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Japan's 2008 G8:
Plans for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit

Jenilee Guebert
Senior Researcher, G8 Research Group
March 14, 2008


This report on "Japan's 2008 G8: Plans for the Hokkaido-Toyako Summit" is compiled by the G8 Research Group largely from public sources as an aid to researchers and other stakeholders interested in the 2008 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit. It will be updated periodically as plans for the 2008 Summit evolve, and as more information becomes available about Japan's plans. It continues, under a more accurate name, the earlier report on "Japan's 2008 Agenda," which now includes material on the physical summit, Japan's internal preparations and G8 ministerial meetings.


Introduction: Japan's 2008 G8

Japan will host the G8's 2008 Summit from July 7-9, 2008 at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Toyako, Hokkaido in northern Japan. The world economy, climate change, development and Africa, and nonproliferation and political issues should be a prominent part of the Japanese focus.

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Agenda: The Policy Summit

Japan has said it wants to put global health high on the agenda of the G8 summit to be held in July amid concerns that the world will not meet the UN Millennium Development Goals.1 (February 28, 2008, Agence France Presse)

Sustainable forest management will be a key issue for the Japanese G8 presidency, according to PM Fukuda at the Climate Change Forum in Basillia.2 (February 22, 2008, Thai News Service)

Fukuda announced during his address at the World Economic Forum in Davos that the world economy, climate change, and development and Africa would all be key issues addressed at the upcoming G8 summit in July.3 (January 26, 2008, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Prime Minister Fukuda planned to use the World Economic Forum in Davos to highlight the themes of the upcoming 2008 G8 summit. Among the themes are climate change and development, specifically in Africa.4 (January 19, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Prime Minister Fukuda reaffirmed that climate change and the environment would be at the top of the 2008 G8 Agenda after Japan officially took over the G8 presidency. The other three issues areas to be the focus of the summit are the world economy, development and Africa and political issues such as nuclear non-proliferation and the fight against terrorism.5 (January 1, 2008, Agence France Presse)

In a government report Japan underscored its eagerness to take the lead in helping developing nations fight global warming and facilitating international efforts to support African development as host of the G8 summit and the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in 2008.6 (December 20, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan is set to propose tackling global warming, spurring African development, preventing nuclear proliferation and addressing high oil prices and other economic issues as four key topics for the Group of Eight nations to discuss at the summit next July in Hokkaido.7 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda vowed that water and climate change would be at the top of the agenda for the Group of Eight summit in northern Japan next summer.8 (December 5, 2007, The Australian)

The Japanese government has indicated three major topics for discussion at the 2008 G8 Summit which they will host in July: nuclear non-proliferation - including discussion on North Korea and Iran, Climate Change and African development.9 (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

With CO2 emissions rising rapidly in Japan, pushing forward climate change measures will be a key agenda for Japan, as the chair of the G8 summit in 2008.10 (November 1, 2007, Associated Press Newswires)

Newly elected Prime Minister Fukuda announced that he would like to take up the issues of global warming as one of the main topics at the G8 summit in Hokkaido's Lake Toya hot-spring resort area next year. 11 (October 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Japanese summit will focus on global warming and African development. See also "Japan Selects Hokkaido for 2008 Summit."12 (April 16, 2007, Agence France Presse, among other sources)

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World Economy

After outlining the agenda for the upcoming G8 summit in Japan, Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda said, "The risk of the global economy taking a downward turn is increasing. We do need to have a sense of urgency as we engage in coordinated actions while each country also implements necessary domestic response measures."13 (January 26, 2008, Associated Press Newswires)

In his address to the World Economic Forum in Davos, Prime Minister Fukuda indicated that he believes it is necessary for the G8 leaders to discuss the "21st century-style crisis" aspect of the global economy and financial markets. He indicated that a "swift response is absolutely imperative" and that "it is critical to nip in the bud potential credit crunches resulting from diminished capitalization among financial institutions."14 (January 26, 2008, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Concerning the recent turmoil in the global financial markets, Fukuda was expected to express high appreciation for the latest package of economic-stimulus measures proposed by the U.S. in response to the worldwide plunge in stock values, and promise that these issues would be substantially discussed at the G8 summit in Japan. He was expected to deliver a clear message that Japan would formulate and carry out specific economic growth strategies. 15 (January 25, 2008, Daily Yomiuri)

Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda has indicated the global economy needs to be discussed at the upcoming G8 summit in July. "I would like to have discussions about the stability of financial markets, high crude oil prices and other global economic problems," Fukuda said.16 (January 21, 2008, Dow Jones International News)

The G8 leaders are expected to study measures to strengthen policy coordination to better cope with surging and volatile oil prices, and to cushion their impact on the world economy.17 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Climate Change

The Japanese government hopes to win agreement for its plan on global warming at the G8 summit this summer. The plan has eight major proposals to curb global warming and will be presented at a March meeting in Bangkok of an ad hoc working group of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP). In its proposal, the Japanese government has identified eight sectors subsequently broken down into various industries. For example, one sector covers industries that consume huge amounts of energy, such as steel, chemicals, cement, paper and pulp and aluminum. Carbon dioxide emission reduction goals will be established based on indicators for each industry. Taking the steel industry as an example, calculations will be made on how much emissions can be reduced to produce a ton of crude steel if highly energy-efficient technology is used. The overall annual emission goal for the entire steel industry would be calculated based on the projected crude steel production volume. Another proposal in the government plan calls for a "peaking out" of global emissions over the next 10 to 20 years. Critics said it would be difficult to achieve that midterm objective under the sector-specific approach. The plan also calls for a cooperative framework that would facilitate the transfer of energy conservation technology to developing nations. While the Kyoto Protocol only set emissions reduction obligations for advanced nations, the government plan calls on all major emitters, including China and India, to be included in the post-Kyoto protocol. The plan calls for a gradual increase in the reduction goals as those nations' economies develop. A provision will be included to allow developing nations to "graduate" to the next stage of development and apply reduction objectives that are closer to those of advanced nations. China and other developing nations expressed interest in the proposal for transfers of energy conservation technology. Interest was also shown by European Union nations.18 (March 7, 2008, The International Herald Tribune)

Japan has will hold a gathering to discuss global warming on the sidelines of the G8 summit this summer. In addition to the G8, the participants for the talks will come from China, India, South Africa, South Korea, Brazil, Mexico, Australia and Indonesia. The 16 countries account for about 80 percent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. The Japanese government, as chair of the G8 summit, hopes to produce a common understanding on a global framework for curbing greenhouse gas emissions after the commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012.19 (February 29, 2008, The International Herald Tribune)

Japan has invited leaders of eight countries, including China, India and South Korea, to attend an outreach session on climate change to be held on the fringe of this year's G8 summit. The Japanese government believes that it is necessary to invite emerging countries to the climate change meeting because their greenhouse gas emissions are rapidly increasing in line with strong expansion of their economies. The five other countries being invited to the outreach session are Indonesia, Australia, Mexico, Brazil and South Africa. The 16 countries, including the G8 members, also comprise the Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change, a U.S.-proposed initiative for combating global warming. 20 (February 28, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

The G8 will discuss country-by-country medium-term greenhouse gas reduction targets this summer, according to a senior Japanese official. Japanese sherpa Kono said medium-term reduction goals need to be agreed on not by Japan alone but by all members. In January, Fukuda proposed improving energy efficiency by 30% worldwide by 2020 as a medium-term goal.21 (February 19, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda and UK Prime Minister Brown have agreed to cooperation on climate change at the upcoming G8 summit in July. Fukuda was quotes as telling Brown that Japan will aim to bring the different positions among G8 members together as much as possible to find ways to curb global warming and make progress towards the creation of an effective post-Kyoto framework.22 (February 12, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government is planning to co-host a meeting of major economies to address climate change in combination with the G8 summit in July. It is apparently a U.S. led initiative, which is being held with the hope of increasing productivity from non-G8 members. This does not mean that non-G8 members will not be invited to the summit—it will be in addition to any such efforts. European nations, Japan, China, India, the EU and the UN will all be involved. Certain government officials are asking that the climate gathering be held after and not concurrent to the G8 as they are concerned that the meeting would steal attention away fro the summit. Time schedules, however, may be the determining factor.23 (February 21, 2008, Asia Pulse)

Japan should look at cutting greenhouse emissions by even more than the 50 percent by 2050 sought by the last Group of Eight summit, Japan's environment minister has said. "A 50 percent reduction by countries including developed nations has been advocated but it is common sense that developed countries aim for deeper cuts," environment minister Ichiro Kamoshita indicated. Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda also told a parliamentary committee that Japan may need to do more. "Our country will halve emissions in 2050 as they peak out in 20-30 years," he said. "If other countries cannot halve them, Japan may have to do extra efforts on their behalf." Fukuda, speaking to the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland called for every emitter to set an emissions cut target from 2013 and for the United States and China both to take part in a post-Kyoto framework. Fukuda also called for a change in the base year to calculate cuts from the current 1990.24 (January 29, 2008, Agence France Presse)

While at the World Economic Forum in Switzerland, Fukuda continued to indicate that climate change would be a "top priority" at the 2008 G8 summit and that he would press for a new global agreement with "fair and equitable" emissions targets involving "all major emitters."25 (January 26, 2008, Agence France Presse)

While at Davos, Japan presented a $10 billion package to help emerging countries tackle climate change without risking growth. The five-year "Cool Earth Partnership" fund, financed publicly and privately, will set aside up to $8 billion for assistance in climate change mitigation, and up to $2 billion for grants, aid and technical assistance for countries switching to clean energy. "There is no time to lose in addressing climate change," Fukuda said. "We will extend the hand of assistance to developing countries suffering severe adverse impacts as a result of climate change." Fukuda said the G8 would be committed to work on climate issues but must include emerging countries in the discussion. Fukuda's climate proposals included a global target to improve energy efficiency by 30% by 2020.26 (January 26, 2008, Reuters News)

It appears that Japan is going to push for a post-1990 baseline for greenhouse emission cuts in a post-Kyoto deal as chair of the G8 summit in July, according to Prime Minister Fukuda. Changing the baseline is being done in the hope of encouraging countries like India and China, whose emissions shot up between 1990 and 2000, to sign on to an agreement. "As chair of the G8 summit, I am resolved to take on the responsibility in working towards the establishment of a framework in which all major emitters participate, as well as the setting of fair and equitable emissions targets," Fukuda said. "In order to ensure a peaking-out of global greenhouse gas emissions, it is absolutely essential to create a mechanism in which everyone participates, including, inter alia, all major emitters." Fukuda also called for a new global target of a 30 percent improvement in energy efficiency by 2020 and announced a 10 billion dollar (seven billion euro) fund to help developing countries reduce emissions and cope with the impact of climate change.27 (January 26, 2008, Agence France Presse)

In Davos at the World Economic Forum, Prime Minister Fukuda presented his "Cool Earth Promotion Programme." It was composed of three parts: a post-Kyoto framework, International Environment Cooperation and Innovation. In terms of the post-Kyoto framework, he indicated that all countries need to reach their global greenhouse gas emissions peak at soon as possible and start working towards halving their emissions. As part of the International Environment Cooperation, Fukuda proposed a global target of 30% improvement on energy efficiency by 2020 and a new financial mechanism to help developing countries, termed the "Cool Earth Partnership." He noted that the U.S. and Britain had already agreed to the mechanism and hoped others would sign on as well. In respect to the Innovation, Fukuda proposed that the leaders "formulate an international framework through which [they] could collaborate closely with international agencies such as the IEA to accelerate technology development and share the frit of such efforts." He reiterated that the Japanese plan to use carbon offsets at the 2008 G8 summit, and asked that the G8 leaders cooperate with him on his "Cool Earth Promotion Programme" when they meet in July.28 (January 26, 2008, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Prime Minister Fukuda planned to propose in his speech in Davos that the world's energy efficiency should be improved by 30% before 2020 as an interim means to stop global warming. According to the prime minister's planned speech, he was going to demand the establishment of country-by-country numeric targets for reducing greenhouse gases and that they be set via a bottom-up method, by which each country could survey its industrial and other sectors on how much emissions should be reduced. According to an early draft of his speech, Fukuda was going to reconfirm the country's long-term goal to combat global warming as a means of helping to halve worldwide greenhouse gas emissions before 2050—part of his predecessor Shinzo Abe's "Cool Earth 50" initiative.29 (January 25, 2008, Daily Yomiuri)

The Japanese government plans to unveil a package of measures at the G8 to help developing countries combat global warming and infectious diseases. A major pillar of the initiative will be a program to train future "environment leaders" who will lead the charge in solving water pollution and other environmental problems. Extending a hand to joint international environmental conservation studies with developing countries will be another focus of the package.30 (January 21, 2008, Daily Yomiuri)

Prime Minister Fukuda will likely propose, at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland and at the G8 Summit in Hokkaido, Japan, that country-based targets for cutting greenhouse gas emissions from 2013 be set with 2000 or later as the base year rather than 1990 in a bid to lower the hurdles for major emitters such as China and India.31 (January 20, 2008, Kyodo News)

At the World Economic Forum in Davos, Fukuda was expected to focus on global warming in anticipation of hosting the upcoming G8 summit. Post 2012 emissions targets and an aid package intended to help developing countries were at the core. Under the aid package, Japan would help approximately 40 countries including China and India reduce greenhouse gas emissions with energy-saving technology, work to prevent natural disasters linked to global warming and shift use to more renewable energy sources such as solar power. The Japanese hope that the other G8 leaders will sign on to the package and be able to announce a dollar-specific figure for the aid at the summit. It was also suggested that Fukuda might touch on the importance of setting a medium-term global greenhouse gas reduction goal. 32 (January 19, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Prime Minister Fukuda planned to unveil a set of specific carbon emissions reduction goal for Japan beyond the 2012 expiration of the Kyoto Protocol in his planned speech on January 26 in Davos, Switzerland. Fukuda planned to focus on the 'sectoral approach' where households, industrial sectors and other entities set individual reduction goals and contribute to cuts in overall carbon emissions. Industry circles were expected to voice opposition to Fukuda's plan to set an emissions reduction goal beyond 2012. But foreign and environment ministry officials have said that unless Japan shows its post-Kyoto reduction goal, the nation would find it difficult to exercise leadership as the host of the G8 summit in July.33 (January 17, 2008, Kyodo News)

Japan plans to use green energy for lighting and air conditioning at the G8 summit in July. The government is planning to buy a Green Power Certificate (GPC) with the hope of promoting environmentally conscious management among leaders of the participating countries. The GPC system was launched in 2000 to encourage the use of eco-friendly energy such as solar and wind power, which do not emit greenhouse gases. Though GPC purchasers actually consume regular electricity, they pay the difference in cost between regular electricity and natural energy, receiving certificates stating they have "used" eco-friendly energy. It is estimated that about 250,000 kilowatts of electricity will be consumed at the hotel where the meeting is to be held and at an international media center where more than 1,000 journalists are expected to gather during and prior to the summit. This is equivalent to about 800 average households in a month. The government is expected to pay about 2 million yen for its green certificate and they are thinking about using the GPC system for the ministerial meetings as well. The government is also planning to use "biogasoline" to power the vehicles used to transport leaders and government delegates of the G8.34 (January 16, 2008, Daily Yomiuri)

Fukuda was expected to express his active involvement in the greenhouse gas issue in a policy speech delivered at the start of Japan's new parliamentary session. With climate change expected to be a focal point at the G8 summit in July Fukuda highlighted a 1 trillion yen five-year support program that the government is considering for developing economies.35 (January 12, 2008, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda has decided to attend and deliver a keynote speech on global warming at a session of the World Economic Forum that will get under way from January 23 in the Swiss resort of Davos. In the speech, Fukuda will express Japan's determination to take a leadership role in the international community's efforts in the areas of the environment and energy in light of the G8 summit to be hosted by Japan in July. Fukuda wants to communicate a strong message to the global community with regard to international efforts to limit emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. It is customary for the leader of the country hosting the annual G8 summit to deliver a keynote speech at the annual Davos gathering. Last year, German Chancellor Angela Merkel used the Davos forum to call attention to the need to combat global warming prior to the G8 summit in the German resort of Heiligendamm. Fukuda is likely to unveil Japanese proposals connected to the issue of global warming, including a framework arrangement to help developing countries curb greenhouse gas emissions.36 (January 5, 2008, Kyodo News)

