territories" from the northern coast of Hokkaido. Japanese officials noted that "a lecture on the history of the territorial issue with putting emphasis on how they were illegally occupied by the Soviet Union during the Second World War" will be delivered to the participants in the free press tour.[126] (December 21, 2007, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

"The Japanese Foreign Ministry's public relations officers will receive special training on media relations, ahead of important international conferences Japan will host next year, [including the G8 Summit and all of its respective meetings]."[127] (September 5, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

The Government of Japan has decided to establish the International Media Centre for the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit 2008 at Rusutsu Resort, Rusutsu Village, Abuta District, Hokkaido.[128] (September 4, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

According to Kazuya Nashida, director of the Economic Policy Division of the Foreign Ministry's Economic Affairs Bureau, the media centre for the summit will be set up in Rusutsu Resort hotel in the village of Rusutsu. It is located 30 minutes by car from the Windsor Hotel Toya Report and Spa, where the Hokkaido Toyako summit will be held.[129] (June 18, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Name

The summit will be held from July 7-9, 2008. Former prime minister Abe stated that the summit will officially be called the "Hokkaido Toyako Summit" in Japanese. According to Kyodo News, "Government sources said the official name came as a compromise between the prefectural government calling for the "Hokkaido Summit" and the town government favouring the "Toyako Summit." It is still unknown what Japan will officially call the summit in English."[130] (May 19, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Ministerial Meetings

Japan will host a meeting of Group of Eight lower house speakers in Hiroshima next September, House of Representatives Speaker Yohei Kono said. They will discuss peace and disarmament, indicating Japan will call for a nuclear-free world. It will be the first time Japan hosts the speakers' meeting, since it was started in 2002.[131] (November 1, 2007, Kyodo News)

Representatives from the Japanese government released the following information on ministerial meetings to journalists covering the Heiligendamm summit:

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released dates for ministerial meetings: G8 Foreign Ministers on June 26-27 in Kyoto, G8 Development Ministers in early April in Tokyo and the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development on May 28-30 in Yokohama.[133] (May 29, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

"Finance ministers will meet in the western city of Osaka, foreign ministers in the ancient capital of Kyoto and environment ministers in the nearby port town of Kobe. Justice and home affairs ministers are slated to meet in Tokyo, while labor ministers will convene in the northern coastal city of Niigata. The Tokyo suburb of Chiba will host a Group of Twenty conference on global warming and clean energy, and Yokohama will hold talks on African development."[134] (May 19, 2007, Mainichi News)

The first ministerial meeting is set to be held in March 2008.[135] The Japanese government is also considering holding a meeting of justice and internal affairs ministers in Tokyo.[136] (April 24, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

The following cities have informally been selected to host ministerial meetings in 2008: Kyoto will host the foreign ministers meetings, Osaka will host the finance ministers meeting, Kobe will host the environment ministers and Niigata will host the labour ministers.[137] (April 23, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Finance

Financial chiefs from Group of Seven industrial nations will gather for a one-day meeting Feb. 9 in Tokyo, with the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and high crude oil prices topping the agenda, Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga said.[138] (December 28, 2007, Kyodo News)

According to G7 sources, the Group of Seven policymakers are planning to meet in Tokyo on February 8, 2007.[139] (December 10, 2007, Reuters News)

G7 finance leaders will likely pledge to work together in coping with the credit market crunch arising from the U.S. subprime mortgage loan problem when they gather in Washington in October. "Basically, [the G7] will confirm international cooperation" in dealing with the recent turbulence in global financial markets, Japanese Finance Minister Nukaga said.[140] (October 15, 2007, Kyodo News)

The G7 are likely to discuss foreign exchange rates, state-controlled funds, the world economy, markets and the transparency of sovereign wealth funds at their upcoming meeting in Washington, according to Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga.[141] (October 15, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

Japan and the United States are both concerned over sovereign wealth funds, and according to Cabinet Office sources in Japan, Japan will undoubtedly back the U.S. proposal for a set of guidelines which will demand better disclosure by the sovereign funds and give governments greater ability to scrutinize their activities.[142] (October 15, 2007, AFX International Focus)

