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2009 L'Aquila G8 Summit
Interim Compliance Report

11 July 2009 to 22 February 2010
Prepared by Adrienne Davidson, Shiva Logarajah, Sam Plett, Erin Fitzgerald, Netila Demneri and Mark Rakhmangulov,
with Jenilee Guebert
the University of Toronto G8 Research Group
and the State University Higher School of Economics (Moscow) G8 Research Centre

22 March 2010, revised 4 May 2010

The 2009 L'Aquila G8 Summit Interim Compliance Report reviews progress made on selected commitments set out at the 2009 L'Aquila Summit for the period of 11 July 2009 to 22 February 2010. The preface and summary of the findings are listed below. The 2009 Interim Compliance Scores and Summary Compliance Scores since 1996 are also listed below.

Download the full 2009 L'Aquila G8 Summit Interim Compliance Report (PDF, 306 pages), or download the each section below.

The report contains the following sections, which can be downloaded separately:

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Preface

Each year since 1996, the G8 Research Group has produced a compliance report on the progress made by the G8 member countries in meeting the commitments issued at each summit. Since 2002, the group has published an interim report, timed to assess progress at moment of the transition between one country’s year as host and the next, and a final report issued just before the leaders’ annual summit. These reports, which monitor each country’s efforts on a carefully chosen selection of the many commitments announced at the end of each summit, are offered to the general public and to policy makers, academics, civil society, the media and interested citizens around the world in an effort to make the work of the G8 more transparent and accessible, and to provide scientific data to enable the meaningful analysis of this unique and informal institution. Compliance reports are available at the G8 Information Centre at www.g8.utoronto.ca/compliance.

The G8 Research Group is an independent organization based at the University of Toronto. Founded in 1987, it is an international network of scholars, professionals and students that has as its mission to serve as the leading independent source of analysis on the G8. The group oversees the G8 Information Centre, which publishes, free of charge, research on the G8 and also publishes official documents issued by the G8.

For the 2009 Interim Compliance report, 24 priority commitments were selected from the 254 commitments made at the L’Aquila Summit, hosted by Italy from 8 to 10 July 2009. This report assesses the results of compliance with those commitments as of 22 February 2010. The G8 Research Group in Toronto has again worked with a team at the State University Higher School of Economics (HSE) in Moscow led by Mark Rakhmangulov, specifically on the reports for Russia. This continues the collaboration that has existed between the two teams since 2006, and will continue for the final compliance report.

To make its assessments, the G8 Research Group relies on publicly available information, documentation and media reports. To ensure the accuracy, comprehensiveness and integrity of these reports, we encourage comments and suggestions. Indeed, this is a living document, and the scores can be recalibrated if new material becomes available. All feedback remains anonymous and is not attributed. Responsibility for this report’s contents lies exclusively with the authors and analysts of the G8 Research Group.

The work of the G8 Research Group would not be possible without the steadfast dedication of many people around the world. This report is the product of a team of energetic and hard-working analysts led by Erin Fitzgerald, chair of the student executive, and Netila Demneri, vice-chair, as well as the co-chairs of the Compliance Unit: Adrienne Davidson, Shiva Logarajah and Sam Plett. It would also not be possible without the support of Dr Ella Kokotsis, director of external relations, and Jenilee Guebert, director of research. We are also indebted to the many people who provided feedback on our draft version, whose comments have been carefully considered in this revised report.

John Kirton
Director
G8 Research Group

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Executive Summary

The University of Toronto G8 Research Group has completed its eighth annual Interim Compliance Report. It is based on an analysis of compliance by G8 member states and the EU with 24 priority commitments from the 2009 L’Aquila Summit and covers the period from 10 July 2009 to 22 February 2010. This timeframe allows for an assessment of compliance approximately coincident with the transfer of the G8 presidency from Italy to Canada, which occurred on 1 January 2009.

The Interim Compliance Scores are contained in Table A. Individual country and issue assessments are contained in the sections below. This report is intended to provide a mid-term assessment of the members’ progress toward compliance and to follow the transition in the presidency of the G8. The observations contained in this report are therefore based on relevant information available as of end of February 2010. The Final Compliance Report, which will be published immediately prior to the 2010 Muskoka Summit, will provide more comprehensive analysis and updated compliance scores.