Japanese finance minister Nukaga and Indian ministers from various portfolios exchanged views on measures to cut greenhouse gas emissions and technological cooperation in the area of the environment as a step to prepare for the G8 summit, July 7-9 in Hokkaido.37 (January 4, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda is planning a "global climate change" summit immediately before the G8 leaders meet and has reportedly invited the leaders of China, India, South Korea and Indonesia.38 (January 1, 2008, Agence France Presse)

Japan will accept numerical targets to cut global warming emissions in a new climate change pact, reversing its stance which came under fire at this month's U.N.-led talks over the deal. Japan plans to present a proposal to divide nations into not only developed and developing countries, but also into a third group, which would include China and India, and set targets for each group. Japan is also planning to set up a five-year, $10 billion "finance mechanism" to back up developing nations' efforts to tackle global warming with low-interest loans.39 (December 29, 2007, Reuters News)

Japan is considering pursuing tougher numerical targets for national emissions cuts in an international pact to fight global warming after the current Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012, Japanese government sources said. Potential emissions cuts would be determined for each sector in reference to the volume of emissions for 1 ton of product. National targets would then be proposed after aggregating the volumes of emissions cuts for each industrial sector in a country, according to the sources. Japan would expect all G8 countries to agree to the proposal at the upcoming summit.40 (December 27, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan and the United States are considering convening a leaders' summit of major carbon emitters and a U.S.-led meeting of major emitters ahead of the Group of Eight summit next July in Japan, according to Japanese government sources. Holding the two meetings concurrently in Japan, the two countries plan to take the lead in building a long-term global goal of ''halving greenhouse gas emissions by 2050'' as a ''joint conclusion'' of the U.S.-led talks and the G8 summit, the sources said. Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda and U.S. President George W. Bush have agreed to this bilateral initiative, and the two nations have begun working-level talks on a plan to hold the ''Environment and Energy Summit'' of G8 leaders and their partners from other carbon emitters and the U.S.-led ''Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change'' ahead of the G8 summit in Hokkaido.41 (December 23, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan is considering extending about 500 billion yen ($4.5 billion) over five years, possibly starting next year, to about 40 developing countries that have expressed their intention to help address climate change by implementing energy-saving targets or specific action plans, Japanese government sources said. With the Japan-led ''financial mechanism'' on climate change for developing countries, Tokyo is poised to take the lead in negotiations to craft a global framework to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which will expire in 2012, especially in the run-up to the Group of Eight summit in Hokkaido next July. Japan will ask its G8 peers to join the fund so that it can announce specific programs in the initiative and the amount of funds involved as a tangible result of the G8 summit.42 (December 8, 2007, Kyodo News)

Climate change will be the top agenda item of the summit. The leaders will focus their discussion on whether they can pave the way for an effective global framework to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which will expire in 2012, according to Japanese sources. Critics say the Kyoto pact is not effective as it controls only 30 percent of the world's carbon emissions and does not cover major emitters such as the United States, China and India. The G8 leaders will also discuss their earlier pledge to ''consider seriously'' halving carbon emissions by 2050 from current levels as a starting point. The leaders made the pledge, based on a proposal by then Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, at the G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany, in June, 2007.43 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan's 2007 White Paper on Official Development Assistance reflects their determination to take the lead in the international process to form a post-2012 framework on climate change as host of the Group of Eight summit and the Tokyo International Conference on African Development next year. It requests aid for fighting global warming such as by emission cuts and forest conservation.44 (December 4, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government appointed Mutsuyoshi Nishimura, former ambassador on global environment, to the newly created post of special advisor to the Cabinet on climate change issues, Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimura said. ''This [was done] to demonstrate [Japan's] stance that [they] will work with all [their] might on environment issues, which will be a major theme of the Group of Eight summit'' to be held in Hokkaido, Japan, in July.45 (December 3, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan, who will be hosting the 2008 G8 Summit, was expected to take the lead in post-Kyoto discussions at the U.N. climate change conference in Bali, Indonesia. Japan has stressed the importance of having the United States and China - the two biggest carbon emitters - agree to a post-Kyoto deal. It is crucial that all developed nations sign on to any new agreement, if there is any hope that developing countries are to commit as well.46 (November 27, 2007, Kyodo News)

Regarding climate change, Japan has indicated that it will address long-term goals and a new framework for cutting the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming at the 2008 G8 Summit. The government has also indicated that it will invite newly emerging economies such as China and India to attend the summit meeting, and seek to build consensus among participating countries for the formulation of a post-Kyoto Protocol framework.47 (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

As host of the 2008 G8 summit, Japan is eager to take leadership in building international consensus for a post-2012 framework on reducing emissions and tackling global warming after the current Kyoto Protocol expires. Japan has proposed setting up a new mechanism to provide incentives for developing countries to work on cutting emissions, such as by improving energy efficiencies, without affecting economic growth.48 (November 21, 2007, Kyodo News)

During a bilateral meeting, Japan and the United States agreed to collaborate to ''make tangible progress toward the establishment of an effective framework'' in the post-2012 period at the 2008 G8 summit that Japan will host in Hokkaido's Lake Toya hot-spring resort area.49 (November 16, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan wants to play a leadership role on environmental issues, as they will be hosting the 2008 G8 summit, where global warming is expected to be a top agenda item.50 (November 15, 2007, Reuters News)

Pushing forward climate change measures will remain a key agenda for Japan. In light of rising CO2 emissions, Tokyo has announced a plan of short- and long-term goals to reduce greenhouse gases, and is also calling for a new global warming pact to succeed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.51

Prime Minister Fukuda and Chancellor Merkel agreed to cooperate on climate change at the G8 summit in Japan in July 2008. Fukuda stressed the need to create "an effective international framework" in which all major greenhouse gas emitters, such as the U.S., China and India, can participate.52 (October 24, 2007, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda urged members of his Cabinet to plan "powerful and concrete" measures to allow Japan to attain its greenhouse gas emissions reduction goal under the Kyoto Protocol. Fukuda said, "If we cannot come up with a plan to realize with certainty the 6% reduction goalÉwe will not be able to present a convincing argument at next year's G8 summit in Hokkaido." Environment minister Ichiro Kamoshita called for "the introduction of an environment tax and the promotion of a nationwide movement to tackle global warming, while Economy, Trade and Industry minister Akira Amari propose the reinforcement of voluntary action plans in the industrial sector."53 (October 18, 2007, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda said he expects Australia to adopt a "positive stance" on addressing global warming, which will be a major item at the G8 summit in Japan in July.54 (October 12, 2007, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda plans to take over Abe's plans to halve greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Fukuda said that he plans to take up the global warming issue as one of the main topics at the G8 summit in Hokkaido's Lake Toya hot-spring resort area next year. 55 (October 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

The US floated the idea of liberalizing trade in environmentally friendly goods during high-level bilateral talks on climate change on August 8 in Tokyo. Japan and the United States are planning to propose the "Tariff Elimination Initiative for Climate Change," which is aimed at "fighting global warming through the expansion of trade in energy-saving products that Japan excels in." According to Japanese government sources, energy-saving products will include fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, hydroelectric power generators, solar power hot-water heaters, solar cells, and wind power generators.56 (September 26, 2007, Kyodo News)

Because a new Liberal Democratic Party president was to be selected on September 23, 2007, former prime minister Abe was unable to attend meetings on climate change in New York on September 24 (as well as the United National General Assembly the following day). The former prime minister was to attend the meetings in order to prepare for the upcoming discussions at the 2008 G8 summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.57 (September 14, 2007, Nikkei Report)

With Japanese Prime Minister Abe stepping down, sources suggested that there may be a need to review G8 strategy for the 2008 summit. Abe had proposed cutting global greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2050, and it was likely to be included in discussions on climate change at the summit.58 (September 12, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

"[Former] Japanese Prime Minister Abe and Russian President Putin agreed that the two countries should cooperate in creating a framework to deal with global warming beyond 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. The international community is stepping up efforts to build a post-Kyoto framework that will be effective and include all major greenhouse gas emitters notably China, India and the United States."59 (September 8, 2007, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

German Chancellor Merkel said Japan, as host of next year's Group of Eight summit of industrialized countries, would take centre stage in the effort to promote a plan to cut emissions of so-called greenhouse gases by 50 percent by 2050." Japan had announced an 'Abe Initiative,' after the former prime minister, of short- and long term goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and was also calling for a new global warming pact to succeed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.60 (August 29, 2007, Associated Press Newswires)

UN official Yvo de Boer believes Japan is in a key position to tackle climate change. ''I think that the Japanese presidency of the G8 can help to develop that concept and get a clearer understanding of what G8 countries are willing and able to do to help developing countries act on climate change,'' he noted. As Japan was instrumental in the creation of the environmental protocol, de Boer said he expects that the Japanese can utilize their political leverage when they host the G8 summit in Hokkaido, July 7-9.61 (August 23, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan officials met with officials in India to discuss global warming. According to officials, discussions such as this can be expected to increase as Japan gets closer to the G8 presidency.62 (August 20, 2007, Kyodo News)

German Chancellor Merkel was in Japan from August 29-31 to visit former Japanese prime minister Abe. Ministry officials said that "Merkel is scheduled to hold talks with [former prime minister] Abe [on August 29] on issues such as global warming, which will be a major topic at next year's Group of Eight summit in Japan."63 (August 6, 2007, Kyodo News)

Climate change is likely to dominate the agenda at the 2008 Japan-hosted Summit.64 (August 2, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Japan, under former prime minister Abe's administration, has been stepping up efforts to strengthen talks on climate change with emerging economies such as India and China that are among major greenhouse gas emitters, ahead of hosting next year's G8 Summit meeting in Japan.65 (August 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan posted former prime minister Abe`s New Proposal on Climate Change, "Cool Earth 50." In the proposal the former PM Abe stresses that "Through the measures I have described, I am determined to exert my utmost efforts to tackle the issue of global warming together with the people of Japan. It is my sincere hope that each and every country, be it an industrialized or developing country, will accept my invitation and walk together towards the "Cool Earth" in 2050." Abe goes on to say, "I will continue my efforts based on my proposals, and aim to produce fruit at the G8 Summit in Toyako, Hokkaido, next year. I ask for your understanding and cooperation in this endeavor."66 (August 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

The Japanese decided to propose introducing an ''energy use efficiency'' index as a new international framework to tackle global warming before next year's Group of Eight summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.67 (July 9, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan will continue the climate change debate when it hosts the summit in 2008. According to former Japanese Prime Minister Abe, "The achievement at the Heiligendamm summit will be a precious base for next year's summit... From this base, we want to make an effort to show big results."68 (June 8, 2007, Agence France Presse)

The communiqué from the 2007 summit indicated that "To maintain the momentum of our commitment to the [Global Energy Security Principles, we] will prepare national reports, with the assistance of the IEA, evaluating G8 member states' efforts to adhere to those principles, for delivery at the 2008 G8 summit.69 (June 8, 2007)

The 2007 G8 communiqué states that the following commitments will be reviewed at the 2008 summit in Japan: "enhancing resiliency to climate variability and climate change in a way that fully supports our common goal of sustainable development; our willingness to continue and enhance cooperation with and support for developing countries in adapting to climate change and enhancing their resilience to climate variability, in particular those most vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change; our willingness to work with developing countries on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation measures to help integrating them in national development planning; our commitment to assist with climate research and risk assessments including through helping developing countries benefit from satellite observation systems; [our] endeavour under the Montreal Protocol to ensure the recovery of the ozone layer by accelerating the phase-out of HCFCs in a way that supports energy efficiency and climate change objectives; [and the continued exercising of leadership in the development of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)."70 (June 8, 2007)

Japanese "Prime Minister Abe will ask his cabinet ministers to develop a package of proposals to present to next year's Group of Eight summit of world leaders which Japan will host. According to a foreign ministry official, Japanese government ministers will "discuss proposals on a new framework that will ensure participation by the United States and China, the world's largest greenhouse-gas emitters."71 (March 20, 2007, Agence France Presse)

Former Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stated that he will lead discussions of environmental protection and climate change in Heiligendamm, where it will be a major topic.72 Jiji Press English News Service also reported that "Environmental issues will remain at the fore at next year's G8 summit in Japan, where attendees are seen to discuss how Japan and other advanced nations should achieve their targets for cutting greenhouse gas emissions set out in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. A post-Kyoto Protocol framework for tackling global warming will also likely be on the agenda at the 2008 summit among Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States," Abe said.73 (February 18, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

In the G8 leaders' 2005 official document on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development, the text read "We welcome Japan's offer to receive a report at the G8 Summit in 2008 [to take the sustainable energy dialogue forward]."74 (2005)

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Development and Africa

Japan on Friday pledged a fresh 184 million dollars to combat AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria ahead of hosting a Group of Eight summit set to focus on global health. Japan has said it wants to put global health high on the agenda of the G8 summit to be held in July amid concerns that the world will not meet the UN Millennium Development Goals.75 (February 28, 2008, Agence France Presse)

The Japanese government plans to hold an outreach session on the sidelines of the G8 summit for discussions on African development. They plan to invite seven or eight countries to the meeting, including Tanzania, the current chair of the African Union, and Ethiopia, which chairs the AU-led New Partnership for Africa's Development, or NEPAD, the sources said.76 (February 28, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

Japanese Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura indicated that Japan will share its expertise and technology to help improve access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities in African and other developing countries, and called on the international community for a "strong political commitment." Japan is pushing for such measures as host of both TICAD and the G8 summit this summer.77 (February 22, 2008, Kyodo News)

In relation to putting forward new efforts in the area of African development, Japan is planning to create a fund sometime this year to step up its efforts to help African countries protect and make better use of intellectual property, government sources have indicated. Discussion on this topic will likely arise both at TICAD and the G8 summit.78 (January 26, 2008, Kyodo News)

During his speech at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, Fukuda stated that in the area of development and Africa the G8 will focus on health, water and education. In terms of health, Fukuda indicated that they would focus on mother and child care, as well as on the shortage of health workers. He also noted that there needs to be a stronger cooperation in the area of global health, starting, "[the leaders] must formulate a framework for action to raise the overall level of the health care system, with the participation of all relevant stakeholders, such as international organizations and health policy experts and experience, NGOs active in local communities, civil society groups and private sector entities." In respect to water, Fukuda noted that there needs to be a stronger focus on water-related disasters, safe water supply, and a more effective management of water. On education, Fukuda reiterated the Dakar Education For All goals, which aim at improve quality in basic education.79 (January 26, 2008, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Regarding development and Africa, Fukuda was expected to indicate in his speech at Davos that he intends to discuss public health, water and education issues with other leaders at the G8 summit meeting in July. 80 (January 25, 2008, Daily Yomiuri)

In terms of African development, Fukuda was expected to emphasize the importance of the Millennium Development Goals at the World Economic Forum in Davos. He was also set to urge the acceleration of maternity health improvement and the establishment of measures to deal with infectious diseases in poor countries. These issues are expected to come up again at TICAD and the G8 summit later this year.81 (January 23, 2008, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda planned to focus on development as one of his main priorities at the World Economic Forum in Davos in anticipation of the upcoming G8 summit in Japan. Fukuda was expected to convey Japan's plans to help improve health and medical systems in developing countries in the hope of reducing the mortality rates for infants and pregnant women. Measures would include training doctors, nurses and midwives in developing countries and the introduction in Africa and elsewhere of maternity health record books for mothers and babies. Such record books originated in Japan, and health experts say the notebooks have helped monitor the health conditions of expectant mothers. It has also helped ensure growth in infants. Fukuda also planned to say that Japan would help developing countries offer primary education to all children and build waterworks and sewerage systems as well as irrigation systems.82 (January 19, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese have said that they plan to help in supporting efforts to implement the Sudanese's Comprehensive Peace Agreement as well as contribute over $200 million of aid for peace-building in the region.83 (January 9, 2008, Kyodo News)