The euro is not likely to receive mention in the G7 communique at the October G7 meeting in Washington, DC, according to Eisuke Sakakibara, Japan's former vice finance minister for international affairs.[143] (October 15, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

Japan is not likely to lift its own rates, even though Bank of Japan Governor Toshihiko Fukui recently said that "monetary policies overseas won't tie the bank's hands," according to Sakakibara, Japan's former vice finance minister for international affairs.[144] (October 15, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

The FSF has set up a working group to produce a report which it will deliver an interim of in February in Japan. It will address the role of rating agencies, oversight issues, appropriate accounting of derivatives, raising international transparency on financial markets and concerns improving the risk management of financial market players.[145] (October 12, 2007, Reuters News)

Japan would like to keep the subject of increased hedge fund transparency on the agenda during its G7 presidency next year, according to German Deputy Finance Minister Mirow.[146] (October 12, 2007, Reuters News)

German Deputy Finance Minister Thomas Mirow has said that the G7 has put together a working group to look for lessons to be learned from the recent market turmoil. It is to focus on the role of rating agencies, government oversight, the role of banking derivatives and questions of enhances transparency and risk management in financial markets. The group is to present its initial report in November in Japan, with the final report expected sometime in April in Washington.[147] (October 12, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

The G7 leaders are still debating whether or not the U.S. dollar should be discussed at the upcoming meeting in Washington, D.C. Planners from all of the G7 countries, including Japan, said they "are currently deliberating over the content and wording of the closely watched communiqué to be issued after the meeting."[148] (September 28, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

In anticipation of the upcoming meeting of G7 leaders in Washington, D.C., Japan's Finance Minister said, "Japan's economy is carrying on its recovery trend and the global economy is also keeping track on the economic explanation. It is important to share opinions to establish healthy markets and provide a relief to investors."[149] (September 27, 2007, AFX International Focus)

Japan's Finance Minister, Fukushiro Nukaga said that at the meeting in Washington, D.C. at the end of October, G7 leaders will work to share information to maintain a stable global market.[150] (September 27, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

A Bank of Japan policy setter, Miyako Suda said, "problems in the US housing market would last longer than previously expected, but that a US slowdown was unlikely to hurt Japan."[151] (September 27, 2007 New Zealand Press Association)

Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga said that the G7 would talk about U.S. subprime mortgage problems at the October 19-22 meetings in Washington, D.C. He noted how important it is to maintain a "stable global market," and went on to say that the G7 leaders must share information toward "building a market that provides reassurance to investors."[152] (September 27, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

Japanese Finance Minister Nukaga said that he does not believe that currency movements will be a "big theme" at the upcoming G7 meeting in Washington, D.C at the end of October.[153] (September 27, 2007, New Zealand Press Association)

The former Japanese Vice Finance Minister for International Affairs said, "The G7 will debate various policy issues to restore stability in global financial markets based on a report to be submitted by the Financial Stability Forum, which advises the G7." He went on to say that there will likely be a statement on US subprime mortgage woes, and that the "G7 financial chiefs are likely to discuss four points [at the upcoming meeting in Washington, October 19-22]: 'risk management in complicated financial products, how to treat structured products in accounting, the role of credit-rating agencies in securitized products and appropriate supervision of financial entities dealing with securitized products."[154] (September 21, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese sources have said that the Group of Seven is planning on seeking advice for an international group of financial regulators and investors on how to deal with 'U.S. subprime mortgage woes.' If everything goes as planned, the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) will likely submit advice to the G7 meeting that is going to be held in February 2008. In May 2007, the FSF also responded to a G7 request for advice on hedge funds, to which they proposed a full review of the industry's business practices.[155] (September 14, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

Japan's new finance minister called for the Group of Seven industrialized nations to learn lessons from financial market turbulence triggered by turmoil in the US credit market. The G7 will hold its regular meeting in Washington in October.[156] (September 2, 2007, AFX International Focus)

