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TICAD

Yokahama Action Plan
TICAD IV, Yokohama, May 30, 2008

[Français]


Contents


Preamble

  1. This Action Plan, under the "Yokohama Declaration," is designed to provide a road map for the support of African growth and development under the TICAD (Tokyo International Conference on African Development) process.
  2. With robust economic growth of more than 5% per year and enhanced political stability, Africa is on the path toward the broad-based growth and development that will help it become a "continent of hope and opportunity."
  3. The TICAD process seeks to support this objective by mobilizing knowledge and resources to assist African countries accomplish clear development goals and achieve tangible outcomes. Since its inception, TICAD has been based on principles of ownership by African countries, partnership, and the expansion of South-South cooperation.
  4. This Action Plan lays out goals to be achieved and specific measures to be implemented through the TICAD process during the next five years to further the three TICAD priorities of Boosting Economic Growth, Ensuring Human Security (including the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Consolidation of Peace and Good Governance), and Addressing Environmental Issues/Climate Change under the Broadening Partnership. Progress will be monitored through the TICAD follow-up mechanism.
  5. The Government of Japan at the center of the TICAD process, has taken the initiative to show its strong commitment by announcing doubling ODA to Africa by 2012. This will contribute to the effective implementation of assistance so that the goals along the above-mentioned priorities can be achieved. The Government of Japan will also strive to actively mobilize all the policy tools it has to double direct investment from the Japanese private sector to Africa from 2008 to 2012.

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Boosting Economic Growth

- Introduction -

The TICAD process will promote a "Vibrant Africa" and its accelerated economic growth and diversification through support for infrastructure development, trade, investment and tourism, and agriculture. It will seek to advance self-sustainable economic growth that is effectively linked to poverty reduction and achievement of the MDGs, and encourage all stakeholders, including the private sector, to act together in support of the efforts African countries are making to broaden and accelerate growth through, inter alia, development of their human resources.

Infrastructure

It is essential to develop an infrastructure network to promote and support the expansion of industry, trade and investment as well as agriculture. The Commission for Africa report to G8 Gleneagles Summit indicated that additional assistance of 10 billion dollars per year would be required to meet Africa's infrastructure needs by 2010. African experts are now drafting a mid-long term strategic plan, which will necessitate both an expanded regional infrastructure and capacity building for maintenance and management.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD Process

The TICAD process will focus on:

  1. Regional transport infrastructure, including roads and ports
  2. Regional power infrastructure
  3. Water-related infrastructure
  4. Enhanced involvement of regional institutions
  5. Promotion of public-private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure

1. Regional transport infrastructure

2. Regional power infrastructure

3. Water related infrastructure

4. Enhanced involvement of regional institutions

5. Promotion of public-private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure

Trade, Investment and Tourism

African Governments, recognizing the importance of trade and investment to sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction, are making efforts to promote trade and attract foreign investment, drawing on the experiences of the Asian economies. African Union (AU)/New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and RECs are also formulating common regional trade policies including improvements in the legal and regulatory framework and regional infrastructure, in order to promote intra-African trade and facilitate Africa's integration into the world economy. In this context, the TICAD process aims to achieve a significant increase of trade with and investment to African countries in collaboration with the private sector.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD process

The TICAD process will strengthen efforts to:

  1. Promote and expand trade
  2. Encourage foreign investment
  3. Assist private sector development
  4. Promote tourism

1. Promote and expand trade

2. Encourage foreign investment

3. Assist private sector development

4. Promote tourism

Agriculture and Rural Development

Seventy percent of the poor in Sub-Sahara Africa or 230 million live in rural areas, and increase in food production and agricultural productivity are critical for food security, poverty reduction and economic growth in Africa. While the agricultural sector can be a driving force for the African economy, the continuing increase in food, fertilizer and fuel prices has become ever more threatening to food security.

African countries have recognized the importance of the agricultural sector for development and are implementing NEPAD's Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) that seeks to improve agricultural productivity to attain an average annual growth rate of 6 percent by 2015. As part of that agenda, African countries have committed, in accordance with the 2003 AU Maputo Declaration, to allocate at least 10% of national budgetary resources for agriculture and rural development within five years.