In a speech in the Tanzanian capital, Japanese foreign affairs minister Komura indicated Japan's intention to release a mid- to long-term support framework for Africa in May, stressing that if Africa starts to thrive and the world as a whole becomes prosperous, it will have a positive impact on the Japanese economy as well. He also added that Japan will not expect any direct, immediate returns from Africa for its support measures, underlining Japan's stance of strengthening long-term development assistance to the region.84 (January 4, 2008, Kyodo News)

Japan plans to use the upcoming G8 summit to get the world back on track for meeting its UN targets on poverty and disease. The issue of global health is to be raised. And Japanese officials have indicated that "it hopes to share its own experiences after World War II, when it launched nationwide health check-ups through schools and hospitals to build a country that now has the world's longest life expectancy."85 (January 1, 2008, Agence France Presse)

Japan plans to call for a boost in international health cooperation aimed to reduce the mortality rate of infants and to better fight infectious diseases, as part of efforts to spur development in Africa.86 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

With regards to African assistance, the Japanese government plans to discuss issues such as sustainable economic growth on the continent and poverty eradication. The government also plans to reflect the opinions of leaders from about 30 African countries who are due to participate in the fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development, to be held in Yokohama in May. The government hopes to reach agreement on new action guidelines aimed at reducing mortality rates among infants, pregnant women and new mothers, and also on measures to tackle infectious diseases.87 (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

Japan will lead a health drive aiming to get the world back on track in meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals at the G8 Summit in 2008, according to the Japanese foreign minister. He went on to indicate that the G 8 countries were "likely to miss the Millennium Development Goals," at the rate things are currently moving. Focus will be on the promotion of research and development and the strengthening of health systems.88 (November 24, 2007, Agence France Presse)

Only the United Kingdom and Japan are on-track for keeping their promises on aid for Africa, according to Data, a London-based development pressure group, that estimates an extra $6.2 billion in aid for Africa is needed this year alone to keep the G8 on track towards its 2010 targets.89 (October 14, 2007, Financial Times)

Japan is being forced to look more closely at its role in providing Africa with aid in light of the looming G8 Summit.90 (August 21, 2007, The International Herald Tribune)

The World Bank pledged to work closely with Japan in providing aid to poverty stricken countries, alongside the G8. "There are many things that the World Bank and Japan can do together," Zoellick was quoted as telling Omi.91 (August 8, 2007, Agence France Presse)

Former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe asked government ministries and agencies to concert their efforts to make a success out of an international conference on economic development in Africa scheduled for May next year in Yokohama near Tokyo. Abe said at the outset of the first meeting of Cabinet ministers related to the African development conference, "We should take the initiative in the development of Africa and build on the results (of the Yokohama meeting) during the Group of Eight industrialized nations' economic summit meeting to be held near Lake Toya in Hokkaido.''92 (August 6, 2007, Kyodo News)

In light of their future head role over the G8, the World Bank will seek out Japan's help in fighting global issues, including the reinforcement of aid to Africa. During his first visit to Japan since he became the World Bank president at the start of this month, Zoellick told reporters that he "will seek Tokyo's additional cooperation in efforts to reinforce assistance to Africa." Zoellick stressed that both climate change and the developing countries should both be on the Japanese G8 agenda. However, he went on to state that, 'If Japan wants to stress the climate change agenda, "it should also stress its African development agenda."93 (July 25, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

The Heiligendamm communiqué noted, "On a high-level meeting in fall 2007, the G8 presidency will monitor the progress towards [Strengthening Financial Markets in Africa] and if necessary identify the need for additional action until the next Summit [in Japan].94 (June 8, 2007)

Following a meeting in Tokyo between Italian Prime Minister Prodi (who will host the summit in 2009) and former Japanese Prime Minister Abe, Abe stated, "As both our countries will be chairing these summits, cooperation is essential. The issues to be taken up at the G8 summit meeting are long term issues."95 Prodi stated that "It is necessary to build a joint policy towards Africa... Africa is developing economically amid globalisation. We have up until now discussed major environmental and human disasters in Africa at our G8 meetings... Africa is developing economically amid globalisation."96 (April 16, 2007, Agence France Presse)

A senior official from Germany announced that Germany will not focus on debt relief and increased aid to Africa, stating that the 2005 report of the Commission for Africa left the issue to be taken up again by the Japanese G8 presidency in 2008.97 (November 18, 2006)

"In [2008], Japan will be Chair of the G8 and host the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development — a 5-yearly gathering of African leaders and their development partners. Africa will be in the spotlight again." 98 (According to a report by Julius Court, of the Overseas Development Institute)

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Nonproliferation

During planned discussions on nuclear weapons non-proliferation the Japanese government plans to touch upon the situation around the Korean Peninsula and Iran. They also intend to propose discussions on the creation of a more effective system blocking the spread of weapons of mass destruction on the planet.99 (December 21, 2007, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

G8 leaders will likely reaffirm coordination to prevent an outflow of nuclear technology from countries such as Iran and North Korea, according to Japanese sources. And because the summit will be held in Japan, Tokyo is considering sending a strong message to the international community about the importance of promoting disarmament and ensuring nonproliferation, as Japan is the sole country to have suffered from nuclear attacks in World War II.100 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

As a neighbour of North Korea, the Japanese government has decided to make nuclear nonproliferation issues a key issue in the summit. Europe and the United States have also have expressed strong concern over nonproliferation issues involving Iran. The government is planning to use the summit to show that it is taking the initiative to establish a new disarmament and nonproliferation regime, in line with the wishes of the international community.101 (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

"Japan plans to discuss compiling international safety guidelines for nuclear power plants with other members of the Group of Eight nations, with an eye to reaching agreement at next year's G8 summit in Hokkaido, government sources said... The guidelines are expected to include assistance from the G8 nations on techniques for safety inspections and maintenance, as well as stipulating training for local staff and unified regulations on management in order to prevent the transfer or leakage of technologies or nuclear-related materials."102 (May 20, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

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Political Issues

The Japanese government will not immediately recognize Kosovo's independence because it wants to avoid an issue that splits the major leaders in the world, according to government officials. The issue, however, is likely to be discussed at the summit.103 (February 15, 2008, Agence France Presse)

Japanese prime minister Fukuda vowed Afghanistan foreign minister Dadfar Spanta to continue Japan's support for Afghanistan's reconstruction while expressing Japan's willingness to work, as chair of the G8 summit later this year, to coordinate the international community's efforts to help Afghanistan.104 (February 4, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

As a Japanese law authorizing assistance in Afghanistan came to an end, the country has decided to take steps to continue its efforts. Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimura said he and three other Cabinet members related to foreign aid decided that Japan will take initiatives in Afghan aid through international conferences, including as chair of the G8 summit.105 (November 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Prime Minister Fukuda explained to Chancellor Merkel that "his government is making its 'best efforts' to have parliament enact a new law that would allow Japan to continue its refuelling mission in support of the U.S.-led antiterrorism operations in an near Afghanistan, while touching on Germany's contributions to the fight against terrorism."106 (October 24, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan has promised to ask the G8 countries for more cooperation in the development of Afghanistan when it assumes chairmanship of the G8 countries. "Japan stressed that the G8 role in mediating between Afghanistan and Pakistan was very important in ensuring stability in the region."107 (August 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring South Asia)

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Environment

The issue of nuclear energy as a "clean energy" will be included in discussions by G8 chief negotiators at the senior working level and will be on the agenda for the leaders' summit, according to a senior Japanese official.108 (January 9, 2008, Kyodo News)

Sources have suggested that a proposal to set up a new international organisation to study countries' energy-saving measures may be in the works for the upcoming summit The world body would provide emerging economies with the environmental know-how of developed countries. The new organisation would be funded by Japan, the United States and European countries, with the International Energy Agency in Paris being eyed as a possible location for the new body's headquarters. Japan's energy agency official, however, denied the report, saying: "It is true that we plan to discuss a wide range of energy-saving topics but we don't have any plan to set up such a new body."109 (January 8, 2008, Agence France Presse)

With the upcoming G8 summit in July in Hokkaido, Prime Minister Fukuda indicated that he expects that "Japan's high tech on environment protection and energy efficiency would play a leading role in the environment-focused summit."110 (January 1, 2008, Xinhua News Agency)

Japan will propose talks on steps to ensure water supplies and basic sanitation in developing countries at the upcoming Group of Eight summit to be hosted by the country, government officials have said. At the Hokkaido Toyako summit, G8 leaders are expected to discuss what measures they can take to help the world achieve a U.N. goal of halving the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water or basic sanitation by 2015, officials said. The Japanese plan to initiate discussions on such matters. Similar issues were discussed at the 2003 Evian summit.111 (December 26, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

With Japan and other Asia-Pacific government leaders planning to meet for a "water summit," individuals have indicated that it is also a topic that should also be on Japan's G8 agenda. The leaders are planning to discuss water shortages, lack of water infrastructure, disasters and other related challenges - issues that many of the G8 countries will be forced to think about in the near future as well.112 (November 29, 2007, Kyodo News)

In regards to the government's stance on environmental issues, Prime Minister Fukuda said, ''Japan will continue to lead international discussions to create an effective international framework in which all major greenhouse gas emitters can participate.'' ''My Cabinet will also place top priority on environment issues, including global warming, and work with utmost efforts,'' he added.113 (October 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Former Japanese Prime Minister Abe was considering going to Switzerland to attend the World Economic Forum Meeting. Swiss President Couchepin said his country hopes Abe will attend the WEF meeting and send out a strong message on environmental issues as the leader of the country hosting the Group of Eight presidency in 2008.114 (July 10, 2007, Jiji English Press News)

Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore wanted to meet with former Japanese Prime Minister Abe before the 2008 G8 Summit in Japan.115 (July 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Japanese government intends to stress ecological concerns in every way during the 2008 G8 Summit in Japan. Therefore, the car fleet for official delegations will be made up of cars, "friendly with nature", which Japanese firms are feverishly developing.116 (July 3, 2007, ITAR-TASS World Service)

Former Prime Minister Abe is planning on taking up issues relating to the environment at the 2008 summit. Abe stated, "As an environment friendly country I would like to take up issues of the environment and climate change as the major issues to be addressed."117 (June 8, 2007, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Former Prime Minister Abe, while visiting Toyako, stated "I was convinced that it is the right place to speak about the environment, which is one of the themes next year."118 (May 19, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Intellectual Property Rights

Japan is planning to create a 110 million yen fund later this year to step up its efforts to help African countries protect and make better use of intellectual property, government sources have indicated. This fund will form part of Japan's latest initiative to assist African development, one of the priority themes planned for their 2008 G8 agenda.119 (January 26, 2008, Kyodo News)

A working version of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) treaty is set to be ready for the next G8 meeting in Tokyo. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development estimates the international trade in counterfeit goods is worth $200 billion.120 (December 7, 2007, Australian Financial Review)

Japan is working on the first international treaty aimed at stemming production and sale of fake brand goods and illegal copies of movies and music software. Officials went on to say that Tokyo aims to reach a basic agreement on the treaty at the summit of the Group of Eight nations next July in Japan, making the protection of intellectual property a major topic on the summit agenda along with global warming.121 (July 21, 2007, Kyodo News)

"On intellectual property protection, the declaration recognized, for the first time as a summit meeting document, the importance of streamlining and harmonizing the international patent system. A treaty to prevent the spread of counterfeit and pirated products, which Japan aims to establish, was not included in the declaration. But it said, "We recognize the need for continued study by national experts of the possibilities of strengthening the international legal framework pertaining to intellectual property right enforcement," suggesting the treaty may be included in a document at the next G8 summit meeting to be held in Hokkaido."122 (June 9, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

The communiqué from the 2007 G8 summit in Heiligendamm indicated that the pilot plan on technical assistance (launched in partnership with certain developing countries) would be "reviewed by the G8 in 2008."123 (July 8, 2007)

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Heiligendamm Process

Japanese Prime Minsiter Fukuda has formally invited South Korean President Lee Myung Bak to attend the G8 summit in July. This will be the first time South Korea has attended a G8 summit.124 (February 26, 2008, Daily Yomiuri)

The Japanese government has decided to add climate change and African development to the expanded dialogue agenda for the 2008 G8 summit. China, Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa will participate in the climate change dialogue. Indonesia and South Korea may also be asked to join. In regard to African development, the government is expected to invite representatives from Tanzania, Senegal and Nigeria.125 (February 9, 2008, Daily Yomiuri)

Japan has decided not to take up the issue of G8 expansion at the upcoming summit in July, according to government sources. "It's still too early," one government source said. While acknowledging that the issue of expanded membership is being discussed unofficially among the personal representatives of the G8 leaders, the source said, "We are not yet at the stage of deciding the direction of the discussions and will not include the issue in the main agenda for the summit." Japan has not ruled out future expansion. Regarding China and India, a senior official of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry said, "They have a significant impact on the world economy, so I believe there will be no choice but to let them join in the future." A Foreign Ministry source suggested that Japan may agree to China's becoming a member in exchange for Beijing's nod for Tokyo's bid for a permanent seat on the U.N. Security Council.126 (February 1, 2008, Kyodo News)

Japanese finance minister Nukaga and Indian ministers from various portfolios exchanged views on measures to cut greenhouse gas emissions and technological cooperation in the area of the environment as a step to prepare for the G8 summit, July 7-9 in Hokkaido.127 (January 4, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government has indicated that they will invite emerging economies such as China and India to attend the 2008 Summit. They will attempt to build consensus among participating countries for the formulation of a post-Kyoto Protocol framework.128 (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

On the final day of the 2007 G8 Summit, former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe commented that, "The results of this Heiligendamm Summit should provide the foundation for our work towards next year's Summit. We should like to strive to build important results on the outcome of Heiligendamm"129 (June 8, 2007)

The 2007 G8 communiqué noted that at "the G8 Summit in Japan in 2008 will receive an interim report on the progress made [in regards to the Heiligendamm Process] and at the G8 Summit in Italy in 2009 a final report on the outcomes of the Dialogue Process will be presented.130 (June 8, 2007)

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Other

Other sources have confirmed that the Japanese government has made the decision to invite to 15 countries to the G8 summit in July. This will make the forum the most representative in its history. Most of discussions will be held by permanent participants. Leaders of Australia, Brazil, Indonesia, India, China, Mexico, South Africa and South Korea will join them on the last day of the three-day summit. They will take part in the discussion of reductions of greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming. The agenda of day one of the summit will be Africa's acute problems in education, health care spheres and water shortage. Leaders of the G8 and Algeria, Egypt, Senegal, Tanzania, Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa and Ethiopia will discuss these problems. An important issue will be reducing twofold the number of famished people on the African continent by 2015. Chiefs of the European Union will also attend the summit in the capacity of unofficial participants.131 (March 7, 2008, ITAR-TASS World Service)

Japan has invited Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd to attend the annual G8 summit as an observer, following Mr. Rudds decision to ratify the Kyoto Protocol late last year. The decision to ratify Kyoto, a change from the policy of the Howard government, is believed to be partially responsible for the invitation, with the meeting expected to dominated by discussions on climate change, as G8 members look at the progress of a push by the European Union, Japan and Canada to halve global emissions by 2050. Political observers also believe Japan wants to form closer ties with Australia to offset Chinas growing influence in the region.132 (February 29, 2008, Australian Financial Review)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda indicated again that South Korea could be invited to participate as a nonmember in the 2008 summit this summer.133 (February 22, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific).