The Overall Interim Compliance Score

The results of the G8 Research Group’s assessments indicate that, for the period July 2009 to February 2010, the G8 member states and the European Union received an average compliance score of +0.33. Individual scores are assigned on a scale where +1 indicates full compliance with the stated commitment, 0 is awarded for partial compliance or a work in progress, and -1 is reserved for those countries that fail to comply or that take action that is directly opposite to the stated goal of the commitment. The average interim score of +0.34 is on par with scores in previous years.

Compliance by Member

G8 members’ rankings are roughly in line with past interim reports. The United Kingdom has maintained its traditional first place. Canada, historically in second place, has slipped to third. Japan, Italy and France are all within one rank of their historical average. The European Union, historically ranked third for compliance, is tied for fourth with the United States. Russia has returned to its traditional eighth place, having ranked sixth in the interim compliance report for the 2008 Toyako-Hokkaido Summit. Italy is ranked last.

The Compliance Gap between Members

The difference between the highest and lowest G8 member compliance scores is 0.88. Although this is a large increase from the gap of 0.75 in the 2008 interim compliance report, it is only slightly smaller than the highest interim compliance gap of 0.89 after the 2005 Gleneagles Summit.

Compliance by Commitment

Overall compliance by commitment is almost uniformly distributed from -1 to +1, so it is difficult to identify outliers. Ten commitments were scored above +0.50, which is consistent with past years. Three commitments received a score of zero. There are four scores below zero this year, compared to five from last year, but only one the year before.

Within the Climate Change commitments, compliance was generally strong, with Technology Research and Development, Financing and Forest Degradation receiving average scores of 1, 0.78, and 0.67 respectively. The only outlier among the climate change commitments was Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), which received an average score of -0.33. The average score for the four commitments was 0.53, well above the average compliance score and above the 0.39 average for compliance on climate change commitments from 2008.

Other environment commitments, such as Biodiversity, which received a score of 0.56, tended to receive fairly strong scores. The Energy commitments were a similar case, with Energy Efficiency receiving a score of 0.44 and Clean Technology Transfer receiving a score of 0.44.

Security commitments also received among the highest average compliance scores. Both Piracy and Afghanistan received average scores of 0.89, while corruption received a score of 0.67. The score for the Terrorism commitment was 0.56. The only outlier was African Peace Support, which received an average score of 0.

Economic and finance commitments proved extremely variable. Foreign Direct Investment received an average score of 0.67, but Trade received a score of -0.78 and World Economy received a score of 0.11. International Financial Institutions fell in the middle of this range, receiving an average score of 0.33. The average score of these commitments amounts to 0.08, which is a significant drop from last year’s average of 0.58.

Scores for commitments dealing with the international framework for development assistance were low across the board. Official Development Assistance received an average score of 0.11, Good Governance received a score of 0, and Aid Effectiveness received a score of -0.44. Health specific commitments also tended to score low, on average, with Health Systems received a score of 0.33 and Child Mortality receiving a score of 0.11. However, among commitments dealing with other aspects of development assistance, the results were more variable. Food and Agriculture's average score of 0.78, although Water and Sanitation received 0.33 and Education received a score of 0.11. The low average of the development commitments (0.14) is consistent with past reports, although it is well above the very low average from 2008 at -0.42.

Future Research and Reports

The information contained within this report provides G8 member countries and other stakeholders with an indication of their compliance results in the post-Gleneagles period. As with previous compliance reports, this report has been produced as an invitation for others to provide additional or more complete information on country compliance. As always, comments are welcomed and would be considered as part of an analytical reassessment. Please send your feedback to g8@utoronto.ca.

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Table A: 2009 L'Aquila Interim Compliance Scores

Commitment

Canada

France

Germany

Italy

Japan

Russia

UK

U.S.