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Foreign Affairs

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released the following information regarding the First Liaison meeting for the 2008 Summit. On July 10 at 4:10 p.m., the First Liaison Meeting for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit 2008 chaired by Mr. Taro Aso, the former Minister for Foreign Affairs was held at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Aso stated that the G8 Summit would be Japan's most important diplomatic event next year, and hence needed to be a success. He stressed that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as a whole, must make its utmost efforts for its preparations in cooperation with the related ministries and other stakeholders. Following Mr. Ado's remarks, Mr. Hiroshi Fukada, the former Secretary General for the G8 Summit and now the Prime Minister, reported on the progress of the preparations as well as other logistical considerations for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit and the G8 Foreign Ministers' Meeting. The establishment of this Liaison Meeting was announced by Mr. Aso on June 12 when the Cabinet approved the holding of the Hokkaido Toyako Summit.[157] (July 17, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

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Energy

The Aomori prefectural government said it will host a meeting of G8 energy ministers in the city of Aomori on June 7-8, 2008. In addition to the G8 member-states, China, South Korea and India will attend the meeting. There will be approximately 100 to 200 participants at the meeting including delegates from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and two other international organizations.[158] (November 1, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Environment

The first session of the G8 environment ministers is to be held on Okinawa, which was the venue of the G8 summit during Japan's previous G8 presidency eight years ago. The need to hold such a meeting is connected with the fact that efforts to abate global climate changes will be the main subject of discussion at the forthcoming summit in Hokkaido. The G8 ecology ministers also plan to discuss measures to avert droughts, and epidemics of infectious diseases such as the Western Nile fever, the spread of which, it is believed, is also a result of global warming.[159] (December 25, 2007, ITAR-TASS World Service)

The environment ministers' meeting, scheduled in Kobe, was changed from its originally scheduled date, May 25-27, 2008 to May 24-26, 2008, according to officials from the Japanese government. (October 22, 2007)

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G20

A G20 conference on global warming and clean energy will be held in Tokyo.[160] (May 10, 2007, Associated Press Newswires)

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Tokyo International Conference on African Development

The Japanese Foreign Minister postponed his trip to Kenya due to political unrest in the country. Instead he is planning to visit Tanzanian for the time being, with the intention of visiting Kenya at a later date.[161] (December 31, 2007, Agence France Presse)

Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura will make a six-day visit to Tanzania and Kenya to seek cooperation and active participation in the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in May. Komura, who will be the first Japanese foreign minister to visit the two African nations in 29 years, plans to call on their presidents to attend the TICAD conference in Yokohama and also hopes to meet with Kenyan environmentalist and 2004 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Wangari Maathai on global warming measures.[162] (December 28, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

At TICAD issues of international trade and investment will be discussed. Japan has jointly hosted the African aid conference every five years since 1993 with international agencies such as the United Nations and the World Bank.[163]

Japan will lead discussions on international health cooperation aimed to reduce the mortality rate of infants and to better fight infectious diseases when it hosts the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in Yokohama in May, prior to the G8 summit.[164] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda has sought the cooperation of the World Bank for the fourth meeting of the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD), in Yokohama next May.[165] (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan's 2007 White Paper on Official Development Assistance reflects their determination to take the lead in the international process to form a post-2012 framework on climate change as host of the Group of Eight summit and the Tokyo International Conference on African Development next year. The draft suggests Japan will support Africa and other regions that are likely to suffer from the impacts of climate change. Promoting democratization and implementing antiterrorism measures will also be key fields for ODA.[166] (December 4, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government has indicated that the TICAD meetings with be a stepping stone for the discussions which will take place on African development at the 2008 G8 Summit in July.[167] (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

At the fourth TICAD meeting, Japan intends to take up the issue of health in Africa, according to Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura. "The objective will be to develop a common framework for action shared by the international community," he said. "In sub-Saharan Africa, 166 out of 1,000 children die before their 5th birthday; that is 20 times the number than in the developed world."[168] (November 24, 2007, Agence France Presse)

The Foreign Ministry of Japan launched a secretariat to prepare for the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) in Yokohama next May, Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura said. "TICAD, along with the Toyako (Group of Eight) Summit, will be the most important diplomatic events next year," Komura told a news conference. Shuichiro Megata, ambassador in charge of African affairs and a personal representative of Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda for Africa, was appointed head of the 40-member secretariat, the ministry said.[169] (November 15, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Gleneagles Dialogue