The Japanese government aims to promote the integration of international assistance plans for the construction of road networks on the African continent, at a meeting of Infrastructure Consortium for Africa to be held in Tokyo in mid-March. The meeting will be attended by representatives from the G8, as well as international organizations such as the World Bank, the African Union and the African Development Bank. The results of the gathering will be discussed at TICAD 4, on May 28-30.134 (February 22, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

The G8 Health Experts met in Tokyo at the United Nations University on February 14 and 15. Jun Yamazaki, Deputy Director-General for Global Issues of the Ministry of Foreign Affair of Japan chaired the event. There was an outreach session where health experts from Norway, the African Union and eight organizations known at the 'Health 8" or 'H8,' which include the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculoses and Malaria (GFATM), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), United Nationsl Population Fund (UNFPA), UNICEF, World Bank and WHO, were involved. The meeting allowed for discussion on health-related topics that are to be addressed at the 2008 summit.135 (February 15, 2008, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

The Japanese government is considering inviting around 14 non-member countries to the G8 summit in July, according to government sources. South Korea, Australia and Indonesia will be invited as they are important to Japan and the Asia-Pacific area. Moreover, greenhouse gas emissions in the three countries are expected to increase further, prompting Japan to include them at the G8 meeting, where global warming will be the main agenda. From Africa, Egypt, Algeria, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Ethiopia and South Africa are expected to be invited. Kenya and Tanzania may be included, but it remains uncertain due to political unrest there. The meeting of the G8 members and African nations will be held July 7, the first day of the summit. South Korea and two other countries will attend the meeting involving emerging nations, such as China, India and Brazil, to focus on environmental and energy issues, including global warming, the sources said. UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon, World Bank President Robert Zoellick and other heads of major international organizations will attend the meetings as well, the sources said.136 (February 3, 2008, Kyodo News)

The Japan Business Federation announced that it plans to hold a summit focusing on industry with counterparts from the G8 nations on April 17, 2008 in Tokyo, providing a forum for discussing measures to tap technological innovation and cut greenhouse gas emissions. The influential business lobby, known as Nippon Keidanren, expects eleven foreign organizations to participate. A similar gathering was held last year in Germany.137 (January 23, 2008, Nikkei Report)

Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda has indicated he is contemplating inviting South Korean President-elect Lee Myung Bak to the 2008 G8 summit. Hinting that he may posit the idea to invite leaders from South Korea and other Asian countries to the summit next summer, Fukuda said he wanted to discuss the option with other countries by raising the issue of past summit meetings in Europe, such as one held at Gleneagles in Scotland in 2005, to which African countries close to European nations were invited to attend.138,139 (December 22, 2007, Daily Yomiuri, KBS World News-English Edition)

The Japanese government is planning a pre-summit tour of the northern territories for foreign reporters, sources have indicated. It has been suggested that Japanese authorities are doing so with the intention to attract attention to the territorial issue with Russia. According to its organisers, journalists will be able to watch the (four South Kuriles Islands claimed by the Japanese - Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan and Khabomai) "northern territories" from the northern coast of Hokkaido. According to government sources "a lecture on the history of the territorial issue with putting emphasis on how they were illegally occupied by the Soviet Union during the Second World War" will be delivered to the participants in the free press tour. At the same time officials in Tokyo are planning to abstain from mentioning this problem in the chairman's statement at the G8 summit.140 (December 21, 2007, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

The G8 leaders are likely to raise North Korea's past abduction of Japanese nationals, the independence of Kosovo from Serbia and the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region.141 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan plans to hold the first meeting of the leaders' personal representatives (also known as ''sherpas'') around Jan. 10, 2008 in Japan to start preparations for the upcoming annual meeting. Sherpas or their deputies will meet about once a month to shape the issues on the agenda.142 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda has sought the cooperation of the World Bank for the upcoming G8 summit.143 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Tokyo is hoping that the outcome of the third East Asian Summit, schedule to occur on November 21, involving 16 Asian and Pacific countries will be reflected in discussions at the G8 summit next year, Fukuda was quoted as telling Lee (Prime Minister of Singapore).144 (November 2, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda and Germany Chancellor Merkel have agreed to work closing in dealing with North Korea and reforming the United National Security Council.145 (October 24, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan is likely to invite Australia to attend the meeting as one of a handful of observer nations.146 (October 23, 2007The Australian)

Japan's Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs made a statement which linked the G8 summit being hosted in Hokkaido in 2008 to the 'Northern Territories' problem in Russian-Japanese relations.147 (September 10, 2007, BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union)

In the 2007 G8 communiqué it was noted that G8 countries would report on progress in the policies and measures on energy efficiency outlined in the communiqué at the G8 summit in 2008.148 (June 8, 2007)

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Process: The Physical Summit

Summit Site

The Japanese government announced the logo for the 2008 G8 summit. The logo shows young green leaves sprouting from a seed in a blue earth -- a motif aimed at giving a message of hope that a bud born at the summit grows and bears fruit, according to the designers. The logo was designed by a group of high school students from various parts of Japan.149 (January 3, 2008, Kyodo News)

The Windsor Hotel, where Japan will host the G8 summit in July, is a strangely fitting symbol of Tokyo's aspirations for its year in the diplomatic limelight. After going through a difficult period in the 1990s, the hotel has been revived under new management to become one of Japan's most exclusive resorts, tracking the country's slow but steady economic renaissance. Aside from the Windsor's English name, a source of some embarrassment to patriotic Japanese officials, the hotel is seen as representative of Japan's continued economic clout and its consequent determination to be taken seriously on the international stage. The hotel's remote setting, in Hokkaido's magnificent wilderness, is also fitting given that Japan wants to use its presidency to champion the environment by hammering out a new deal on global warming. Even the hotel's ownership by security company Secom, sends a message, underlined by the resort's remoteness and difficulty of access, that Japan is in no mood to see its diplomatic efforts hijacked by anti-globalisation protestors.150 (January 1, 2008, Financial Times)

The Japanese government held a conference at the hotel that will be the site for the Hokkaido Toyako G8 Summit in 2008. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss ways to promote tourism in Japan.151 (October 1, 2007, HBC G8: Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008)

Many people from Toyako are upset that former Prime Minister Abe will not be attending Japan's 2008 G8 Summit. The mayor of Toyako town, Yoshio Nagasaki said, "I believe Prime Minister Abe had a great determination towards next year's summit. It's such a shame he won't be able to attend it." Others, including a souvenir shop owner, expressed similar feelings, "I think that it would be better if the person who decided on the summit attend it. I really wanted Prime Minister Abe [to] gaze out at Lake Toyako from the venue he spoke [of] in the conference."152 (September 13, 2007, HBC G8: Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008)

"The planned main venue for the G8 summit is Windsor Hotel Toya Resort & Spa, which stands atop a 600-metre mountain overlooking Lake Toya.153 (September 3, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The summit will be held at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa.154 (June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government has officially decided that the 2008 Summit will be held July 7-9.155 (June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government plans to host the summit in July, 2008.156 (April 24, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

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Government Preparations: External

Japan is planning to revive discussion on the 'Northern Territories' with the new Russian President at the G8 Summit in July.157 (February 8, 2008, Russia Press Digest)

Fukuda expressed his desire to hold talks with the Russians over the Northern Territories issue when the G8 summit convenes in July. Fukuda said, "I will talk about the issue by holding Japan-Russia summit talks in the Group of Eight summit in July."158 (February 7, 2008, Kyodo News)

The Japanese government wants to meet with as many G8 countries before the summit as possible, according to Prime Minister Fukuda. The government is also planning to hold sherpas meetings once a month until the summit in order to ensure detailed preparation.159 (February 7, 2008, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

Personal representatives (sherpas) of the leaders of the G8 nations held their first meeting Thursday in Tokyo to start full-fledged preparations for the July, 2008 G8 summit and to shape the issues on the agenda. Discussions in the two-day meeting of the representatives are expected to cover the main topics to be taken up by the leaders of the G8 major nations as well as the documents and declarations expected to be issued at the summit. The sherpas are expected to gather for three similar meetings over the next few months. Japan envisions setting four key topics for the summit -- tackling global warming and other environmental problems, spurring African development, preventing nuclear proliferation and terrorism, as well as addressing record high oil prices and sustainable growth. A major challenge for the sherpas is to narrow significant differences among the G8 nations over the setting of concrete goals for cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. Japanese sherpa Kono was believed to have presented to his counterparts Japan's draft proposal for the agenda of the summit.160 (January 10, 2008, Kyodo News)

Nukaga visited India and Vietnam as part of Japan's preparations for the G8 summit this summer in Hokkaido.161 (January 7, 2008, Kyodo News)

Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga will visit India and Vietnam on January 3-8, 2008 as part of Japan's preparations for the Group of Eight summit next summer in Hokkaido. He plans to discuss global warming and financial cooperation.162 December 28, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Because a new Liberal Democratic Party president was to be selected on September 23, 2007, former Prime Minister Abe was unable to attend meetings on climate change in New York on September 24 (as well as the United National General Assembly the following day). Abe was to attend the meetings in order to prepare for the upcoming discussions at the 2008 G8 summit in Toyako, Hokkaido.163 (September 14, 2007, Nikkei Report)

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Government Preparations: Internal

Prime Minister Fukuda's determination to push through a piece of controversial anti-terror legislation has led some to believe that an election, which the Prime Minister was hoping to avoid, may result before the Group of Eight summit in July.164 (January 11, 2008, Financial Times)

Prime Minister Fukuda may not be able to have the impact he desires at the upcoming TICAD conference and G8 summit due to strains in the Japanese Diet. With political deadlock and disagreement, it may be harder to push certain issues onto the agenda with the enthusiasm hope for.165 (December 28, 2007, Kyodo News)

Prime Minister Fukuda is considering a cabinet shuffle in mid-January, 2008. He will consider the upcoming G8 summit before he makes his final decision.166 (December 28, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

According to Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimura, a panel is being convened at the request of Prime Minister Fukuda to provide detailed information for occasions, including the upcoming G8 summit.167 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

In the strongest hint yet that he favoured postponing elections until after Japan hosts the G8 summit in July, [Fukuda] said he could "give a fairly high level of guarantee" that his administration could hang on. "I hold the authority to call an election. In the absence of dissolution of the lower house, we shall host the G8 summit."168 (November 12, 2007, Financial Times)

With Japanese Prime Minister Abe having stepped down, sources have suggested that there may be a need to review G8 strategy for the 2008 summit. Abe had proposed cutting global greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2050, and it is still likely to be included in discussions on climate change at the summit.169 (September 12, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released the Secretariat which had been established for the 2008 Summit under former Prime Minister Abe. The Secretariat for the G8 Summit was established in the Foreign Minister's Secretariat on July 1, and the opening ceremony was held on July 2 in the presence of Mr. Taro Aso, former Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Office was to be in charge of the management and logistics, including press-related matters, of the Hokkaido Toyako Summit, which will be held in the Toyako area in Hokkaido, and the G8 Foreign Ministers' Meeting in Kyoto. Mr. Hiroshi Fukada, former Deputy Director-General of the International Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was appointed Secretary General for the G8 Summit, and about 20 other officials were assigned to the Office on July 1.170 (July 4, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Former Prime Minister Abe's Japanese Foreign Ministry set up a preparatory committee for the 2008 Japan-hosted G8 Summit. ''As several thousands of media personnel from around the world will gather for the summit, it is a good opportunity for Japan to issue its message to the world,'' Former foreign minister Taro Aso said in an address at the committee's launch.171 (July 1, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Japanese government set up a G8 preparatory committee under former Prime Minister Abe headed up by former Chief Cabinet Secretary Shiozaki and composed of Cabinet Secretariat officials and senior ministry and agency officials, a government spokesperson stated.172 The committee was intended to liaise with government organs, prepare the summit venue, press centre, facilities and security, and coordinate member delegations' accommodations.173 Former Prime Minister Abe was quoted as instructing his cabinet to make "thorough preparations for smoothly receiving" the leaders, and according to the BBC "Kensei Mizote, chairman of the National Public Safety Commission, vowed to take "all possible security measures" by assembling police forces nationwide amid "concerns over possible violence by anti-globalization activists and terror attacks by Islamic radicals."174 The foreign ministry was to set up its own preparatory committee, according to former minister Taro Aso, which was to be established in July to coordinate climate change policy.175 (June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

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Cost

The Japanese Foreign Ministry's initial fiscal 2008 budget, which is up 1.3 percent from the current year's initial budget, includes 13.42 billion yen for G-8 summit-related expenses.176 (December 23, 2007, Kyodo News)

"The Japanese government decided to earmark about 11.48 billion yen to prepare for the Group of Eight summit to be hosted by Japan next year in the Lake Toya hot-spring resort area in Hokkaido, former Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Junzo Matoba said." "The money [was to] be used for preparing a media centre, a fibre optics system and measures to deal with snow accumulation in the northernmost prefecture.177 (September 3, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

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Security

The Japanese government is planning to deploy Air Self-Defense Force aircraft equipped with the Airborne Warning and Control System and the Maritime SDF's P-3C anti-submarine patrol aircraft around the G8 summit venue in Lake Toyaka in July. It will also use the SDF's radar network to detect early signs of a terrorist attack. As a countermeasure to the threat of demonstrations and riots by anti-globalism activists, the government plans to apply anti-hooligan provisions under the immigration control law, which enables Japan to keep out any individual feared to be a lawbreaker with the potential to hurt people or damage buildings. The geographical features of the Windsor Hotel Toya, the summit venue, make it easier to defend against a land attack. The government is planning to initiate a no-fly zone around the summit to ensure air safety, however, there are no legal grounds to restrict flights of light airplanes, helicopters and radio-controlled model planes, so the government will ask for cooperation. Defense Minister Shigeru Ishiba said the ministry is considering countermeasures against every possible situation, suggesting that shooting down a plane heading toward the venue is under discussion as an option. Sources said, however, it would be impossible to actually shoot down such a plane, and that evacuating participants from the venue is more realistic. The government will also tighten security patrols and baggage inspections at airports across the nation during the summit. In addition, police officers will be aboard civilian flights to prevent hijack attempts.178 (February, 19, 2008, The International Herald Tribune)

A 55 kilometre no-fly zone is going to be established around the G8 venue this summer. This decision was taken up by the Japanese government, who have given up the previous intention to shoot down passenger airline seized by terrorists and steered towards the summit venue. Participants of the summit will be evacuated immediately if a dangerous object is discovered in the air. Ground-based radars, AWACS radar plans, and R-3C patrol aircraft of the Japanese Navy will monitor the no-fly zone. The government has also decided to increase armed guarding groups aboard passenger airlines and enhance luggage screening at airports. The Windsor Hotel area, where the summit is being held, will be heavily guarded on land and protected by air defence missile systems and flights on F-15 jetfighters from the Chitoshe airbase on Hokkaido.179 (February 18, 2008, ITAR-TASS World Service)

The Japanese Defense Ministry is considering the possibility of deploying Patriot-3 missiles around the site of the G8 summit to boost security. The missiles could be deployed at the Self-Defense Forces' (SDF) bases around the summit site which is located beside Toya Lake of northern Japan's Hokkaido Prefecture. The ministry also plans to deploy frigates and missile-equipped boats in the nearby bay and Aegis destroyers in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, adding that airborne warning planes and chemical defense troops may also be sent to Hokkaido. The Japanese government has assigned the Defense Ministry and the SDF anti-terror and security missions for the G8 summit.180 (January 9, 2008, Xinhua News Agency)

