1 The author would like to thank Karel Mayrand, his research assistant, for his exceptional contribution. He also wishes to express his appreciation to André Beaulieu and Peter Watson for their comments and input, as well as Élizabeth Camiré for documentary support.
2 From the opening address to NGOs at the Seattle Symposium on International Trade Issues in the Next Decade, 29 November, 1999. Reproduced in Social Development Review, Vol. 3, No. 4, December 1999.
3 The expression was used in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development Report 1999, New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.
5 Source for this section: UNDP, Human Development Report 1999. Additional sources: Social Development Review, Vol. 3, No. 4, December 1999; UNCTAD, Trade and Development Report 1999, New York, United Nations, 1999; UNCTAD, Report of the Secretary General to UNCTAD X, New York, United Nations, 1999 TD 380; UNCTAD, World Investment Report: Foreign Direct Investment and the Challenge of Development, New York, United Nations, 1999.
6 UNDP, Human Development Report 1999.
7 This phenomenon was analysed in Towards a New International Architecture: Report of the Task Force of the Executive Committee on Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations (ECSA/9/1), New York, 21 January 1999.
8 See Kaiser, K., J. Kirton, and J. Daniels (eds.), Shaping a New International Financial System, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2000.
9 UNCTAD, World Investment Report.
10 UNDP, Human Development Report 1999.
13 Wolfensohn, J., communication at UNCTAD X, Bangkok, February 2000.
14 The term "digital divide" was coined by James Wolfensohn, president of the Word Bank, in a communication at UNCTAD X.
15 UNDP, Human Development Report 1999.
16 Most international publications refer to TNCs without defining the concept, thus avoiding academic debates over different definitions. However, a simple, widely agreed definition is a company that 1) engages in foreign production through its affiliates located in several countries, 2) exercises direct control over the policies of its affiliates, and 3) implements business strategies in production, marketing, finance, and staffing that transcend national boundaries. Department of Economics, Iowa State University, www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ355/choi/mnc.htm (April 2000).
17 Moderate water stress occurs when more than 20% of available renewable freshwater resources are used. High water stress refers to a situation in which more than 40% of available resources are used. World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Comprehensive Assessment of Freshwater Resources of the World, New York, United Nations, 1997.
18 Baillie, J.M., and B. Groombridge (eds.), 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals, Cambridge/Gland, World Conservation Union (IUCN), 1996.
19 World Resources Institute, UNEP, UNDP, World Bank, World Resources 1998-99: A Global Guide to the Human Environment, New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.
20 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), IPCC Second Assessment 1995, WMO and UNEP, 1995.
21 Brown, L., M. Renner, and B. Halweil (eds.), Vital Signs 1999: The Environmental Trends That Are Shaping Our Future, Worldwatch Institute, New York, W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
22 Nordstrom, H., and S. Vaughan, Special Studies 4: Trade and Environment, Geneva, World Trade Organisation, 1999.
24 They are the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987), the Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste (1989), the Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992), the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992), the Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (1994), the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change (1997), and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (2000). In addition, Agenda 21, the action plan of the Rio Conference on Environment and Development, was adopted in 1992, with a Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation, and Sustainable Development of all Types of Forests.
25 Moore, Michael, from the opening address to the Seattle Symposium on International Trade Issues in the Next Decade, November 29, 1999.
26 Esty, D.C., and D. Geradin, "Environmental Protection and International Competitiveness: A Conceptual Framework", Journal of World Trade, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1998, pp. 5-46.
27 United Nations General Assembly, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I), 1992.
28 The following MEAs are listed in NAFTA: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste. See Johnson, P.M., and A. Beaulieu, The Environment and NAFTA: Understanding and Implementing the New Continental Law, Washington DC, Island Press, 1996.
29 Without explicitly specifying the relationship between the Cartagena Protocol and trade agreements, the Protocol's preamble establishes the parameters of this relationship by recognising that trade and environment agreements should be mutually supportive with a view to achieving sustainable development, and emphasises that this protocol shall not be interpreted as implying a change in the rights and obligations of a party under any existing international agreements.
30 Runnals, D., Shall We Dance? What the North Needs to do to Fully Engage the South in the Trade and Sustainable Development Debate, Working Paper, Trade and Sustainable Development Program, Winnipeg, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), 1996.
