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Conclusions of the Meeting of the G8 Foreign Ministers
Cologne, 10 June 1999
1. On the eve of a new millennium, characterised by globalisation, and aware of unprecedented opportunities but also continuing challenges to peace, stability and prosperity, we discussed a number of issues of common G8 and global concern. We drew the following conclusions:
2. Trying to identify the major challenges which face us at the end of the 20th century, we observe that
3. Human Security
The effective protection of people, both individually and collectively, remains central to our agenda. The G8 is determined to fight the underlying causes of the multiple threats to human security, and is committed to creating an environment where basic rights, the safety and the very survival of all individuals are guaranteed. We emphasise that crucial cornerstones of human security remain democracy, human rights, rule of law, good governance and human development.
We regard the spread of small arms, the danger posed by landmines, international terrorism and transnational crime, drugs and infectious diseases, poverty, economic distress and oppression to be among the most serious threats to mankind. As effective action against these threats, the G8 agrees to support:
4. Conflict prevention
Central to our vision for improved conflict prevention and management is a reformed, effective and efficient United Nations. Full respect for the provisions of the UN Charter and the principles and norms of international law is fundamental. Strengthening democracy, human rights and the rule of law is also of crucial importance.
5. Non-proliferation and disarmament
We remain committed to further enhancing the process of disarmament and strengthening the international non-proliferation regime and to ensure effective export control mechanisms. We continue to follow the deteriorating situation in South Asia closely, including the effects of the Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests. Recalling the provisions of the UNSC resolution 1172, we call upon India and Pakistan to implement the CBMs on which they have embarked and, as a matter of priority, to follow through on their declared intention to adhere to the CTBT and the remaining provisions.
In the field of disarmament and non-proliferation co-operation, we welcome all the initiatives currently being planned and undertaken by G8 countries and others, including an adequately financed expanded threat reduction programme.
We recognise the need for the safe and effective management of weapons-grade nuclear material designated as no longer required for defence purposes including plutonium disposition, remain committed to continue our work on this issue and strongly support the corner initiatives undertaken to that end. We confirm the commitment of our countries to work for an early start to negotiations on a Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty.
We remain determined to ensure the early and successful conclusion to the negotiations on a legally-binding Protocol to strengthen the Biological and Toxin Weapons Conventions and press for universal adherence to and implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention.
6. Regional issues
On May 6, 1999 we convened on the Petersberg, Bonn, and agreed on general principles we deemed indispensable for ending violence and repression in Kosovo and enabling the safe and free return to Kosovo of all refugees and displaced persons. Based on these principles, Martti Ahtisaari, President of Finland, acting on behalf of the European Union, and Victor Chernomyrdin, Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation, presented to President Slobodan Milosevic in Belgrade on June 2, 1999, a peace plan which was accepted by the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Assembly of the Republic of Serbia. The momentum created hereby allowed us at our meeting in Cologne, "Gurzenich", on June 8, 1999 to succeed in preparing a United Nations Security Council resolution which will provide the basis for a fair and viable political solution.
We welcome the Military Technical Agreement of 9 June 1999 and look forward to an early cease-fire and the beginning of a verified withdrawal of Serb forces from Kosovo. This will allow the suspension of military action, the immediate adoption of the United Nations Security Council Resolution, and rapid introduction into Kosovo of international civil and security presences.
The priority now is to ensure that the provisions of the UNSCR are implemented rapidly to create the conditions for the free and safe return of the refugees and the displaced person to their homes. We invite all Serb and other minority residents of Kosovo to remain and to contribute to the creation of a democratic, multi-ethnic Kosovo. The civil presence in Kosovo will have a crucial and urgent role to create security, democracy and economic reconstruction for all the peoples of an autonomous Kosovo and more widely in the region, consistent with the proposed Stability Pact for all South Eastern Europe.
We urge the international donor community to meet at the earliest possible date and in close co-operation with the mechanisms of the (envisioned) Security Pact and with the European Union and the World Bank which will have a decisive co-ordinating role, at an international conference that should initiate all necessary steps for the reconstruction and economic stabilisation in South Eastern Europe in order to give to the affected countries in the region a strong signal of active international support and solidarity. We welcome the European Union's readiness to begin this process by convening with the World Bank a donors' conference, at the earliest possible date, addressing the immediate needs for rehabilitation and reconstruction in Kosovo.
We reaffirm our full support for a negotiated comprehensive peace in the Middle East, based on the principles of land for peace, UNSCRs 242, 338 and 425 and the arrangements of Madrid and Oslo. We call for full and immediate implementation of the Wye River Accord, immediate resumption of permanent status negotiations, and avoidance of unilateral actions which might prejudice the outcome of negotiations.
