1. This view dominates in the classic, central works on the G7, notably Robert Putnam and Nicholas Bayne, Hanging Together: Cooperation and Conflict in the Seven Power Summits, rev. ed., (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987), and C. Fred Bergsten and C. Randall Henning, Global Economic Leadership and the Group of Seven, (Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C., 1996).
2. This conception of the G7 as a concert is offered and developed in William Wallace, "Political Issues at the Summits: A New Concert of Powers," in Cesare Merlini, ed., Economics Summits and Western Decision making, (London: Croom-Helm, 1984), pp. 137-152, John Kirton, "Contemporary Concert Diplomacy: The Seven-Power Summit and the Management of International Order," Paper presented to the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, London, England, March 29, April, 1989, (available at http/www.library.utoronto. ca/www/g7), and John Kirton, "The Seven Power Summit as a New Security Institution," David Dewitt, David Haglund and John Kirton, (eds.), Building a New Global Order: Emerging Trends in International Security, (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 335-357.
3. Cited in John Kirton, "The Diplomacy of Concert: Canada, the G7 and the Halifax Summit," Canadian Foreign Policy/La politique étrangére du Canada 3 (Spring 1995): 8.
4. On the classic concert and its underlying principles, see Richard Elrod, "The Concert of Europe" A Fresh Look at an International System," World Politics 28 (1976), Robert Jervis, "From Balance to Concert: A Study of International Security Cooperation," World Politics 38 (October 1985): 58-79, Charles Kupchan and Clifford Kupchan, "Concerts, Collective Security and the Future of Europe, International Security 16 (Summer 1991: 114-161, and Charles Kupchan and Clifford Kupchan, "The Promise of Collective Security," International Security 20 (Summer 1995): 52-61.
5. Group of Thirty, The Summit Process and Collective Security: Future Responsibility Sharing, (Group of Thirty: Washington, D.C., 1991).
6. On the G7's role in pioneering the Missile Technology Control Regime, see Albert Legault, "The Missile Technology Control Regime," in Dewitt et al., eds., Building a New Global Order, op. Cit., pp. 358-377.
7. Bergsten and Henning op. cit., p. 17.
8. Ibid., p. 46-7.
9. See John Kirton, "The Diplomacy of Concert," op. cit., and John Kirton, "Forging a Pacific Partnership: Canadian and Japanese Approaches to the U.S. in the Seven Power Summit," in Mitsuru Kurosawa and John Kirton, eds., The Triangle of Pacific States, (Tokyo: Sairyusha Press, 1995), pp. 13-37.
10. William Odum, "How to Create a True World Order: Establish a Concert of Great Powers," Orbis 39 (Spring 1995): 155-172.
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