The Japanese government will host a meeting of the Gleneagles Dialogue in March 2008. "The Japanese Government has set out objectives in terms of progress towards a stabilization goal, and agreement on the need for improving energy efficiency and scaling up financing."[170] (September 28, 2007, The Korea Herald)

From September 9-11, 2007, "the energy and environment ministers from the 20 major energy-consuming countries will meet in Berlin for the third 'Gleneagles Dialogue.' Following the meeting in Berlin, another conference is to be held in Japan in the spring of 2008. The results of the Gleneagles Dialogue will be reported at the 2008 G8 Summit under the Japanese presidency."[171] (according to sources at the German Federal Government)

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Japan's G8 Team

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Notes

Kyodo News (December 20, 2007), "Japan to focus foreign aid on African development, climate change."

2 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

3 The Australian (December 5, 2007), "UN chief warns of water wars."

4 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

5 Associated Press Newswires (November 1, 2007), "Report: Japan fears CO2 spike in 2007."

6 Kyodo News (October 5, 2007), "Fukuda vows to tackle environment, appears lukewarm on charter change."

7 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

8 Reuters News (December 29, 2007), "Japan to back targets for new climate deal-report."

9 Kyodo News (December 27, 2007), "Japan eyeing nation targets for emissions cuts from 2013."

10 Kyodo News (December 23, 2007), "Japan, U.S. eye climate summit before G-8 talks next year."

11 Kyodo News (December 8, 2007), "Japan eyes 500 bil. yen share in Tokyo-led climate fund."

12 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

13 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 4, 2007), "Japan's foreign aid white paper to focus on global warming issues."

14 Kyodo News (December 3, 2007), "Gov't sets up post of special Cabinet advisor on climate change."

15 Kyodo News (November 27, 2007), "Japan aims to act as coordinator to launch post-Kyoto talks."

16 Daily Yomiuri (November 26 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

17 Kyodo News (November 21, 2007), "Japan unveils 2.1 bil. aid to clean up East Asian pollution."

18 Kyodo News (November 16, 2007), "Japan, U.S. agree to work on post-Kyoto regime on global warming."

19 Reuters News (November 15, 2007), "Japan to offer 1.8 bln in environmental loans."

20 Associated Press Wires (November 1, 2007), "Report: Japan fears CO2 spike in 2007."

21 Kyodo News (October 15, 2007), "Fukuda, Merkel agree to cooperate on climate change, N. Korea issue."

22 Kyodo News (October 15, 2007), "Fukuda calls for 'powerful' measures to attain emissions cut goal."

23 Kyodo News (October 12, 2007), "Fukuda, Howard agree to work on security, tackling global warming."

24 Kyodo News (October 5, 2007), "Fukuda vows to tackle environment, appears lukewarm on charter change."

25 Kyodo News (September 26, 2007), "Japan, U.S., eyeing G8 plan to remove tariffs on energy-saving goods."

26 Nikkei Report, (September 14, 2007), "Japan's Prime Minister To Miss NY Climate Meet, UN Assembly."

27 Jiji Press English News Service (September 12, 2007), "Japan worried over Abe Resignation Impact on Ties with the U.S."

28 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agency (September 8, 2007), "Japan, Russia agree to speed up peace treaty talks."

29 Agence France Presse (August 29, 2007), "Germany's Merkel discusses Afghan mission, global warming with Japanese leader."

30 Kyodo News (August 23, 2007), "Japan in key position to tackle climate change: U.N. official."

31 Kyodo News (August 20, 2007), "India wants to work with Japan on global warming."

32 Kyodo News (August 6, 2007), "German leader Merkel to visit Japan on Aug. 29-31."

33 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (August 2, 2007), "Japanese finance minister calls for post-Kyoto framework at APEC meeting."

34 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (August 1, 2007), "Japanese, Indian foreign ministers lay ground work for PM Abe's India trip."

35 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (August 2007), "Cool Earth 50."