We believe that Iraq must comply with all relevant Security Council resolutions. We call upon the Security Council, basing itself upon the reports of the panels on disarmament. Humanitarian relief and the treatment of Kuwaiti missing persons to develop and adopt a comprehensive strategy on the basis of all relevant UNSCRs, building upon the recommendations of the panel reports.
We welcome recent political developments in Iran, including the holding of the first local elections, and Iran's leadership of the OIC. We want to see closer relations with Iran and we urge Iran to adopt a more positive approach to the Middle East Peace Process. We urge Iran to take further measures to ensure the human rights of all citizens, including the Baha'i and other communities, and to act on a continuing basis in accordance with its condemnation of all forms of violence and terrorism. We call upon Iran not to construct weapons of mass destruction and missiles to deliver them.
We welcome the recent elections in Indonesia which we hope will lead to reduced internal tensions. We will continue to support the reform process which we believe will encourage sustainable development to the benefit of the entire population. We welcome the agreement on the future of East Timor, signed on 5 May 1999 by the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Foreign Ministers of Portugal and Indonesia. We urge all parties to bring about rapid end to the violence and an early deployment of UN observers. We look forward to a successful resolution of this long standing issue in terms acceptable to the East Timor people.
We support the Republic of Korea's policy of engagement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and welcome the resumption of South-North Korean dialogue. We continue to support the Agreed Framework and KEDO, and encourage broadened international support for its work. We are concerned at the DPRK's missile test and export of missile technology, and expect it to avoid destabilising activities. We urge the DPRK to act constructively on security and humanitarian issues.
We are concerned about the suspension of the negotiations between the factions in Afghanistan and the intensified fighting. We urgently call upon the factions to resume the negotiations under the auspices of the UN.
We desire to see the full restoration of democracy and the respect of human rights in Myanmar/Burma.
We are deeply concerned about the continuing military confrontation in Kashmir, following the infiltration of militants across the Line of Control. We call upon India and Pakistan to respect the Line of Control, to work for an immediate cessation of the fighting, and to return to the negotiation table in spite of the Lahore declaration.
We welcome the progress made in many African countries in the field of economic reforms, sustainable development, democracy and good government in the last decade. In particular, we warmly welcome and strongly support Nigeria's return to civil rule and democracy. We encourage Nigeria to take early concrete steps toward economic and institutional reform and to create the open and transparent system essential to promote economic growth and prosperity. We are deeply concerned by the extension of armed conflicts, the huge influx of arms and military equipment to conflict areas in Africa and the increasing role in these conflicts of non-state entities controlling resources whose trafficking fuels armed activities. We urge the International Community to consolidate its efforts to prevent conflict in Africa, and look forward to an enhanced UN effort, in co-operation with the OAU and sub-regional organisations.
We are particularly concerned by the ongoing conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Great Lakes Region as a whole, the resumption of civil war in Angola, the continuing conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea, in Sudan and Somalia, and condone the overthrow of the legitimate authority in Guinea-Bissau, Niger and Comoros. We support the consolidation of the peace settlement in Sierra Leone. It is vital that the relevant United Nations Security-Council Resolutions should be fully respected, and we encourage all efforts to resolve conflict which threatens the development of African countries and the stability and security of large parts of Africa.
We reiterate our support for the UN efforts to reach a comprehensive settlement on the Cyprus problem on the basis of the relevant Resolution of the UN Security Council. We recommended that the G8 Summit leaders urge the UN Security-General to invite the leaders of both parties to enter into comprehensive negotiations without pre-conditions. We urge all those concerned to avoid any measures that could increase tensions on the islands and complicate efforts to promote a just and lasting peace.
7. Social and Political Foundations for Resilient Economies
Experience has shown that those countries in which democracy and human rights, the rule of law and good governance are widely established, and which participate effectively in regional co-operation, are generally more resilient and less vulnerable to the impact of unanticipated financial and economic crises. Where a crisis nonetheless develops, it is essential to maintain effective social spending to mitigate the negative impact. We applaud efforts to promote capacity-building through the growing co-operation of the International Financial Institutions, the United Nations and other international organisations and donors in order to reduce systemic vulnerability to crises. We also encourage sharing of best practices on social safety nets and other social infrastructure. We urge the International Financial Institutions to enhance their efforts to assist developing countries in making improvements in these areas, and to continue work on best practices in social policy with a view to assisting vulnerable groups and improving the foundation for effective development.
8. Non-Aligned Movement
We have a fruitful exchange of views over a wide range of global issues for the purpose of strengthening our co-operation with our colleagues of the NAM-Troika delegation (South Africa, Columbia and Bangladesh).
Source: Released at the Finance Ministers Meeting, "Gürzenich," Cologne, 10 June 1999
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