EU

Average

World Economy [21]

0

+1

+1

-1

0

-1

0

0

+1

0.11

Corruption [24]

+1

+1

0

0

0

+1

+1

+1

+1

0.67

Trade [37]

-1

-1

-1

-1

+1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-0.78

Foreign Direct Investment [40]

+1

0

0

0

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

0.67

Climate Change: Technology R&D [64]

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

1

Climate Change: Financing [66]

+1

+1

+1

0

+1

0

+1

+1

+1

0.78

Climate Change: Forest Degradation [73]

0

+1

+1

0

+1

0

+1

+1

+1

0.67

Biodiversity [81]

+1

+1

0

0

+1

+1

+1

0

0

0.56

Energy Efficiency [87]

0

0

0

0

+1

+1

+1

+1

0

0.44

Energy: Clean Technology Transfer [91]

0

-1

+1

0

+1

0

+1

+1

+1

0.44

Climate Change: CCS [98]

+1

-1

-1

-1

0

-1

+1

-1

0

-0.33

Africa: Official Development Assistance [115]

0

0

0

-1

+1

-1

+1

0

-1

-0.11

Aid Effectiveness [119]

0

-1

0

-1

-1

0

0

0

-1

-0.44

Water and Sanitation [146]

0

+1

+1

-1

+1

0

+1

0

0

0.33

Health: Health Systems [147]

+1

0

0

-1

0

0

+1

+1

+1

0.33

Health: Child Mortality [151]

+1

0

-1

0

+1

0

+1

0

-1

0.11

Education [157]

+1

+1

0

0

-1

0

0

0

0

0.11

Africa: Peace Support [161]

0

0

0

0

0

-1

0

0

+1

0

Good Governance [167]

0

-1

0

-1

+1

+1

0

0

0

0

Piracy [183]

+1

0

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

0.89

Regional Security: Afghanistan [186]

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

0

+1

+1

+1

0.89

Terrorism [202]

+1

+1

0

0

0

+1

0

+1

+1

0.56

International Financial Institutions [203]

0

0

+1

-1

+1

+1

0

0

+1

0.33

Food and Agriculture [246]

+1

+1

+1

0

0

+1

+1

+1

+1

0.78

 

Country Average

0.50

0.25

0.29

-0.25

0.54

0.21

0.63

0.42

0.42

 

2009 Interim Compliance Average

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.33

2008 Final Compliance Average

0.75

0.20

0.60

0.10

0.35

0.25

0.80

0.80

0.55

0.48

2008 Interim Compliance Average

0.20

-0.05

0.40

-0.20

-0.10

0.05

0.45

0.45

0.20

0.16

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Table B: G8 Compliance by Country, 1996–2008

 

 

Lyon
1996

Denver
1997

Birmingham
1998

Cologne
1999

Okinawa
2000

Genoa
200

Kananaskis
2002

Evian
2003

Final

Final

Final

Final

Final

Final

Interim

Final

Interim

Final

Canada

0.47

0.17

0.50

0.67

0.83

0.82

0.77

0.82

0.58

0.83

France

0.28

0.00

0.25

0.34

0.92

0.69

0.38

0.64

0.50

0.75

Germany

0.58

0.17

0.25

0.17

1.00

0.59

0.08

0.18

0.42

0.50

Italy

0.43

0.50

0.67

0.34

0.89

0.57

0.00

-0.11

0.38

0.25

Japan

0.22

0.50

0.20

0.67

0.82

0.44

0.10

0.18

0.42

0.42

Russia

N/A

0.00

0.34

0.17

0.14

0.11

0.14

0.00

0.42

0.33

UK

0.42

0.50

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.69

0.42

0.55

0.58

0.50

US

0.42

0.34

0.60

0.50

0.67

0.35

0.25

0.36

0.50

0.50

EU

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

G8 + EU

0.40

0.27

0.45

0.39

0.78

0.53

0.27

0.33

0.48

0.51

Number of commitments

19

6

7

6

12

9

13

11

12

12

 

 