36 Kyodo News (July 9, 2007), "Introduction of 'energy use efficiency' index to be proposed."

37 Agence France Presse (June 8, 2007), "Japan to take over G8 climate change debate."

38 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

39 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

40 Agence France Presse (March 20, 2007), "Japan aims to lead post-Kyoto climate change fight."

41 Jiji Press English News Service (February 18, 2007), "Japan's Abe Ready to Lead Talks on Green Efforts at G8 Summit."

42 Jiji Press English News Service (February 18, 2007), "Japan's Abe Ready to Lead Talks on Green Efforts at G8 Summit."

43 G8 Official Document (July 8, 2005), "Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development," accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/climatechange.html.

44 Jiji Press English News Service (December 26, 2007), "G-8 Summit to Discuss Water, Sanitation Issues."

45 Kyodo News (November 29, 2007), "Asia-Pacific water summit, to be held next week to prevent crisis."

46 Kyodo News (October 5, 2007), "Fukuda vows to tackle environment, appears lukewarm on charter change."

47 Fiji Press English News Service (July 10, 2007), "Abe May Attend World Economic Forum Meeting."

48 Kyodo News (July 5, 2007), "Gore urges Japanese to back Live Earth concerts, seeks 90% emission cut."

49 ITAR-TASS World Service (July 3, 2007), "G8 summiteers in Japan to drive 'ecological cars'."

50 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (June 8, 2007), "Press Conference by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Following his visit to Germany for the G8 Summit Meeting in Heiligendamm."

51 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

52 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (December 21, 2007), "Tokyo to offer foreign reporters tour of S uriles before G8 summit."

53 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

54 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

55 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (May 20, 2007), "Japan wants to discuss nuclear plant safety guidelines at G8."

56 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

57 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

58 Agence France Presse (November 24, 2007), "Japan's G8 to focus on global health: foreign minister."

59 Financial Times (October 14, 2007), "The G8 leaves aid pledges for Africa largely unfulfilled."

60 The International Herald Tribune (August 21, 2007), "As Japan looks ahead to hosting a Group of Eight (G8) summit that will focus on Africa, along with a major international conference on African development, it is being forced to rethink its own aid program for the continent."

61 Agence France Presse (August 8, 2007), "World Bank chief pledges closer cooperation with Japan."

62 Kyodo News (August 6, 2007), " Abe calls for gov't wide efforts to step up aid in Africa."

63 Jiji Press English News Service (July 25, 2007), "World Bank Pres. To Visit Japan in Early Aug."

64 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

65 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

66 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

67 Hugh Williamson and Alan Beattie (October 18, 2006), "Germany to focus G8 on Africa investment," Accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/01a1136a-5ed6-11db-afac-0000779e2340.html.

68 Julius Court (2005), "Live8, the G8 and Africa: How bold will Japan be?" Overseas Development Institute, Accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.odi.org.uk/rapid/Projects/UK_Japan/docs/DY_OpEd.pdf.

69 Australian Financial Review (December 7, 2007), "Piracy treaty on track for G8 meeting."

70 Kyodo News (July 21, 2007), "Japan, U.S., Europe eye drafting treaty against counterfeit goods."

71 Eiji Hirose (June 9, 2007), "G8 eyes more flexible yuan," Daily Yomiuiri.

72 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html

73 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

74 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (November 1, 2007), "Top officials say Japan to step up economic aid in Afghanistan."

75 Kyodo News (October 24, 2007), "Fukuda, Merkel agree to cooperate on climate change, N. Korea issue."

76 BBC Monitoring South Asia (August 12, 2007), "Afghan daily says G8 to mediate with Pakistan."

77 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G-8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

78 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (June 8, 2007), "Press Conference by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Following his visit to Germany for the G8 Summit Meeting in Heiligendamm."

79 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

80 Daily Yomiuri (December 22, 2007), "Fukuda hints at inviting ROK's Lee to G-8 meet."

81 KBS World News-English Edition (December 22, 2007), "Japan Mulls Inviting Korea to G-8 Summit Next Year."

82 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (December 21, 2007), "Tokyo to offer foreign reporters tour of S uriles before G8 summit."

83 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

84 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

85 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Fukuda promises Zoellick cooperation with 'second World Bank.'"