The Justice Ministry has begun preparations to put into force a hooligan provision of the immigration law to prevent antiglobalization activists from entering the country to protest the G8 summit meeting to be held in July. The provision states immigration authorities can refuse entry to people who have injured, assaulted, threatened people, killed people, or damaged buildings which have disrupted international sports events or meetings. It also disallows entry to people who have been imprisoned in Japan or other countries or have been deported before if immigration officials believe they might be involved in similar actions again.181 (December 31, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

Innovative blast mitigation systems designed by a Welsh company to protect people and property from the effects of explosions will form part of the security measures surrounding the G8 summit in Japan in July, 2008. The Waterwall systems - which resemble bouncy castles - are made from a PVC-coated fabric and are internally reinforced and inflated with air which is then displaced by water. The system, which can be rapidly deployed, harnesses the high mass of water to dramatically reduce the effects of explosions. They can be inflated in minutes and folded away when not in use with minimal training required.182 (December 21, 2007, The Western Mail)

The Japanese National Police Agency is calling for alert against possible terrorism by Islamic extremists and riots by anti-globalization activists ahead of the Group of Eight summit in Hokkaido's Lake Toya resort area next July, according to its 2007 security report which was recently released. Saying Japan is becoming home to many Muslims, the NPA also indicates concern that terrorists may take advantage of the local community and implicates them in possible radical activities. The agency also points to possible harmful activities against Japan by China and Russia. Naming China in particular, the report says, ''Researchers and students are sent to Japan to engage in information gathering activities with skillful and diverse methods for an extended period of time.''183 (December 10, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan will make the utmost efforts to prevent terrorist attacks during the Group of Eight summit to be held in Hokkaido Prefecture in July 2008, the National Police Agency has said. Citing the simultaneous terrorist attacks in London during the G8 summit in Britain in 2005, the agency called for enhanced vigilance, particularly with regard to public transport systems. Some foreign antiglobalization organizations are calling protest rallies in Japan and Japanese radicals are increasingly cooperating, the report said, adding that some Japanese radicals took part in protests during the G-8 summit in Germany this year. On North Korea, Japan will further strengthen its investigations and crackdown on illegal activities by North Korean agents and related individuals, the report said.184

Japanese and German officials have agreed to exchange information and cooperate over security issues for the 2008 Summit in Japan. "Japan's NPA and Hokkaido prefectural police officials in charge of summit security will be sent to Germany to set up the information exchanges," officials said.185 (August 12, 2007, Kyodo News)

The Japan coast-guard held a drill in preparation for the 2008 G8 Japan-hosted Summit. "The exercise involved 300 people, eight patrol vessels, three helicopters and two aircraft on the assumption a suspicious boat tried to get away after being seen by a helicopter."186 (July 14, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

A special headquarters for ensuring security at the 2008 G8 Summit is now operational, according to sources. "The head of the headquarters, Deputy Commissioner General of the Japanese National Police Agency Hiroto Yoshimura stressed at the first meeting of this structure that not only the area of the G8 leaders' conference, but the whole country is a potential target for terrorist sorties and terrorists may try to stage large-scale sabotage actions. He especially stressed the danger emanating from "Islamic radicals." The headquarters leader said the Japanese police will get new equipment and will undergo reinforced training for the prevention and suppression of both terrorist attacks and massive disorders."187 (July 3, 2007, Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

Japan's National Police Agency launched a panel to devise plans for the 2008 G8 Summit.188 (July 2, 2007, Kyodo Press)

A government spokesperson stated that the Japanese government was t0 set up a G8 preparatory committee headed up by former Chief Cabinet Secretary Shiozaki and composed of former Prime Minister Abe's Cabinet Secretariat officials and senior ministry and agency officials.189 The committee was to liaise with government organs, prepare the summit venue, press centre, facilities and security, and coordinate member delegations' accommodations.190 Former Prime Minister Abe was quoted as instructing his cabinet to make "thorough preparations for smoothly receiving" the leaders, and according to the BBC "Kensei Mizote, chairman of the National Public Safety Commission, vowed to take "all possible security measures" by assembling police forces nationwide amid "concerns over possible violence by anti-globalization activists and terror attacks by Islamic radicals."191 The former foreign ministry was to set up its own preparatory committee, according to former Foreign Minister Taro Aso, which was to be established in July to coordinate climate change policy.192 (June 12, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

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Media

Before the 2008 G8 summit, the Japanese government to offer a free tour for foreign journalists over the South Kuriles chain that Japan regards its "northern territories." In the 2008 draft budget the government has planned to allocate 3.2 million yen for the organisation of the press tour of foreign correspondents accredited in Tokyo. During the trip journalists will be able to watch the "northern territories" from the northern coast of Hokkaido. Japanese officials noted that "a lecture on the history of the territorial issue with putting emphasis on how they were illegally occupied by the Soviet Union during the Second World War" will be delivered to the participants in the free press tour.193 (December 21, 2007, Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies)

"The Japanese Foreign Ministry's public relations officers will receive special training on media relations, ahead of important international conferences Japan will host next year, [including the G8 Summit and all of its respective meetings]."194 (September 5, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

The Government of Japan has decided to establish the International Media Centre for the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit 2008 at Rusutsu Resort, Rusutsu Village, Abuta District, Hokkaido.195 (September 4, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

According to Kazuya Nashida, director of the Economic Policy Division of the Foreign Ministry's Economic Affairs Bureau, the media centre for the summit will be set up in Rusutsu Resort hotel in the village of Rusutsu. It is located 30 minutes by car from the Windsor Hotel Toya Report and Spa, where the Hokkaido Toyako summit will be held.196 (June 18, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Civil Society

Nongovernment organizations from Africa, Britain and Japan urged the Japanese government to exert leadership in improving health and medicinal systems in developing countries as it gets ready to host the 2008 G8 summit. Speaking in Tokyo, participants asked Japan to issue policy recommendations on maternity and infant health and anti-tuberculosis measures, areas in which Japan excels.197 (February 7, 2008, Kyodo News)

NGOs are expected to play a big role at the 2008 G8 summit, and the 2008 Japan G8 NGO Forum, which groups various NGOs, will be presenting their views on a range of issues to participating governments and the international media. The forum consists of over 100 environmental, human rights and development NGOs from around Japan, including the Japan chapters of well-known Amnesty International, Oxfam and Greenpeace. To strengthen communication with participating governments, plans are in the works to hold a "Civil G8 Dialogue" perhaps around April or May. The planners are hoping this will bring together about 30 NGO activists from around the world along with the G8 sherpa advisers. Some organizations have already set dates for their events. The 2008 Indigenous People's Summit is set to take place from June 28 to July 4 in Sopporo. Indigenous people from at least ten nations are expected to attend. The "Alternative Summit" is set to start one day before the G8 summit on July 6 and run to July 8. At this summit, there will be NGOs, as well as concerned citizens, where the major themes of the G8 summit will be discussed. It will also take place in Sapporo.198 (January 3, 2008, The Japan Times Online)

The Model G8 Youth Summit will be held in Japan from March 10 to 15, 2008. The selected venue is Yokohama Shoko-Kaigijyo, Yokohama Symposia, Keio University Yagami and Mita campuses. It was first held in 2006 in Russia, and the second followed in Germany. For more information about the 2008 Model G8 Youth Summit, you can locate their website: http://www.modelg8japan.org/.199 (December 5, 2007)

The Junior Eight (J8) Summit, a gathering of young people from all over the world, will be held in Chitose City in the region of Lake Shikotsu from July 1 to 10, 2008. It will be held under the joint auspices of the United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF), who favoured the Lake Shikotsu venue.200 (October 26, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

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Name

The summit will be held from July 7-9, 2008. Former prime minister Abe stated that the summit will officially be called the "Hokkaido Toyako Summit" in Japanese. According to Kyodo News, "Government sources said the official name came as a compromise between the prefectural government calling for the "Hokkaido Summit" and the town government favouring the "Toyako Summit." It is still unknown what Japan will officially call the summit in English."201 (May 19, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Ministerial Meetings

Japan will host a meeting of Group of Eight lower house speakers in Hiroshima next September, House of Representatives Speaker Yohei Kono said. They will discuss peace and disarmament, indicating Japan will call for a nuclear-free world. It will be the first time Japan hosts the speakers' meeting, since it was started in 2002.202 (November 1, 2007, Kyodo News)

Representatives from the Japanese government released the following information on ministerial meetings to journalists covering the Heiligendamm summit:

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released dates for ministerial meetings: G8 Foreign Ministers on June 26-27 in Kyoto, G8 Development Ministers in early April in Tokyo and the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development on May 28-30 in Yokohama.204 (May 29, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

"Finance ministers will meet in the western city of Osaka, foreign ministers in the ancient capital of Kyoto and environment ministers in the nearby port town of Kobe. Justice and home affairs ministers are slated to meet in Tokyo, while labor ministers will convene in the northern coastal city of Niigata. The Tokyo suburb of Chiba will host a Group of Twenty conference on global warming and clean energy, and Yokohama will hold talks on African development."205 (May 19, 2007, Mainichi News)

The first ministerial meeting is set to be held in March 2008.206 The Japanese government is also considering holding a meeting of justice and internal affairs ministers in Tokyo.207 (April 24, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

The following cities have informally been selected to host ministerial meetings in 2008: Kyoto will host the foreign ministers meetings, Osaka will host the finance ministers meeting, Kobe will host the environment ministers and Niigata will host the labour ministers.208 (April 23, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Finance

The G7 is closely monitoring the global financial market turmoil and stands ready to take action to enhance stability in the market, according to Japan's top financial diplomat. Naoyuki Shinohara, vice finance minister for international affairs, cast doubt on calls for the establishment of a Japanese sovereign wealth fund, saying the country's foreign reserves are not a pure investable asset given its huge budget deficit. G7 finance chiefs warned in Tokyo earlier this month that credit turmoil could still unhinge the global economy and pledged a plan of action for restoring markets to financial health. "We have made it clear that we stand ready to take any action necessary to enhance stability in financial markets," Shinohara said. He added that the G7 keeps sending a message that excess volatility was undesirable. G7 finance chiefs reaffirmed their stance in Tokyo that currency levels should reflect economic fundamentals, and that excess volatility was undesirable for economic growth.209 (February 28, 2008, Reuters News)

At the G7 meeting in Tokyo in February, finance minister conceded that global economic prospect have deteriorated since they met in October and that individual and collective action is necessary to address the problems. It was recognized that U.S. output and employment growth have slowed and that risks have become 'more skewed to the downside.' They discussed the effects on each of the member's economies as well as concerns around oil and currencies. The ministers stressed commitment to strengthen financial stability and to implement the Financial Stability Forum's (FSF) recommendation. They reiterated their desire for a successful completion of the Doha round, and Japan, Britain and the U.S. raised the issue of setting up a climate change fund.210 (February 10, 2008, AFX International Focus)

The G7 leaders were to 'candidly discuss' credit crunch fears at their meeting in Tokyo in February, according to Japanese finance minister Nukaga. "It is important that we work together and send a message to stabilize the financial markets and keep the global economy growing," he said. Nukaga reiterated that each country should fix its own economy, as they are all very distinct. He indicated that maintaining growth in emerging economics was also likely to be a discussion topic. On the side of the G7 meeting, an 'outreach' session was to be health with China, South Korea, India and Russia to discuss the impact of the U.S. economic slowdown on emerging economies.211 (February 8, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Japan, Britain and the U.S. were set to propose a special climate change fund at the G7 meeting in Tokyo in early February.212 (February 7, 2008, Dow Jones International News)

The G7 agree on the need for global financial institutions to fully disclose their losses stemming from the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis at an early time. Financial institutions are expected to incur additional losses from the subprime-linked turmoil as the value of related securities keeps falling. "It is crucial for financial institutions to reveal their losses early and take action to cope with the problem," a senior official of Japan's Finance Ministry said. There will also be discussion on measures to prevent financial turmoil, based on an interim report to be submitted to the meeting by the Financial Stability Forum. But the report is likely to lack details, and the FSF will propose concrete measures to prevent financial crises at the next G7 meeting to be held in Washington in April. Officials are also expected to discuss the impacts of surging crude oil and food prices on the global economy and confirm the recent slowdown in global economic growth. They will discuss climate change and activities of sovereign wealth funds, which have been rapidly increasing their presence on global financial markets.213 (February 6, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

G7 financial chiefs are unlikely to single out the issue of currencies at the meeting in Tokyo, according to a senior Japanese official. Global economic fundamentals remain firm but uncertainty is rising, the Ministry of Finance official said. Finance ministers and central bankers will discuss high oil prices as a downside risk. "There are people who may discuss currencies," the senior finance ministry official told reporters. "But our heads are filled with imminent problems such as the economic outlook and uncertainty in overall financial markets." The money market is stabilising thanks to concerted liquidity injections by central banks in the industrialised world while the credit market remains shaky, the senior Japanese official said. The G7 is likely to assess such efforts and the U.S. stimulus package at the meeting, the official said. But each country is in a different economic and fiscal condition and should take appropriate steps on its own, the senior Japanese finance ministry official said, expecting the U.S. is unlikely to demand fiscal steps at the G7 meeting. "We won't say it's outrageous [for the U.S.) to implement the fiscal stimulus despite a huge budget deficit," the Japanese official said. "In the face of market turmoil, the global economy is in a challenging situation as to how to balance things with inflationary pressure."214 (February 6. 2008, Reuters News)

Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga indicated his intention to stress at the February 9 G7 meeting that banks need to enhance information disclosure in order to allay market concerns over the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis. Nukaga, chair of the G7 meeting said in a press conference that it is important for banks to disclose information, including the size of their losses, so that they can build good relations with financial markets. Nukaga expressed a negative stance on rising calls for fiscal spending to tackle the subprime problem, saying that the Japanese government has learned what fiscal action produces from its experience after the collapse of the speculation-driven bubble economy in the late 1980s. Nukaga also said that finance ministers of China, Indonesia and South Korea would be invited to Tokyo for an outreach session with the G7 counterparts and that Russian officials will partially participate in the main G7 meeting.215 (February 4, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

The Financial Stability Forum (FSF) will present an interim report on proposals to improve the way financial markets work at the G7 meeting in Tokyo on February 9.The proposals are expected to address the roles and methodologies of credit ratings for securities linked to residential mortgages and other assets, as part of efforts to manage risks associated with increasingly complex financial products. The G7 meeting will also take up the issue of climate change, with Japan, the United States and Britain set to propose a new fund to help developing countries reduce greenhouse gas emissions. After their meeting, the G7 officials will invite their counterparts from emerging nations such as China and South Korea to an unofficial meeting to exchange opinions on "decoupling," in which emerging economies, separated from the United States, can continue to grow rapidly and drive global growth.216 (February 4, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

Japanese finance minister Nukaga said G7 finance ministers and central bank governors will discuss issues such as financial market movements since the U.S. subprime loan problems emerged last year. G7 officials will also discuss the role of rating agencies and securitised investment tools, high oil prices and their impact on the global economy, he said. Those topics will also be discussed at an outreach meeting with non-G7 members on the sidelines of the talks, he said, although he said it was too early to announce which countries would come to that meeting.217 (January 31, 2008, Reuters News)

Luxembourg Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker was expected to attend the G7 meeting in Tokyo on February 9 as head of the eurozone.218 (January 30, 2008, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

Japan, Britain and the United States were planning to propose the creation of a special fund designed to fight climate change at the G7 meeting on February 9 in Tokyo, according to sources. The fund is mainly aimed at helping developing countries improve energy-saving technologies and the World Bank is expected to manage it. The three countries were planning to call on the other G7 members to back the plan and include it in their joint statement to be adopted at the end of the meeting.219 (January 28, 2008, Agence France Presse)

Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga said he wants to find areas where the G7 can work together to deal with recent global market turbulence at the group's meeting on February 9. "As chairman of the meeting, I want to discuss where policy coordination is possible among the G7 members (in response to recent instability global financial markets) at the meeting, and I want to issue a message," Nukaga said. But he said each G7 member must first understand their own situations and take appropriate policy responses. "Before coordinating policy, each country must first grasp its own financial market and economy situation and take steps. Building on these steps, we'd like to find out where coordination is possible among the G7," he said. The Japanese finance minister also indicated that he wants to hear more at the meeting about the U.S. subprime loan issue and how it is affecting the U.S. economy. "The current falling global stock prices and financial market instability stem from the U.S. subprime issue. I'd like to know how the problem is being addressed by the U.S. at the (G7) meeting."220 (January 27, 2008, Dow Jones International News)

While in Davos, Switzerland for the World Economic Forum, Prime Minsiter Fukuda acknowledged that the risk of the global economic downturn is increasing against the backdrop of the subprime mortgage loan crisis in the U.S. and the surge of oil prices to record levels. He said that the matter would be discussed at the February 9th G7 meeting in Tokyo.221 (January 26, 2008, Xinhua News Agency)

Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga pledged to ''lead the discussions and issue a message'' to address the subprime meltdown and its impact on the real economies of member countries. However, despite Nukaga's firm denial, some market observers have think Japan still may intervene in the currency market to help the waning dollar, which briefly plunged to the 104 yen level recently.222 (January 25, 2008, Kyodo News)

Fukuda was expected to explain that the effects of the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis on the Japanese economy are limited, amid a plunge in global stock markets stemming from the situation, and that his country is steadily on the path to economic recovery. This message was meant to urge the financial markets to take a calm approach in the lead-up to the G7 finance minister's meeting on February 9 in Tokyo where the situation of the global economy will be discussed.223 (January 23, 2008, Kyodo News)

The G7 will discuss ways to stabilize global financial markets affected by the deepening U.S. subprime mortgage crisis when they meet in Tokyo in February. They will see if they can build a solid framework for cooperation to address the crisis that threatens global growth. Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga, who will chair the gathering, said that the meeting needs to send out a message aimed at stabilizing the global economy and financial markets. As part of the effort, G7 officials are scheduled to review proposals the Financial Stability Forum are discussing.224 (January 23, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

Japanese Finance Minister Nukaga said market turmoil would be a key topic at the G7 meeting at the beginning of February in Tokyo. "As the chair of the meeting, I would like to lead the discussions so that we send a message," he said. "It's important to have candid talks over the financial problems surrounding U.S. subprime loans to low-income households, high crude oil prices and the trend of global markets."225 (January 22, 2008, Agence France Presse)

Japan's Trade and Industry Minister Akira Amari said coming up with effective steps to address the U.S. subprime crisis will be a priority in the upcoming global economic meetings, including the G7 financial meeting on February 9.226 (January 21, 2008, BBC Monitoring Newsfile)

The G7 is considering inviting China and South Korea to an informal gathering to be held after their official meeting in Tokyo on February 9. There are hopes that the strong growth of emerging economies in Asia will help to keep the global economy afloat with the U.S. heading into a recession.227 (January 17, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga called for a message from the G7 at their upcoming February 9 meeting in Tokyo that would help stabilize the global economy and financial markets. ''In the February meeting, we will discuss our tasks in dealing with the subprime issue, such as banks' crisis management and methods of credit rating,'' Nukaga said. ''It will be important for G7 members to air a message to stabilize the global economy and financial market movements in the future.''228 (January 16, 2008, Kyodo News)

Top financial officials of the G7 are likely to discuss whether emerging economies can become leading forces in the global economy, at their meeting in Tokyo on February 9. The finance ministers and central bank chiefs will address the so-called "decoupling theory," which maintains that strong, growing, emerging economies, such as China and India, decoupled from the United States, can offset a U.S. economic slowdown caused by the subprime mortgage crisis. They are considering inviting the finance ministers and central bank chiefs of these emerging nations to an unofficial meeting after the G7 meets. The subprime problems have started to cast a shadow over the U.S. economy. However, it has also been noted that the United States is the biggest export destination for China, with U.S.-bound exports accounting for around 20% of China's total exports in value. In light of this fact, Bank of Japan Governor Toshihiko Fukui has said the Asian economy is firmly tied up to the United States, stressing the need to watch out for the possibility of China being negatively affected when the U.S. economy slows down sharply. G7 officials plan to carefully assess the state of the global economy and its outlook at their Tokyo meeting. If the officials agree that deterioration of the U.S. economy will spill over to emerging economies, they may downgrade their assessment of the global economy.229 (January 12, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

Japan will host a meeting of G7 finance chiefs on February 9, 2008 in Tokyo.230 (January 8, 2008, Reuters News)

Financial chiefs from Group of Seven industrial nations will gather for a one-day meeting Feb. 9 in Tokyo, with the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and high crude oil prices topping the agenda, Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga said.231 (December 28, 2007, Kyodo News)

According to G7 sources, the Group of Seven policymakers are planning to meet in Tokyo on February 8, 2007.232 (December 10, 2007, Reuters News)

G7 finance leaders will likely pledge to work together in coping with the credit market crunch arising from the U.S. subprime mortgage loan problem when they gather in Washington in October. "Basically, [the G7] will confirm international cooperation" in dealing with the recent turbulence in global financial markets, Japanese Finance Minister Nukaga said.233 (October 15, 2007, Kyodo News)

The G7 are likely to discuss foreign exchange rates, state-controlled funds, the world economy, markets and the transparency of sovereign wealth funds at their upcoming meeting in Washington, according to Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga.234 (October 15, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

Japan and the United States are both concerned over sovereign wealth funds, and according to Cabinet Office sources in Japan, Japan will undoubtedly back the U.S. proposal for a set of guidelines which will demand better disclosure by the sovereign funds and give governments greater ability to scrutinize their activities.235 (October 15, 2007, AFX International Focus)

The euro is not likely to receive mention in the G7 communique at the October G7 meeting in Washington, DC, according to Eisuke Sakakibara, Japan's former vice finance minister for international affairs.236 (October 15, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

Japan is not likely to lift its own rates, even though Bank of Japan Governor Toshihiko Fukui recently said that "monetary policies overseas won't tie the bank's hands," according to Sakakibara, Japan's former vice finance minister for international affairs.237 (October 15, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

The FSF has set up a working group to produce a report which it will deliver an interim of in February in Japan. It will address the role of rating agencies, oversight issues, appropriate accounting of derivatives, raising international transparency on financial markets and concerns improving the risk management of financial market players.238 (October 12, 2007, Reuters News)

Japan would like to keep the subject of increased hedge fund transparency on the agenda during its G7 presidency next year, according to German Deputy Finance Minister Mirow.239 (October 12, 2007, Reuters News)

German Deputy Finance Minister Thomas Mirow has said that the G7 has put together a working group to look for lessons to be learned from the recent market turmoil. It is to focus on the role of rating agencies, government oversight, the role of banking derivatives and questions of enhances transparency and risk management in financial markets. The group is to present its initial report in November in Japan, with the final report expected sometime in April in Washington.240 (October 12, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

The G7 leaders are still debating whether or not the U.S. dollar should be discussed at the upcoming meeting in Washington, D.C. Planners from all of the G7 countries, including Japan, said they "are currently deliberating over the content and wording of the closely watched communiqué to be issued after the meeting."241 (September 28, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

In anticipation of the upcoming meeting of G7 leaders in Washington, D.C., Japan's Finance Minister said, "Japan's economy is carrying on its recovery trend and the global economy is also keeping track on the economic explanation. It is important to share opinions to establish healthy markets and provide a relief to investors."242 (September 27, 2007, AFX International Focus)

Japan's Finance Minister, Fukushiro Nukaga said that at the meeting in Washington, D.C. at the end of October, G7 leaders will work to share information to maintain a stable global market.243 (September 27, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

A Bank of Japan policy setter, Miyako Suda said, "problems in the US housing market would last longer than previously expected, but that a US slowdown was unlikely to hurt Japan."244 (September 27, 2007 New Zealand Press Association)

Japanese Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga said that the G7 would talk about U.S. subprime mortgage problems at the October 19-22 meetings in Washington, D.C. He noted how important it is to maintain a "stable global market," and went on to say that the G7 leaders must share information toward "building a market that provides reassurance to investors."245 (September 27, 2007, Dow Jones International News)

Japanese Finance Minister Nukaga said that he does not believe that currency movements will be a "big theme" at the upcoming G7 meeting in Washington, D.C at the end of October.246 (September 27, 2007, New Zealand Press Association)

The former Japanese Vice Finance Minister for International Affairs said, "The G7 will debate various policy issues to restore stability in global financial markets based on a report to be submitted by the Financial Stability Forum, which advises the G7." He went on to say that there will likely be a statement on US subprime mortgage woes, and that the "G7 financial chiefs are likely to discuss four points [at the upcoming meeting in Washington, October 19-22]: 'risk management in complicated financial products, how to treat structured products in accounting, the role of credit-rating agencies in securitized products and appropriate supervision of financial entities dealing with securitized products."247 (September 21, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese sources have said that the Group of Seven is planning on seeking advice for an international group of financial regulators and investors on how to deal with 'U.S. subprime mortgage woes.' If everything goes as planned, the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) will likely submit advice to the G7 meeting that is going to be held in February 2008. In May 2007, the FSF also responded to a G7 request for advice on hedge funds, to which they proposed a full review of the industry's business practices.248 (September 14, 2007, Jiji Press English News Service)

Japan's new finance minister called for the Group of Seven industrialized nations to learn lessons from financial market turbulence triggered by turmoil in the US credit market. The G7 will hold its regular meeting in Washington in October.249 (September 2, 2007, AFX International Focus)

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Foreign Affairs

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan released the following information regarding the First Liaison meeting for the 2008 Summit. On July 10 at 4:10 p.m., the First Liaison Meeting for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit 2008 chaired by Mr. Taro Aso, the former Minister for Foreign Affairs was held at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Aso stated that the G8 Summit would be Japan's most important diplomatic event next year, and hence needed to be a success. He stressed that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as a whole, must make its utmost efforts for its preparations in cooperation with the related ministries and other stakeholders. Following Mr. Ado's remarks, Mr. Hiroshi Fukada, the former Secretary General for the G8 Summit and now the Prime Minister, reported on the progress of the preparations as well as other logistical considerations for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit and the G8 Foreign Ministers' Meeting. The establishment of this Liaison Meeting was announced by Mr. Aso on June 12 when the Cabinet approved the holding of the Hokkaido Toyako Summit.250 (July 17, 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

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Energy

Japan will host a series of meetings on energy-saving ahead of this year's G8 summit where climate change will be high on the agenda. Talks will be held in Tokyo on January 22 and 23, 2008, to prepare for a meeting of energy ministers in June in northern Aomori prefecture. Sources have suggested that a proposal to set up a new international organisation to study countries' energy-saving measures may be in the works for the upcoming summit The world body would provide emerging economies with the environmental know-how of developed countries. The new organisation would be funded by Japan, the United States and European countries, with the International Energy Agency in Paris being eyed as a possible location for the new body's headquarters. The energy agency official, however, denied the report, saying: "It is true that we plan to discuss a wide range of energy-saving topics but we don't have any plan to set up such a new body."251 (January 8, 2008, Agence France Presse)

The Aomori prefectural government said it will host a meeting of G8 energy ministers in the city of Aomori on June 7-8, 2008. In addition to the G8 member-states, China, South Korea and India will attend the meeting. There will be approximately 100 to 200 participants at the meeting including delegates from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and two other international organizations.252 (November 1, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Environment

The agenda for the meeting of the G8 environment ministers will focus on three areas: climate change, biodiversity and the three R's [reduce, reuse and recycle]. There are also plans to extend invitations to the major developing countries and various international organizations to attend the meeting. There will also be meetings with NGO/NPO and other stakeholders in related industries.253 (February 5, 2008, Ministry of the Environment: Government of Japan)

The first session of the G8 environment ministers is to be held on Okinawa, which was the venue of the G8 summit during Japan's previous G8 presidency eight years ago. The need to hold such a meeting is connected with the fact that efforts to abate global climate changes will be the main subject of discussion at the forthcoming summit in Hokkaido. The G8 ecology ministers also plan to discuss measures to avert droughts, and epidemics of infectious diseases such as the Western Nile fever, the spread of which, it is believed, is also a result of global warming.254 (December 25, 2007, ITAR-TASS World Service)

The environment ministers' meeting, scheduled in Kobe, was changed from its originally scheduled date, May 25-27, 2008 to May 24-26, 2008, according to officials from the Japanese government. (October 22, 2007)

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G20-Gleneagles Dialogue

Environment and energy ministers of the G20 countries and the EU will meet in the Makuhari district of Chiba, east of Tokyo, March 14 to 16 to discuss the problem of global warming, according to Japan's Environment Ministry and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The ministers will exchange opinions about a new framework that will succeed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on climate change that is set to expire in 2012. The G20 nations include the United States and China. Environment Minister Ichiro Kamoshita and Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry Akira Amari will jointly chair the meeting. They plan to insist on the need to have major greenhouse gas emitters like the United States, China and India join the post-Kyoto framework and stress the importance of cutting emissions by improving energy efficiency. Japan will report the outcome of the G20 meeting at the G8 summit in July.255 (February 28, 2008, Jiji Press English News Service)

At the G20 meeting, issues such as global warming and climate change will be discussed by environment and energy ministers of the world's 20 major greenhouse gas emitting nations as well as representatives from relevant international organizations, industries, NGOs and NPOs.256 (February 5, 2008, Ministry of the Environment: Government of Japan)

The Japanese government will host a meeting of the Gleneagles Dialogue in March 2008. "The Japanese Government has set out objectives in terms of progress towards a stabilization goal, and agreement on the need for improving energy efficiency and scaling up financing."257 (September 28, 2007, The Korea Herald)

From September 9-11, 2007, "the energy and environment ministers from the 20 major energy-consuming countries will meet in Berlin for the third 'Gleneagles Dialogue.' Following the meeting in Berlin, another conference is to be held in Japan in the spring of 2008. The results of the Gleneagles Dialogue will be reported at the 2008 G8 Summit under the Japanese presidency."258 (September 9, 2007, The Press and Information Office of the Federal Government of Germany)

A G20 conference on global warming and clean energy will be held in Tokyo.259 (May 10, 2007, Associated Press Newswires)

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Tokyo International Conference on African Development

Former Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori called on African leaders to take part in the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in Yokohama in May. "This year will be an extremely significant year for Japanese diplomacy toward Africa," he said, making a speech as Japanese representative at the opening ceremony for the 10th Ordinary Session of the African Union's Assembly. "We hope that the conference will serve as a place that can accomplish concrete results on economic development, peace building and environment issues [facing Africa]," he said. "We would like to reflect voices brought up during the conference in the [G8] summit to contribute to the expectation and future of children."260 (January 31, 2008, Kyodo News)

Speculation is growing that Japan is having difficulty in securing a good attendance at TICAD meeting, although Japan's Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura said earlier this month that Japan hopes to have at least 30 African heads of state and government take part.261 (January 31, 2008, Xinhua News Agency)

During his speech at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Prime Minister Fukuda stated that the theme of the upcoming TICAD conference is to be "Towards a Vibrant Africa." He highlighted the themes of development assistance and economic growth, trade and investment including south-south cooperation and peacebuilding.262 (January 26, 2008, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan)

Prime Minister Fukuda invited the Angolan Head of State, Jose Eduardo dos Santos, to participate at the International Conference on Africa's Development in Tokyo in May.263 (January 16, 2008, All Africa)

The Japanese have said that they plan to help in supporting efforts to implement the Sudanese's Comprehensive Peace Agreement as well as contribute over $200 million of aid for peace-building in the region.264 (January 9, 2008, Kyodo News)