Support for agriculture under the TICAD process will include attention to the environmental impact of agricultural activities, as well as the empowerment of women, who play a critical role in agriculture, and the encouragement of South-South cooperation including triangular cooperation.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD Process

The TICAD process will seek alignment with the CAADP agenda to:

  1. Enhance capacity to increase food production and agricultural productivity
  2. Improve access to markets and agricultural competitiveness
  3. Support sustainable management of water resources and land use

1. Enhance capacity to increase food production and agricultural productivity

2. Improve access to markets and agricultural competitiveness

3. Support sustainable management of water resources and land use

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Achieving MDGs

- Introduction -

2008 is midway to the 2015 target for achieving the MDGs. Accelerated progress in Africa is crucial as statistics indicate that many Sub-Saharan African countries will fall short of attaining the goals, and that problems such as high maternal mortality rates and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS remain serious. While economic development is necessary in order to reduce poverty, it is also essential that the fruits of the economic growth reach all members of society, including the most disadvantaged, and are not restricted to a privileged few.

In order to promote the achievement of the MDGs in Africa, the TICAD process will focus on the notion of "human security," which aims at building societies in which people are protected from threats against their lives, livelihoods and dignity and are empowered to realize their full potential. In enhancing "human security," a special emphasis will be placed on bottom-up, comprehensive, multi-sectoral and participatory approaches that encourage collaboration among national and local governments, international organizations, civil society, and other actors. Paying due attention to the inter-relatedness of each of the MDGs, the TICAD process will proactively focus on the areas of health and education, where the delays in achieving the MDGs are most conspicuous, and will encourage community development, gender equality, and the active participation of civil society.

Community Development

Community development and empowerment are vital elements of enhanced human security, both in rural and urban areas. Gender perspective is indispensable as women play an important role in community development. Cultural consideration is also important to ensure sustainable community development. Furthermore, community based approach is indispensable for consolidation of peace during transitional phase.

In the Declaration on Employment and Poverty Alleviation in Africa, members of AU have recognized the importance to address social development, poverty reduction and employment creation in a coherent and integrated manner, and committed themselves to empowering the poor and the vulnerable, particularly in the rural communities and the urban informal economy, the unemployed and the under-employed.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD Process

The TICAD process will focus support on:

  1. Comprehensive "Glocal" (global and local) community development
  2. Community based approach building on functional hubs

1. Comprehensive "Glocal" (global and local) community development

2. Community based approach building on functional hubs

Education

To achieve Education for All (EFA) and the MDGs, African countries need to develop holistic education sector plans and allocate sufficient national budgetary resources to implement them and develop related capacities. The TICAD process will support not only these efforts but also promote education and human resource development that leads to growth and sustainable socio-economic development. In doing so, efforts to achieve gender parity in education and synergy with other sectors including health, water and sanitation, need to be pursued.

"The Second Decade of Education for Africa" (2006-2015), adopted by the AU in November 2007, has identified gender and culture, educational management information systems, teacher development, education and training, tertiary education, technical and vocational education and training, curriculum, and teaching and learning materials, and quality management as priority areas for the sector. In this framework, African countries aim to develop functional national Educational Management Information Systems (EMIS), achieve full gender equality in primary and secondary education, and bridge the gender gap in participation in mathematics, science and technology at the tertiary level.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD Process

The TICAD process in respect of the commitments and actions made by African countries, will focus on the African efforts as follows:

  1. Basic education - expansion of access and quality
  2. Post basic education and higher education/research
  3. Multi-sectoral approach
  4. Education management

1. Basic education - expansion of access to and quality

2. Post basic education and higher education/research

3. Multi-sectoral approach

4. Education management

Health

Africa, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, faces serious challenges such as the prevalence of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), malaria and polio, and the high infant mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio. In addition, the emerging threats of climate change and global food crisis will pose new challenges to achievement of a range of health goals, from control of infectious disease to alleviating the burden of malnutrition. These challenges constitute a serious constraint to social and economic development, and a comprehensive and multi-sectoral approach involving, inter alia, safe water and sanitation, nutrition, basic education, gender equality is required.

It is against this background that the Meeting of AU Ministers of Health in April 2007 adopted the "Africa Health Strategy," to promote the strengthening of overall health systems in Africa. AU has laid out regional strategies on major diseases and health issues including "Abuja Declaration and Framework for Action for the Fight against HIV/AIDS, TB and Other Related Infectious Diseases," in which African countries targeted to allocate 15% of public budget to the health sector, "African Regional Nutrition Strategy," as well as "Maputo Plan of Action for the Operationalisation of the Continental Policy Framework for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights," and "Strategic Framework for Reaching the Millennium Development Goal on Child Survival in Africa", and efforts are being made accordingly.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD Process

The TICAD process, in respect of the commitments and actions made by African countries,will engage in:

  1. Strengthening of health systems
  2. Improvement of maternal, new-born and child health
  3. Measures against infectious diseases

1. Strengthening health systems

2. Improvement of maternal, new-born and child health

3. Measures against infectious diseases

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Consolidation of Peace, Good Governance

- Introduction -

Recently Africa has made great progress in ending conflicts and promoting rehabilitation, including efforts on building the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) and promoting African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). This is an unparalleled opportunity for Africa to consolidate peace and strengthen good governance. Conflicts are indeed significant impediment to human security and development.