86 Model G8 Youth Summit (December 5, 2007), "Model G8 Youth Summit: 2008 in Japan."

87 Kyodo News (November 2, 2007), "Japan, Singapore leaders agree to discuss environment at EAS."

88 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (October 26, 2007), "2008 Junior Eight (J8) Summit."

89 Kyodo News (October 24, 2007), "Fukuda, Merkel agree to cooperate on climate change, N. Korea issue."

90 The Australian (October 23, 2007), "Fukuda seeks closer co-operation."

91 BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (September 10, 2007), "Russia criticizes Japanese minister's statement on disputed lands."

92 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

93 HBC G8: Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008 (October 1, 2007), "Conference to Promote Japan Tourism in Toyako," http://www.hbc.jp/g8/eng/news/news20071001.html.

94 HBC G8: Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008 (September 13, 2007), "What effect with Prime Minister Abe's resignation have on the Toyako summit?" http://www.hbc.jp/g8/eng/news/news20070913.html.

95 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (September 3, 2007), "Japan sets asides funds for 2008 G8 summit."

96 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

97 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

98 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

99 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 28, 2007), "Japan finance minister to visit India, Vietnam in January."

100 Nikkei Report, (September 14, 2007), "Japan's Prime Minister To Miss NY Climate Meet, UN Assembly."

101 Kyodo News (December 28, 2007), "Japan seeks to raise profile as G-8 host but Fukuda's hands tied."

102 Dow Jones International News (December 28, 2007), "Japan PM Fukuda Eyes Cabinet Reshuffle In Mid-January."

103 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Fukuda's study panel on foreign policy to meet next Sunday."

104 Financial Times (November 12, 2007), "Fukuda warns on rapid rise in yen."

105 Jiji Press English News Service (September 12, 2007), "Japan worried over Abe Resignation Impact on Ties with the U.S."

106 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (July 4, 2007), "Establishment of Secretariat for the G8 Summit."

107 Kyodo News (July 1, 2007), "Foreign Ministry sets up preparatory panel as G9 summit liaison."

108 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

109 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

110 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

111 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

112 Kyodo News (December 23, 2007), "Japan to cut ODA budget 4.0%, down for 9th straight year."

113 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (September 3, 2007), "Japan sets asides funds for 2008 G8 summit."

114 Daily Yomiuri (December 31, 2007), "Govt to keep 'hooligans' away from G-8 summit."

115 The Western Mail (December 21, 2007), "Welsh technology to help protect Japan G8 summit."

116 Kyodo News (December 10, 2007), "NPA warns against possible terrorism, riots before G-8 summit."

117 Jiji Press English News Service (December 10, 2007), "Japan Resolved to Prevent Terror Attacks on G-8 Summit."

118 Kyodo News (August 12, 2007), "Japan, German police cooperate on security for G8 summit in Hokkaido."

119 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (July 14, 2007), "Japan coast guard holds drill in preparation for 2008 G8 summit."

120 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (July 3, 2007), "Japan HQ for ensuring 2008 G8 summit security starts work."

121 Kyodo News (July 2, 2007), "Japan police begin work to devise G8 summit policing plans."

122 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

123 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

124 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

125 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

126 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (December 21, 2007), "Tokyo to offer foreign reporters tour of S uriles before G8 summit."

127 Jiji Press English News Service (September 5, 2007), "Japan Planning Media Relations Training before G8 Summit."

128 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (September 4, 2007), "G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit (Location of the International Media Center)."

129 Kyodo News (June 18, 2007), "Media center for G8 summit to be set up in Rusutsu Resort."

130 Kyodo News (May 19, 2007), "Japan to host G8 summit next year from July 7-9: Abe," accessed: May 22, 2007: http://home.kyodo.co.jp/modules/fstStory/index.php?storyid=315544.

131 Kyodo News (November 1, 2007), "Japan to host G-8 lower house speakers' meeting in Hiroshima."

132 Japanese Government (2007), "the Japan G8 Presidency in 2008: Locations of Ministers Meetings," Available in the G8 Information Centre archives.