Japan is set to introduce a "three pillar" plan at the TICAD conference in May. The three main pillars include: an "infrastructure initiative" which is supposed to help attract foreign investment, support for post-conflict peace building and cooperation in tackling environmental issues. As part of the plan, the Japanese government is considering providing aid to improve port facilities in Madagascar, a main distribution hub in Africa, and construct facilities for the development of resources in countries like Ghana and Guinea. The Japanese government hopes that the economic development in these ''model nations'' as a result of improvement in infrastructure ''will eventually lead the whole region out of poverty,'' a senior Foreign Ministry official said.265 (January 8, 2008, Kyodo News)

In a speech in the Tanzanian capital, Japanese foreign affairs minister Komura indicated Japan's intention to release a mid- to long-term support framework for Africa during the TICAD conference in May.266 (January 4, 2008, Kyodo News)

At the TICAD gathering Japan "intends to take up the issue of health in Africa" according to foreign minister Masahiko Komura. "It hopes notably to share its own experiences after World War II, when it launched nationwide health check-ups through schools and hospitals to build a country that now has the world's longest life expectancy."267 (January 1, 2008, Agence France Presse)

The Japanese Foreign Minister postponed his trip to Kenya due to political unrest in the country. Instead he is planning to visit Tanzanian for the time being, with the intention of visiting Kenya at a later date.268 (December 31, 2007, Agence France Presse)

Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura will make a six-day visit to Tanzania and Kenya to seek cooperation and active participation in the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in May. Komura, who will be the first Japanese foreign minister to visit the two African nations in 29 years, plans to call on their presidents to attend the TICAD conference in Yokohama and also hopes to meet with Kenyan environmentalist and 2004 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Wangari Maathai on global warming measures.269 (December 28, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

At TICAD issues of international trade and investment will be discussed. Japan has jointly hosted the African aid conference every five years since 1993 with international agencies such as the United Nations and the World Bank.270

Japan will lead discussions on international health cooperation aimed to reduce the mortality rate of infants and to better fight infectious diseases when it hosts the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in Yokohama in May, prior to the G8 summit.271 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda has sought the cooperation of the World Bank for the fourth meeting of the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD), in Yokohama next May.272 (December 5, 2007, Kyodo News)

Japan's 2007 White Paper on Official Development Assistance reflects their determination to take the lead in the international process to form a post-2012 framework on climate change as host of the Group of Eight summit and the Tokyo International Conference on African Development next year. The draft suggests Japan will support Africa and other regions that are likely to suffer from the impacts of climate change. Promoting democratization and implementing antiterrorism measures will also be key fields for ODA.273 (December 4, 2007, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific)

The Japanese government has indicated that the TICAD meetings with be a stepping stone for the discussions which will take place on African development at the 2008 G8 Summit in July.274 (November 26, 2007, Daily Yomiuri)

At the fourth TICAD meeting, Japan intends to take up the issue of health in Africa, according to Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura. "The objective will be to develop a common framework for action shared by the international community," he said. "In sub-Saharan Africa, 166 out of 1,000 children die before their 5th birthday; that is 20 times the number than in the developed world."275 (November 24, 2007, Agence France Presse)

The Foreign Ministry of Japan launched a secretariat to prepare for the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) in Yokohama next May, Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura said. ''TICAD, along with the Toyako (Group of Eight) Summit, will be the most important diplomatic events next year,'' Komura told a news conference. Shuichiro Megata, ambassador in charge of African affairs and a personal representative of Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda for Africa, was appointed head of the 40-member secretariat, the ministry said.276 (November 15, 2007, Kyodo News)

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Japan's G8 Team

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Notes

1 Agence France Presse (February 28, 2008), "Japan pledges extra funds to fight AIDS, TB, malaria."

2 Thai News Service (February 22, 2008), "World: Sustainable management of forests priority of next G8 Summit, Japanese PM Fukuda announced."

3 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, (January 26, 2008), "Special Address by H.E. Mr. Yasuo Fukuda, Prime Minister of Japan On the Occasion of the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum-Congress Center, Davos Switzerland." Available at: <www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/wef/2008/address-s.html>

4 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (January 19, 2008), "PM set to gear up Japan's climate diplomacy in Davos."

5 Agence France Presse (January 1, 2008), "Japan to lead climate debate as head of G8 rich club."

6 Kyodo News (December 20, 2007), "Japan to focus foreign aid on African development, climate change."

7 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

8 The Australian (December 5, 2007), "UN chief warns of water wars."

9 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

10 Associated Press Newswires (November 1, 2007), "Report: Japan fears CO2 spike in 2007."

11 Kyodo News (October 5, 2007), "Fukuda vows to tackle environment, appears lukewarm on charter change."

12 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

13 Associated Press Newswires (January 26, 2008,), "At Davos, Japan and Denmark set climate goals for the world."

14 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, (January 26, 2008), "Special Address by H.E. Mr. Yasuo Fukuda, Prime Minister of Japan On the Occasion of the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum-Congress Center, Davos Switzerland." Available at: <www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/wef/2008/address-s.html>

15 Daily Yomiuri (January 25, 2008), "Fukuda to tell Davos of energy plans/ 'Japan to help boost world efficiency 30%.'"

16 Dow Jones International News (January 21, 2008), Japan PM Fukuda Calls For Careful Global Econ Policy-Making."

17 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

18 The International Herald Tribune (March 7, 2008), "Japan has compiled a sector-specific approach on reducing greenhouse gas emissions for a post-Kyoto Protocol framework, but critics say the plan would be ineffective because it is too lenient on industries."

19 The International Herald Tribune (February 29, 2008), "The government is inviting leaders from 16 countries to Japan in the summer for one of the largest top-level meetings ever on global warming, sources say."

20 Jiji Press English News Service (February 28, 2008), "8 Nations Invited to G-8 Outreach Session on Climate Change."

21 Jiji Press English News Service (February 19, 2008), "G-8 to Discuss Medium Term Emission Targets."

22 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (February 12, 2008), "Japanese PM, UK Brown agree to lead G8 talks on post-Kyoto climate regime."

23 Asia Pulse (February 21, 2008), "Japan to Coordinate Climate Meeting with July G8 Summit."

24 Agence France Presse (January 29, 2008), "Japan minister eyes deeper cuts in greenhouse gas."

25 Agence France Presse (January 26, 2008), "Davos wraps up with warnings for 2008."

26 Reuters News (January 26, 2008), "Japan targets climate change with $10 billion fund."

27 Agence France Presse (January 26, 2008), "Japan wants to change 1990 emission baseline: PM."

28 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, (January 26, 2008), "Special Address by H.E. Mr. Yasuo Fukuda, Prime Minister of Japan On the Occasion of the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum-Congress Center, Davos Switzerland." Available at: <www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/wef/2008/address-s.html>

29 Daily Yomiuri (January 25, 2008), "Fukuda to tell Davos of energy plans/ 'Japan to help boost world efficiency 30%.'"

30 Daily Yomiuri (January 21, 2008), "Govt to detail technology aid plan at G-8 summit."

31 Kyodo News (January 20, 2008), "Japan to call for emissions cut based on 2000 or later."

32 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (January 19, 2008), "PM set to gear up Japan's climate diplomacy in Davos."

33 Kyodo News (January 17, 2008), "Fukuda to unveil plan to set post-2013 emissions cut goal in Davos."

34 Daily Yomiuri (January 16, 2008), "Govt to buy green energy for G-8 meet."

35 Kyodo News (January 12, 2008), "Fukuda to stress pensions, global warming in policy speech."

36 Kyodo News (January 5, 2008), "Fukuda to take part in World Economics Forum at Davos."

37 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (January 4, 2008), "Japan, India to launch currency swap scheme."

38 Agence France Presse (January 1, 2008), "Japan to lead climate debate as head of G8 rich club."

39 Reuters News (December 29, 2007), "Japan to back targets for new climate deal-report."

40 Kyodo News (December 27, 2007), "Japan eyeing nation targets for emissions cuts from 2013."

41 Kyodo News (December 23, 2007), "Japan, U.S. eye climate summit before G-8 talks next year."

42 Kyodo News (December 8, 2007), "Japan eyes 500 bil. yen share in Tokyo-led climate fund."

43 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

44 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 4, 2007), "Japan's foreign aid white paper to focus on global warming issues."

45 Kyodo News (December 3, 2007), "Gov't sets up post of special Cabinet advisor on climate change."

46 Kyodo News (November 27, 2007), "Japan aims to act as coordinator to launch post-Kyoto talks."

47 Daily Yomiuri (November 26 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

48 Kyodo News (November 21, 2007), "Japan unveils 2.1 bil. aid to clean up East Asian pollution."

49 Kyodo News (November 16, 2007), "Japan, U.S. agree to work on post-Kyoto regime on global warming."

50 Reuters News (November 15, 2007), "Japan to offer 1.8 bln in environmental loans."

51 Associated Press Wires (November 1, 2007), "Report: Japan fears CO2 spike in 2007."

52 Kyodo News (October 15, 2007), "Fukuda, Merkel agree to cooperate on climate change, N. Korea issue."

53 Kyodo News (October 15, 2007), "Fukuda calls for 'powerful' measures to attain emissions cut goal."

54 Kyodo News (October 12, 2007), "Fukuda, Howard agree to work on security, tackling global warming."

55 Kyodo News (October 5, 2007), "Fukuda vows to tackle environment, appears lukewarm on charter change."

56 Kyodo News (September 26, 2007), "Japan, U.S., eyeing G8 plan to remove tariffs on energy-saving goods."

57 Nikkei Report, (September 14, 2007), "Japan's Prime Minister To Miss NY Climate Meet, UN Assembly."

58 Jiji Press English News Service (September 12, 2007), "Japan worried over Abe Resignation Impact on Ties with the U.S."

59 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agency (September 8, 2007), "Japan, Russia agree to speed up peace treaty talks."

60 Agence France Presse (August 29, 2007), "Germany's Merkel discusses Afghan mission, global warming with Japanese leader."

61 Kyodo News (August 23, 2007), "Japan in key position to tackle climate change: U.N. official."

62 Kyodo News (August 20, 2007), "India wants to work with Japan on global warming."

63 Kyodo News (August 6, 2007), "German leader Merkel to visit Japan on Aug. 29-31."

64 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (August 2, 2007), "Japanese finance minister calls for post-Kyoto framework at APEC meeting."

65 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (August 1, 2007), "Japanese, Indian foreign ministers lay ground work for PM Abe's India trip."

66 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (August 2007), "Cool Earth 50."

67 Kyodo News (July 9, 2007), "Introduction of 'energy use efficiency' index to be proposed."

68 Agence France Presse (June 8, 2007), "Japan to take over G8 climate change debate."

69 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

70 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

71 Agence France Presse (March 20, 2007), "Japan aims to lead post-Kyoto climate change fight."

72 Jiji Press English News Service (February 18, 2007), "Japan's Abe Ready to Lead Talks on Green Efforts at G8 Summit."

73 Jiji Press English News Service (February 18, 2007), "Japan's Abe Ready to Lead Talks on Green Efforts at G8 Summit."

74 G8 Official Document (July 8, 2005), "Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development," accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/climatechange.html.

75 Agence France Presse (February 28, 2008), "Japan pledges extra funds to fight AIDS, TB, malaria."

76 Jiji Press English News Service (February 28, 2008), "8 Nations Invited to G-8 Outreach Session on Climate Change."

77 Kyodo News (February 22, 2008), "Japan vows to share know-how to improve safe water access, sanitation."

78 Kyodo News (January 26, 2008), "Japan to create fund to help Africa with intellectual property."

79 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, (January 26, 2008), "Special Address by H.E. Mr. Yasuo Fukuda, Prime Minister of Japan On the Occasion of the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum-Congress Center, Davos Switzerland." Available at: <www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/wef/2008/address-s.html>

80 Daily Yomiuri (January 25, 2008), "Fukuda to tell Davos of energy plans/ 'Japan to help boost world efficiency 30%.'"

81 Kyodo News (January 23, 2008), "Fukuda to seek int'l coordination on global slowdown in Davos speech."

82 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (January 19, 2008), "PM set up to gear Japan's climate diplomacy in Davos."

83 Kyodo News (January 9, 2008), "Japan calls for more efforts on 3rd anniversary of Sudan peace deal."

84 Kyodo News (January 4, 2008), "Komura says Japan will extend $260 mil. to Africa."

85 Agence France Presse (January 1, 2008), "Japan to lead climate change debate as head of G8 rich club."

86 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

87 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

88 Agence France Presse (November 24, 2007), "Japan's G8 to focus on global health: foreign minister."

89 Financial Times (October 14, 2007), "The G8 leaves aid pledges for Africa largely unfulfilled."

90 The International Herald Tribune (August 21, 2007), "As Japan looks ahead to hosting a Group of Eight (G8) summit that will focus on Africa, along with a major international conference on African development, it is being forced to rethink its own aid program for the continent."

91 Agence France Presse (August 8, 2007), "World Bank chief pledges closer cooperation with Japan."

92 Kyodo News (August 6, 2007), " Abe calls for gov't wide efforts to step up aid in Africa."

93 Jiji Press English News Service (July 25, 2007), "World Bank Pres. To Visit Japan in Early Aug."

94 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

95 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

96 Agence France Presse (April 16, 2007), "Italy, Japan say G8 to focus on Africa, warming."

97 Hugh Williamson and Alan Beattie (October 18, 2006), "Germany to focus G8 on Africa investment," Accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/01a1136a-5ed6-11db-afac-0000779e2340.html.

98 Julius Court (2005), "Live8, the G8 and Africa: How bold will Japan be?" Overseas Development Institute, Accessed December 20, 2006, http://www.odi.org.uk/rapid/Projects/UK_Japan/docs/DY_OpEd.pdf.

99 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (December 21, 2007), "Tokyo to offer foreign reporters tour of S uriles before G8 summit."

100 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

101 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

102 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (May 20, 2007), "Japan wants to discuss nuclear plant safety guidelines at G8."

103 Agence France Presse (February 15, 2008), "Japan unlikely to immediately recognize Kosovo."

104 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (February 4, 2008), "Visiting Afghan foreign minister thanks Japan for resuming refuelling."

105 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (November 1, 2007), "Top officials say Japan to step up economic aid in Afghanistan."

106 Kyodo News (October 24, 2007), "Fukuda, Merkel agree to cooperate on climate change, N. Korea issue."

107 BBC Monitoring South Asia (August 12, 2007), "Afghan daily says G8 to mediate with Pakistan."

108 Kyodo News (January 9, 2008), "Gov't think tank calls for promoting nuclear energy at G-8."

109 Agence France Presse (January 8, 2008), "Japan to launch G8 energy-saving talks: official."

110 Xinhua News Agency (January 1, 2008), "Japanese PM emphasizes people's livelihood in new year speech."

111 Jiji Press English News Service (December 26, 2007), "G-8 Summit to Discuss Water, Sanitation Issues."

112 Kyodo News (November 29, 2007), "Asia-Pacific water summit, to be held next week to prevent crisis."

113 Kyodo News (October 5, 2007), "Fukuda vows to tackle environment, appears lukewarm on charter change."

114 Fiji Press English News Service (July 10, 2007), "Abe May Attend World Economic Forum Meeting."

115 Kyodo News (July 5, 2007), "Gore urges Japanese to back Live Earth concerts, seeks 90% emission cut."

116 ITAR-TASS World Service (July 3, 2007), "G8 summiteers in Japan to drive 'ecological cars'."

117 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (June 8, 2007), "Press Conference by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Following his visit to Germany for the G8 Summit Meeting in Heiligendamm."

118 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

119 Kyodo News (January 26, 2008), "Japan to create fund to help Africa with intellectual property."

120 Australian Financial Review (December 7, 2007), "Piracy treaty on track for G8 meeting."

121 Kyodo News (July 21, 2007), "Japan, U.S., Europe eye drafting treaty against counterfeit goods."

122 Eiji Hirose (June 9, 2007), "G8 eyes more flexible yuan," Daily Yomiuiri.

123 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html

124 Daily Yomiuri (February 26, 2008), "Fukuda, Lee now eye new era."

125 Daily Yomiuri (February 9, 2008), "G-8 summit agenda expands to include climate, Africa."

126 Kyodo News (February 1, 2008), "Japan not to take up issue of G-8 membership for China at July summit."

127 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (January 4, 2008), "Japan, India to launch currency swap scheme."