Sea Island
2004

Gleneagles
2005

St. Petersburg
2006

Heiligendamm
2007

Hokkaido-Toyako
2008

Interim

Final

Interim

Final

Interim

Final

Interim

Final

Interim

Final

Canada

0.50

0.72

0.52

0.81

0.45

0.60

0.22

0.65

0.20

0.75

France

0.39

0.50

0.48

0.57

0.30

0.40

0.17

0.52

-0.05

0.2

Germany

0.50

0.67

0.33

0.88

0.45

0.55

0.48

0.57

0.40

0.6

Italy

0.39

0.44

0.43

0.29

-0.10

0.05

0.13

0.17

-0.20

0,1

Japan

0.33

0.39

0.52

0.52

0.30

0.40

0.04

0.30

-0.10

0.35

Russia

0.00

0.06

-0.14

0.14

0.25

0.45

0.17

0.30

0.05

0.25

UK

0.50

0.67

0.67

0.95

0.55

0.60

0.61

0.70

0.45

0.8

US

0.44

0.72

0.71

0.81

0.35

0.60

0.78

0.91

0.45

0.8

EU

0.50

0.72

0.75

0.89

0.58

0.58

0.39

0.48

0.20

0.55

G8 + EU

0.39

0.54

0.47

0.65

0.35

0.47

0.33

0.51

0.16

0.48

Number of commitments

18

18

21

21

20

20

23

23

20

20

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Research Team

Professor John Kirton, Director, G8 Research Group
Professor Marina Larionova, Chair, HSE Research Team
Dr. Ella Kokotsis, Director of External Relations, G8 Research Group
Jenilee Guebert, Director of Research, G8 Research Group
Erin Fitzgerald, Chair, G8 Research Group
Netila Demneri, Vice-Chair, G8 Research Group
Adrienne Davidson, Co-Chair, Compliance Unit
Shiva Logarajah, Co-Chair, Compliance Unit
Sam Plett, Co-Chair, Compliance Unit
Mark Rakhmangulov, HSE Research Team Leader

Lead Analysts

Natalie Antonowicz Egor Ouzikov
Hana Bokshi Olga Tonkonojenkova
Kevin Draper Harlan Tufford
Ivana Jankovic Sabina Voicu
Denitza Koev Vivian Wei
Masa Kovic  

Analysts at the University of Toronto

Amina Abdullayeva
Larissa Adameck
Javariyya Ahmad
Ahad Ahmed
Abdi Aidid
Halah Akash
Mina Akrami
Nerin Ali
Sabeeca Ali
Kunal Amin
Katie Andrews
Ludwik Atoniuk
Mickal Aranha
Sima Atri
Meaghan Brrett
Sarah Beard
Julie Beckstead
Simon Bredin
Natasha Britto
Nikki Cargill
Ailsa Chau
Vanessa Cheng
Mannu Chowdhury
Melanie Clarke
Nikola Cvetkovic
Jessie Date-Ampofo
Meara Deutsch-Goulet
Hana Dhanji
Andrew Do
Vincent Eagan
Emily Evangelista
Niamh Fitzgerald
Geneva Fong
Alex Ognibene
Igor Gontcharov
Tanzeel Hakak
Jasmine Hamade
Chelsea Bin Han
Sarah Hussani
Kimberly Innes
Danial Jameel
Aras Jizan
Lisa Jorgensen
Guy Joseph
Stephani Ju
Edil Kassim
Cristobal Kaufmann
Can Kayalioglu
Haider Khan
Tala Khoury
Mariann Lau
Michelle (Yunjeong) Lee
Yi Luo
Andrew Lynes
Ronan MacParland
Irene Magharian
Rameez Mahmood
Vincent Manzenberger
Megan McGinnis-Dunphy
Polliana Mendonca
Poorva Misra
James Monteith
Roshan Muralidhar
Mahmood Mustafaa
Ryerson Neal
David Nugent
Rufina (Kyung Eun) Park
Anxhela Peco
Steven Penner
Lauren Perruzza
Andrew Pottruff
Harris Quach
Salahuddin Rafiquddin
Farhana Rhaman
Maria Robson
Adam Romanov
Luca Sarcanin
Jeffrey Scorgie
Andrei Sedoff
Ioana Sendroiu
Alexandra Sewell
Hiba Sha’ath
Saim Siddiqui
Samir Siddiqui
Rajiv Sinclair
Jesse Spelring
Tara Stankovic
Somm Tabrizi
Nehal Tolia
Corinne Ton That
Samantha Trope
Erin Troy
Paul Voinea
Joelle Westlund
Angela Wiggins
Sahar Kazranian
Hermonie Xie
Ren Hui Yoong

Analysts at the State University Higher School of Economics (Moscow)

Polina Arkhipova Tatyana Lanshina Anna Vekshina
Polina Cherepova Ekaterina Maslovskaya Yuriy Zaytsev
Natalya Churkina Yulia Ovchinnikova Natalya Zlokazova
Darya Frolova Mark Rakhmangulov  

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