133 MOFA (May 29, 2007), "Announcement of the Schedule of the G8 Ministerial and other Meetings in 2008," accessed July 3, 2007, http://www.mofa.go.jp/announce/event/2007/5/1173657_848.html.

134 Mainichi News (May 19, 2007), "Japan to hold 2008 G8 summit on July 7-9," accessed May 22, 2007: http://mdn.mainichi-msn.co.jp/business/news/20070519p2g00m0bu019000c.html

135 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

136 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

137 Kyodo News (April 23, 2007), "G8 ministerial meetings set in Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Niigata."

138 Kyodo News (December 28, 2007), "G-7 to meet Feb. 9 to discuss subprime crisis, oil prices."

139 Reuters News (December 10, 2007), "G7 plan Tokyo meeting on Feb 8-G7 sources."

140 Kyodo News (October 15, 2007), "G7 to vow to collaborate in dealing with credit market crunch."

141 Dow Jones International News (October 15, 2007), "Japan Nukaga: G7 To Discuss World Economy, FX, Markets."

142 AFX International Focus (October 15, 2007), "US to call for restrictions on sovereign wealth funds at G7 meeting."

143 Dow Jones International News (October 15, 2007), "Japan Sakakibara: G7 Unlikely to Block Euro's Rise."

144 Dow Jones International News (October 15, 2007), "Japan Sakakibara: G7 Unlikely to Block Euro's Rise."

145 Reuters News (October 12, 2007), "FSF to brief G7 market crisis report-Germany."

146 Reuters News (October 12, 2007), "FSF to brief G7 market crisis report-Germany."

147 Dow Jones International News (October 12, 2007), "German Deputy Fin Min: market Turmoil G7 Topic."

148 Dow Jones International News (September 28, 2007), "G7 Divided on Adding Dollar to Oct 20 Communique-Sources."

149 AFX International Focus (September 27, 2007), "Japan's new finance chief says important to work on market stability at G7."

150 Dow Jones International News (September 27, 2007), "Japan MOF Nukaga: Want G7 to Work Toward Stabilizing Markets."

151 New Zealand Press Association (September 27, 2007), "Turkish Bond Lifts Sentiment, Stress Elsewhere."

152 Dow Jones International News (September 27, 2007), "Japan Nukaga: G7 to Work Toward Stabilizing Markets."

153 New Zealand Press Association (September 27, 2007), "FOREX Debate Unlikely at G7-Japan's Nukaga."

154 Kyodo News (September 21, 2007), "G7 to debate ways to stabilize financial markets."

155 Jiji Press English News Service (September 14, 2007), "G7 to Seek Financial Experts Advice on Subprime Woes."

156 AFX International Focus (September 2, 2007), "Japanese finance minister says G7 should learn lessons from US credit woes."

157 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (July 17, 2007), "First Liaison Meeting for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit 2008."

158 Kyodo News (November 1, 2007), "G-8 energy ministers to meet in Amori June 7-8."

159 ITAR-TASS World Service (December 25, 2007), "Japan to arrange G8 ecology ministers meeting."

160 Associated Press Newswires (May 10, 2007), "Japan picks far-flung cities for ministerial meetings during 2008 G8 summit."

161 Agence France Presse (December 31, 2007), "Japan FM cancels trip to riot-hit Kenya."

162 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 28, 2007), "Japan foreign minister to visit Kenya, Tanzania 2-7 January."

163 Kyodo News (December 14, 2007), "World Bank exec urges Japan to enhance aid to Africa."

164 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

165 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Fukuda promises Zoellick cooperation with 'second World Bank.'"

166 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 4, 2007), "Japan's foreign aid white paper to focus on global warming issues."

167 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

168 Agence France Presse (November 24, 2007), "Japan's G8 to focus on global health: foreign minister."

169 Kyodo News (November 15, 2007), "Japan launches secretariat to prepare for Africa conference in May."

170 The Korea Herald (September 28, 2007), "EU proposes 30% emission cut by 2020."

171 The Press and Information Office of the Federal Government of Germany (September 9, 2007), "Gleneagles Dialogue - Third meeting of the Energy and Environment Ministers."

172 Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet (Accessed October 15, 2007), <http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/index-e.html>

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