31 Nordstrom, H., and S. Vaughan, Special Studies 4: Trade and Environment.
33 Many analysts argue that the interpretation of GATT's article XX, sanitary/phytosanitary provisions, as well as processes and production methods, will have to be revised under WTO's dispute resolution procedures. In their view, the interpretative framework should be generally more open to environmental protection measures, which implies the reversal of the burden of proof in certain cases. For a more detailed analysis, See Schoenbaum, T.J., "International Trade and Protection of the Environment: The Continuing Search for Reconciliation", American Journal of International Law, No. 91, 1997, pp. 268-313.
34 The Fourth Session of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forest has produced a comprehensive action plan on forest protection in February 2000 that will be studied by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. In the water sector, the second World Water Forum and Ministerial Conference on Water (The Hague, March 2000) has produced A Vision for Water for the 21st Century, to be followed by a framework for action that will serve as a plan of action for states, NGOs, and IGOs in the next 25 years.
35 Schoenbaum, T.J., “International Trade and Protection of the Environment: The Continuing Search for Reconciliation”, American Journal of International Law, No. 91, 1997, pp. 268–313.
36 For a detailed description of the CEC, see Johnson, P.M., "Five Windows for the Future of NAFTA's Environment Commission", Policy Options, Vol. 20, No. 5, June 1999. See also Rugman, A., Kirton, J., and Soloway, J., Environmental Regulations and Corporate Strategy: A NAFTA Perspective, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999.
37 UNCTAD, Report of the Secretary General to UNCTAD X, New York, United Nations, 1999 TD 380.
38 UNDP, Human Development Report 1999.
39 Kanbur, R., and Sandler, T., "A Radical Approach to Development Assistance," Development Outreach, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 1998.
40 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Development Co-operation Report 1999: Efforts and Policies of the Members of the Development Assistance Committee," Development Assistance Committee Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, February 2000.
41 Botchwey, K., Financing for Development: Current Trends and Issues for the Future, UNCTAD, 2000, TD(X)/RT.1/11.
42 Global Environment Facility, GEF Lesson Notes, No. 2, April 1998.
43 UNCTAD, Report of the Secretary General to UNCTAD X.
45 Toepfer, K., "UNEP's Convention Priorities", Synergies: Promoting Co-operation on Environmental Treaties, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 1999.
46 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, Chapter 38, 1992.
47 For a more detailed analysis of the proposal of the Standing Conference on Trade and the Environment, see Mercer, M., International Trade and the Environment: Addressing the Co-ordination Challenge, Montreal, World Conservation Union (IUCN), Canada Office, 1999.
48 UNCTAD X, Plan of Action, New York, United Nations, 2000.
49 Nordstrom and Vaughn, Special Studies 4: Trade and Environment.
50 UNCTAD X, High-Level Round Table on Trade and Development Governance: Summary, 1999.
51 UNDP, Human Development Report 1999.
52 Ricupero, R., From the Washington Consensus to the Spirit of Bangkok, Closing Statement at UNCTAD X, Bangkok, 19 February 2000.
53 The 18 countries are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
54 Finance Canada Press Release, 25 September 1999.
55 International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Sustainable Developments, Vol. 12, No. 2 (rev.), 22 March 1999.
56 UNCTAD, Report of the Secretary General to UNCTAD X.
57 See Bergsten, F., "Globalizing Free Trade", Foreign Affairs, May/June 1996, and Runnals, Shall We Dance?
58 The document was entitled "Canadian Approach to Trade and Environment in the New WTO Round".
59 Schoenbaum, International Trade and Protection of the Environment.
60 The "green room" refers to a conference room across from the office of the Director General of the WTO, and describes the informal, invitation-only meetings used to help build consensus among the organisation's key members. See Bureau of National Affairs Inc., Daily Report for Executives, Washington DC, No. 62, 30 March 2000.
61 Focal-point mechanisms are national or regional institutions that centralise incoming funding and co-ordinate implementation activities related to the Convention to Combat Desertification.
62 Kanbur and Sandler, A Radical Approach to Development Assistance.
63 The Sahel Club has the potential to create such a pathway in the case of West Africa, but it would need more consistent support from senior foreign policy personnel and decision makers of key countries.
64 Halle, Mark, "Seattle and Sustainable Development", Bridges: Between Trade and Sustainable Development, Geneva, International Center on Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), Year 4, No. 1, January/February 2000, pp. 13-14.
65 UNDP, Human Development Report 1999.
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