Consolidation of peace encompasses different phases and a variety of actions, including preventing conflicts, mediating between parties and negotiating peace agreements, restoring and maintaining security and public order, providing humanitarian assistance, supporting rehabilitation, promoting social and economic development, and improving democratic governance. These processes require seamless and continuous support to make them irreversible.

Conflicts easily spread in Africa where many countries share borders, and therefore, regional aspects should be taken into consideration in consolidating peace. Efforts in conflict prevention as well as risk management to minimize damages upon the outbreak of conflicts are also indispensable. Community-based and participatory approaches with an emphasis on enhancing capacities of local population help promote the ownership of African countries. The most vulnerable groups in society such as women, children, the elderly, and the persons with disabilities also need particular protection and support. At the same time, importance of strengthening coordination as well as sharing information and good practices among internal and external actors engaging in peacebuilding activities should be emphasized.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD Process

The TICAD process will specifically focus on:

  1. Conflict prevention
  2. Humanitarian and reconstruction assistance
  3. Restoration and maintenance of security
  4. Promotion of good governance

1. Conflict prevention

2. Humanitarian and reconstruction assistance

3. Restoration and maintenance of security

4. Promotion of good governance

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Addressing Environmental/Climate Change issues

- Introduction -

Addressing climate change is an urgent challenge for Africa, given its vulnerability to adverse impacts such as more frequent and intense droughts and floods. In order to realize a "global sustainable society", it is necessary for all countries, including those in Africa, to collaborate and develop an effective framework beyond 2012 on climate change, and take action toward the goal of reducing global greenhouse gas emissions.

The TICAD process will promote policy dialogue in the field of climate change, support developing of an effective framework, and strengthen assistance to African countries that make efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and achieve economic growth in a compatible manner, in the areas of policy planning, mitigation, access to clean energy, and adaptation to climate change. With regard to adaptation, the TICAD process will promote effective management of water resources, as well as efforts in related areas such as health, agriculture and food security.

In this context, it is important to promote a participatory approach involving a wide range of stakeholders including central governments, international organizations, local governments and communities, private sector and civil society organizations. Furthermore, coordinated efforts are required under various initiatives including Japan's "Cool Earth Partnership" with Africa. In Africa, efforts are underway at the national level as well as within international and regional frameworks developed by the United Nations, AU/NEPAD and RECs.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD Process

The TICAD process will strengthen efforts, in the following areas:

  1. Mitigation
  2. Adaptation
  3. Water and Sanitation
  4. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)

1. Mitigation

(1) Promotion of mitigation measures

(2) Promotion of the use of clean energy and improvement of energy access

2. Adaptation

(1) Measures against natural disasters

(2) Measures to combat desertification

3. Water and Sanitation

(1) Effective water resources management

(2) Access to safe water and sanitation facilities

4. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)

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Broadening Partnership

- Introduction -

The TICAD process has consistently embraced the concept of "Ownership" and "Partnership" and the scope of the "Partnership" with Africa has expanded steadily.

Asia-Africa cooperation is one of the key elements of the TICAD process that progresses through mutual learning and sharing of best practices and technology between the two regions. African countries are in the process of integration, making strides towards the deepening of an intra-African partnership within the framework of the Abuja Treaty. They have also made significant achievements as embodied in the action plan of the NEPAD, while the AU has made its own strides in collaboration with RECs as major pillars of continental integration. Broad-based partnership and a participatory approach involving private companies, NGOs and academia is crucial, and African countries are making efforts to engage as many actors as possible in the process of development. Better coordination among these partners under the African ownership is also of vital importance for these efforts to lead to maximum outcome and impacts on the ground.

Actions to be taken in the next 5 years under the TICAD Process

The TICAD process will strengthen efforts to:

  1. Promote South-South Cooperation, in particular Asia-Africa Cooperation
  2. Deepen Regional Integration
  3. Broaden Partnership

1. Promote South-South Cooperation, in particular Asia-Africa Cooperation

2. Deepen Regional Integration

3. Broaden Partnership


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