128 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G-8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

129 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (June 8, 2007), "Press Conference by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Following his visit to Germany for the G8 Summit Meeting in Heiligendamm."

130 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

131 ITAR-TASS World Service (March 7, 2008), "Leader of 15 states to be invited to G8 summit."

132 Australian Financial Review (February 29, 2008), "Rudd's seat at exclusive G8 table."

133 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (February 22, 2008), "Japan PM expresses eagerness to resume FTA talks with South Korea."

134 Jiji English Press News Service (February 22, 2008), "Japan to Call for Unified Road Construction Aid Plans for Africa."

135 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (February 15, 2008), "G8 Health Experts' Meeting." (Accessed February 26, 2008), Available from: <www.mofa.go.jp/announce/announce/2008/2/1177901_980.html>

136 Kyodo News (February 3, 2008), "Japan plans to invite S. Korea, Australia and Indonesia to G-8."

137 Nikkei Report (January 23, 2008), "Keidanren To Host G8 Business Summit in April."

138 Daily Yomiuri (December 22, 2007), "Fukuda hints at inviting ROK's Lee to G-8 meet."

139 KBS World News-English Edition (December 22, 2007), "Japan Mulls Inviting Korea to G-8 Summit Next Year."

140 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (December 21, 2007), "Tokyo to offer foreign reporters tour of S uriles before G8 summit."

141 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

142 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

143 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Fukuda promises Zoellick cooperation with 'second World Bank.'"

144 Kyodo News (November 2, 2007), "Japan, Singapore leaders agree to discuss environment at EAS."

145 Kyodo News (October 24, 2007), "Fukuda, Merkel agree to cooperate on climate change, N. Korea issue."

146 The Australian (October 23, 2007), "Fukuda seeks closer co-operation."

147 BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (September 10, 2007), "Russia criticizes Japanese minister's statement on disputed lands."

148 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm Communiqué. (Accessed October 1, 2007) http://www.g-8.de/Content/EN/Artikel/__g8-summit/2007-06-07-summit-documents.html.

149 Kyodo News (January 3, 2008), "G-8 summit logo underlines coexistence of environment, humankind."

150 Financial Times (January 1, 2008), "FT.com site: Japan aims to impress its G8 partners."

151 HBC G8: Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008 (October 1, 2007), "Conference to Promote Japan Tourism in Toyako," http://www.hbc.jp/g8/eng/news/news20071001.html.

152 HBC G8: Hokkaido-Toyako Summit 2008 (September 13, 2007), "What effect with Prime Minister Abe's resignation have on the Toyako summit?" http://www.hbc.jp/g8/eng/news/news20070913.html.

153 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (September 3, 2007), "Japan sets asides funds for 2008 G8 summit."

154 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

155 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

156 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

157 Russian Press Digest (February 8, 2008), "Japan takes Kuriles to the Kremlin."

158 Kyodo News (February 7, 2008), "Fukuda calls for gov't, people to work together over territorial row."

159 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (February 7, 2008), "Japan PM wants to separately meet G8 leaders before summit."

160 Kyodo News (January 10, 2008), "G-8 sherpas hold 1st meeting to prepare for July summit."

161 Kyodo News (January 7, 2008), "Japan, Vietnam agree to set up currency swap scheme."

162 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 28, 2007), "Japan finance minister to visit India, Vietnam in January."

163 Nikkei Report, (September 14, 2007), "Japan's Prime Minister To Miss NY Climate Meet, UN Assembly."

164 Financial Times (January 11, 2008), "Japan to force through terror law."

165 Kyodo News (December 28, 2007), "Japan seeks to raise profile as G-8 host but Fukuda's hands tied."

166 Dow Jones International News (December 28, 2007), "Japan PM Fukuda Eyes Cabinet Reshuffle In Mid-January."

167 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Fukuda's study panel on foreign policy to meet next Sunday."

168 Financial Times (November 12, 2007), "Fukuda warns on rapid rise in yen."

169 Jiji Press English News Service (September 12, 2007), "Japan worried over Abe Resignation Impact on Ties with the U.S."

170 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (July 4, 2007), "Establishment of Secretariat for the G8 Summit."

171 Kyodo News (July 1, 2007), "Foreign Ministry sets up preparatory panel as G9 summit liaison."

172 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

173 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

174 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

175 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

176 Kyodo News (December 23, 2007), "Japan to cut ODA budget 4.0%, down for 9th straight year."

177 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (September 3, 2007), "Japan sets asides funds for 2008 G8 summit."

178 The International Herald Tribune (February 19, 2008), "The government plans to set up a 55-kilometer no-fly zone around the Lake Toyaka resort in Hokkaido and strengthen other anti-terrorism measures during the Group of Eight summit in July, sources said."

179 ITAR-TASS World Service (February 18, 2008), "No-fly zone to be set up around G8 summit venue in Japan."

180 Xinhua News Agency (January 9, 2008), "Japan mulls protecting G-8 summit with Patriot-3 missiles."

181 Daily Yomiuri (December 31, 2007), "Govt to keep 'hooligans' away from G-8 summit."

182 The Western Mail (December 21, 2007), "Welsh technology to help protect Japan G8 summit."

183 Kyodo News (December 10, 2007), "NPA warns against possible terrorism, riots before G-8 summit."

184 Jiji Press English News Service (December 10, 2007), "Japan Resolved to Prevent Terror Attacks on G-8 Summit."

185 Kyodo News (August 12, 2007), "Japan, German police cooperate on security for G8 summit in Hokkaido."

186 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (July 14, 2007), "Japan coast guard holds drill in preparation for 2008 G8 summit."

187 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (July 3, 2007), "Japan HQ for ensuring 2008 G8 summit security starts work."

188 Kyodo News (July 2, 2007), "Japan police begin work to devise G8 summit policing plans."

189 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

190 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

191 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

192 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (June 12, 2007), "Japan official vows top security for 2008 G8, preparatory panel set up."

193 Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (December 21, 2007), "Tokyo to offer foreign reporters tour of S uriles before G8 summit."

194 Jiji Press English News Service (September 5, 2007), "Japan Planning Media Relations Training before G8 Summit."

195 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (September 4, 2007), "G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit (Location of the International Media Center)."

196 Kyodo News (June 18, 2007), "Media center for G8 summit to be set up in Rusutsu Resort."

197 Kyodo News (February 7, 2008), "NGOs seek Japan's leadership in advancing health issues at G-8 summit."

198 The Japan Times Online (January 3, 2008), "NGOs gearing up for Lake Toya blitz."

199 Model G8 Youth Summit (December 5, 2007), "Model G8 Youth Summit: 2008 in Japan."

200 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (October 26, 2007), "2008 Junior Eight (J8) Summit."

201 Kyodo News (May 19, 2007), "Japan to host G8 summit next year from July 7-9: Abe," accessed: May 22, 2007: http://home.kyodo.co.jp/modules/fstStory/index.php?storyid=315544.

202 Kyodo News (November 1, 2007), "Japan to host G-8 lower house speakers' meeting in Hiroshima."

203 Japanese Government (2007), "the Japan G8 Presidency in 2008: Locations of Ministers Meetings," Available in the G8 Information Centre archives.

204 MOFA (May 29, 2007), "Announcement of the Schedule of the G8 Ministerial and other Meetings in 2008," accessed July 3, 2007, http://www.mofa.go.jp/announce/event/2007/5/1173657_848.html.

205 Mainichi News (May 19, 2007), "Japan to hold 2008 G8 summit on July 7-9," accessed May 22, 2007: http://mdn.mainichi-msn.co.jp/business/news/20070519p2g00m0bu019000c.html

206 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

207 Jiji Press English News Service (April 24, 2007), "Japan Eyeing G8 Summit in July 2008."

208 Kyodo News (April 23, 2007), "G8 ministerial meetings set in Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Niigata."

209 Reuters News (February 28, 2008), "G7 ready to act to stabilize markets-Japan MOF."

210 AFX International Focus (February 10, 2008), "G7 Meeting At-a-glance guide to main points."

211 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (February 8, 2008), "Japan: Minister says G7 to 'candidly discuss' tackling credit crunch fear."

212 Dow Jones International News (February 7, 2008), "G7 to Consider Climate Change Fund: Japan."

213 Jiji Press English News Service (January 6, 2008), "G-7 to Seek Early Disclosures of Subprime Losses."

214 Reuters News (February 6, 2008), "Japan MOF official: G7 won't single out currencies."

215 Jiji Press English News Service (February 4, 2008), "Japan's Nukaga to Seek Banks Enhanced Info Disclosure at G-7."

216 Jiji Press English News Service (February 4, 2008), "G-7 to Confirm Cooperation to Tackle Financial Instability."

217 Reuters News (January 31, 2008), "Japan's Nukaga: No plan for sovereign wealth fund."

218 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (January 30, 2008), "Luxembourg PM to visit Japan 6-10 February."

219 Agence France Presse (January 28, 2008), "G7 to consider climate change fund: report."

220 Dow Jones International News (January 27, 2008) "Nukaga: Want G7 to Discuss Policy Coordination."

221 Xinhua News Agency (January 26, 2008), "No need to be overly pessimistic about current financial turmoils: Japanese PM."

222 Kyodo News (January 25, 2008), "Market turns to G-7 as litmus test for enfeebled Tokyo stocks."

223 Kyodo News (January 23, 2008), "Fukuda to seek int'l coordination on global slowdown in Davos Speech."

224 Jiji Press English News Service (January 23, 2008), "Concerted Efforts to Tackle Subprime Woe to Be G-7 Focus."

225 Agence France Presse (January 22, 2008), "Japan minister hails Fed rate cut."

226 BBC Monitoring Newsfile (January 21, 2008), "Japan minister says no immediate action on stock plunges."

227 Jiji Press English News Service (January 17, 2008), "G-7 May Invite China, S. Korea to Informal Meeting."

228 Kyodo News (January 16, 2008), "Nukaga calls for G-7 message to stabilize global economy, markets."

229 Jiji Press English News Service (January 12, 2008), "G-7 to Discuss Strength of Emerging Economies at Tokyo Meeting."

230 Reuters News (January 8, 2008), "Italy to join UK, France, Germany for financial talks."

231 Kyodo News (December 28, 2007), "G-7 to meet Feb. 9 to discuss subprime crisis, oil prices."

232 Reuters News (December 10, 2007), "G7 plan Tokyo meeting on Feb 8-G7 sources."

233 Kyodo News (October 15, 2007), "G7 to vow to collaborate in dealing with credit market crunch."

234 Dow Jones International News (October 15, 2007), "Japan Nukaga: G7 To Discuss World Economy, FX, Markets."

235 AFX International Focus (October 15, 2007), "US to call for restrictions on sovereign wealth funds at G7 meeting."

236 Dow Jones International News (October 15, 2007), "Japan Sakakibara: G7 Unlikely to Block Euro's Rise."

237 Dow Jones International News (October 15, 2007), "Japan Sakakibara: G7 Unlikely to Block Euro's Rise."

238 Reuters News (October 12, 2007), "FSF to brief G7 market crisis report-Germany."

239 Reuters News (October 12, 2007), "FSF to brief G7 market crisis report-Germany."

240 Dow Jones International News (October 12, 2007), "German Deputy Fin Min: market Turmoil G7 Topic."

241 Dow Jones International News (September 28, 2007), "G7 Divided on Adding Dollar to Oct 20 Communique-Sources."

242 AFX International Focus (September 27, 2007), "Japan's new finance chief says important to work on market stability at G7."

243 Dow Jones International News (September 27, 2007), "Japan MOF Nukaga: Want G7 to Work Toward Stabilizing Markets."

244 New Zealand Press Association (September 27, 2007), "Turkish Bond Lifts Sentiment, Stress Elsewhere."

245 Dow Jones International News (September 27, 2007), "Japan Nukaga: G7 to Work Toward Stabilizing Markets."

246 New Zealand Press Association (September 27, 2007), "FOREX Debate Unlikely at G7-Japan's Nukaga."

247 Kyodo News (September 21, 2007), "G7 to debate ways to stabilize financial markets."

248 Jiji Press English News Service (September 14, 2007), "G7 to Seek Financial Experts Advice on Subprime Woes."

249 AFX International Focus (September 2, 2007), "Japanese finance minister says G7 should learn lessons from US credit woes."

250 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (July 17, 2007), "First Liaison Meeting for the Hokkaido Toyako Summit 2008."

251 Agence France Presse (January 8, 2008), "Japan to launch G8 energy-saving talks: official."

252 Kyodo News (November 1, 2007), "G-8 energy ministers to meet in Amori June 7-8."

253 Ministry of the Environment: Government of Japan (February 5, 2008), "Kobe Environment Ministers Meeting 2008," (Accessed February 15, 2008), Available from: <www.env.go.jp/earth/g8/en/index.html>

254 ITAR-TASS World Service (December 25, 2007), "Japan to arrange G8 ecology ministers meeting."

255 Jiji Press English News Service (February 28, 2008), "Japan to Host G-20 Meeting on Global Warming March 14-16."

256 Ministry of the Environment: Government of Japan (February 5, 2008), "Chiba Gleneagles Dialogue 2008," (Accessed February 15, 2008), Available from: <www.env.go.jp/earth/g8/en/g20/index.html>

257 The Korea Herald (September 28, 2007), "EU proposes 30% emission cut by 2020."

258 The Press and Information Office of the Federal Government of Germany (September 9, 2007), "Gleneagles Dialogue - Third meeting of the Energy and Environment Ministers."

259 Associated Press Newswires (May 10, 2007), "Japan picks far-flung cities for ministerial meetings during 2008 G8 summit."

260 Kyodo News (January 31, 2008), "Ex-Japan PM Mori urges Africa to take part in African conference."

261 Xinhua News Agency (January 31, 2008), "Japan says to send peacekeepers for Africa."

262 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, (January 26, 2008), "Special Address by H.E. Mr. Yasuo Fukuda, Prime Minister of Japan On the Occasion of the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum-Congress Center, Davos Switzerland." Available at: <www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/wef/2008/address-s.html>

263 All Africa (January 16, 2008), "Japanese Premier Invites President for Africa Conference."

264 Kyodo News (January 9, 2008), "Japan calls for more efforts on 3rd anniversary of Sudan peace deal."

265 Kyodo News (January 8, 2008), "Japan considering 250 billion yen aid for African infrastructure."

266 Kyodo News (January 4, 2008), "Komura says Japan will extend $260 mil. to Africa."

267 Agence France Presse (January 1, 2008), "Japan to lead climate change debate as head of G8 rich club."

268 Agence France Presse (December 31, 2007), "Japan FM cancels trip to riot-hit Kenya."

269 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 28, 2007), "Japan foreign minister to visit Kenya, Tanzania 2-7 January."

270 Kyodo News (December 14, 2007), "World Bank exec urges Japan to enhance aid to Africa."

271 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Japan eyes 4 key issues for G-8 summit, sherpas to begin talks Jan."

272 Kyodo News (December 5, 2007), "Fukuda promises Zoellick cooperation with 'second World Bank.'"

273 BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 4, 2007), "Japan's foreign aid white paper to focus on global warming issues."

274 Daily Yomiuri (November 26, 2007), "Govt's G8 priorities to include nuclear nonproliferation."

275 Agence France Presse (November 24, 2007), "Japan's G8 to focus on global health: foreign minister."

276 Kyodo News (November 15, 2007), "Japan launches secretariat to prepare for Africa conference in May."

277 Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet (Accessed October 15, 2007), <http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/index-e.html>

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