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Back to Introduction to G7/G8 Summit Commitments, 1975–2006

Appendix B
List of Individual Commitments:
Cycle 1, 1975–1981

1975 Rambouillet, France
1976 San Juan, Puerto Rico, U.S.
1977 London, UK
1978 Bonn, Germany
1979 Tokyo, Japan
1980 Venice, Italy
1981 Ottawa, Canada

1975 Rambouillet, France (14 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (14 commitments)

1975-1. To assure in a world of growing interdependence the success of the objectives set out in this declaration, we intend to play our own full part and strengthen our efforts for closer international cooperation and constructive dialogue among all countries, transcending differences in stages of economic development, degrees of resource endowment and political and social systems.

1975-2. The industrial democracies are determined to overcome high unemployment, continuing inflation and serious energy problems.

1975-3. The purpose of our meeting was to review our progress, identify more clearly the problems that we must overcome in the future, and to set a course that we will follow in the period ahead.

1975-4. The most urgent task is to assure the recovery of our economies and to reduce the waste of human resources involved in unemployment.

1975-5. In consolidating the recovery, it is essential to avoid unleashing additional inflationary forces which would threaten its success. The objective must be growth that is steady and lasting.

1975-6. We believe that the multilateral trade negotiations should be accelerated (Tokyo Declaration). We propose as our goal completion of the negotiations in 1977.

1975-7. We will also intensify our efforts to achieve a prompt conclusion of the negotiations concerning export credits.

1975-8. With regard to monetary problems, we affirm our intention to work for greater stability.

1975-9. This involves efforts to restore greater stability in underlying economic and financial conditions in the world economy.

1975-10. At the same time, our monetary authorities will act to counter disorderly market conditions, or erratic fluctuations, in exchange rates.

1975-11. Early practical action is needed to assist the developing countries. Accordingly, we will play our part, through the IMF and other appropriate international fora, in making urgent improvements in international arrangements for the stabilization of the export earnings of developing countries and in measures to assist them in financing their deficits. In this context, priority should be given to the poorest developing countries.

1975-12. World economic growth is clearly linked to the increasing availability of energy sources. We are determined to secure for our economies the energy sources needed for their growth.

1975-13. Through these measures as well as international cooperation between producer and consumer countries, responding to the long-term interests of both, we shall spare no effort in order to ensure more balanced conditions and a harmonious and steady development in the world energy market.

1975-14. We believe that industrialized and developing countries alike have a critical stake in the future success of the world economy and in the cooperative political relationships on which it must be based. We intend to intensify our cooperation on all these problems in the framework of existing institutions as well as in all the relevant international organizations.

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1976 San Juan, U.S. (7 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (7 commitments)

Economy

1976-1. We thus recognize the importance of each nation managing its economy and its international monetary affairs so as to correct or avoid persistent or structural international payments imbalances. Accordingly, each of us affirms his intention to work toward a more stable and durable payments structure through the application of appropriate internal and external policies.

1976-2. Imbalances in world payments may continue in the period ahead. We recognize that problems may arise for a few developed countries which have special needs, which have not yet restored domestic economic stability, and which face major payments deficits. We agree to continue to cooperate with others in the appropriate bodies on further analysis of these problems with a view to their resolution.

Trade

1976-3. We have all set ourselves the objective of completing the Multilateral Trade Negotiations by the end of 1977. We hereby reaffirm that objective and commit ourselves to make every effort through the appropriate bodies to achieve it in accordance with the Tokyo Declaration.

East-West Relations

1976-4. We welcomed in this context the steady growth of East/West trade, and expressed the hope that economic relations between East and West would develop their full potential on a sound financial and reciprocal commercial basis. We agreed that this process warrants our careful examination, as well as efforts on our part to ensure that these economic ties enhance overall East/West relationships.

Energy

1976-5. In the field of energy, we intend to make efforts to develop, conserve and use rationally the various energy resources and to assist the energy development objectives of developing countries.

Developing Countries

1976-6. We attach the greatest importance to the dialogue between developed and developing nations in the expectation that it will achieve concrete results in areas of mutual interest. And we reaffirm our countries’ determination to participate in this process in the competent bodies, with a political will to succeed, looking toward negotiations, in appropriate cases.

1976-7. Our common goal is to find practical solutions which contribute to an equitable and productive relationship among all peoples.

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1977 London, UK (29 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (29 commitments)

World Economy

1977-1. We commit our governments to stated economic growth targets or to stabilization policies which, taken as a whole, should provide a basis for sustained noninflationary growth, in our own countries and worldwide and for reduction of imbalances in international payments.

1977-2. We commit ourselves to seek additional resources for the IMF and support the linkage of its lending practices to the adoption of appropriate stabilization policies.

Trade

1977-3. We will provide strong political leadership to extend opportunities for trade to strengthen the open international trading system, which will increase job opportunities.

1977-4. We will give a new impetus to the Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. Our objective is to make substantive progress in key areas in 1977. In this field structural changes in the world economy must be taken into consideration.

Energy

1977-5. We will further conserve energy and increase and diversify energy production, so that we reduce our dependence on oil.

1977-6. We agree on the need to increase nuclear energy to help meet the world’s energy requirements. We commit ourselves to do this while reducing the risks of nuclear proliferation.

1977-7. We are launching an urgent study to determine how best to fulfill these purposes.

Developing Countries

1977-8. We are agreed to do all in our power to achieve a successful conclusion of the CIEC [Conference on International Economic Co-operation] and we commit ourselves to a continued constructive dialogue with developing countries.

1977-9. We aim to increase the flow of aid and other real resources to those countries.

1977-10. In our discussions we have reached substantial agreement. Our firm purpose is now to put that agreement into action. We shall review progress on all the measures we have discussed here at Downing Street in order to maintain the momentum of recovery.

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World Economic Prospects

1977-11. We commit our governments to targets for growth and stabilization which vary from country to country but which, taken as a whole, should provide a basis for sustained noninflationary growth worldwide.

1977-12. Some of our countries have adopted reasonably expansionist growth targets for The governments of these countries will keep their policies under review, and commit themselves to adopt further policies, if needed to achieve their stated target rates and to contribute to the adjustment of payments imbalances.

1977-13. Others are pursuing stabilization policies designed to provide a basis for sustained growth without increasing inflationary expectations. The governments of these countries will continue to pursue those goals.

1977-14. We are particularly concerned about the problem of unemployment among young people. Therefore we shall promote the training of young people in order to build a skilled and flexible labor force so that they can be ready to take advantage of the upturn in economic activity as it develops.

Balance-of-Payments Financing

1977-15. We also reaffirm our intention to strive to increase monetary stability. We agreed that the international monetary and financial system, in its new and agreed legal framework, should be strengthened by the early implementation of the increase in quotas. We will work towards an early agreement within the IMF on another increase in the quotas of that organization.

Trade

1977-16. Policies of protectionism foster unemployment, increase inflation and undermine the welfare of our peoples. We are therefore agreed on the need to maintain our political commitment to an open and nondiscriminatory world trading system.

1977-17. We will seek both nationally and through the appropriate international institutions to promote solutions that create new jobs and consumer benefits through expanded trade and to avoid approaches which restrict trade.

The Tokyo Round of multilateral trade negotiations must be pursued vigorously. Toward this end, we will seek this year to achieve substantive progress in such key areas as:

1977-18. A tariff reduction plan of broadest possible application designed to achieve a substantial cut and harmonization and in certain cases the elimination of tariffs;

1977-19. Codes, agreements and other measures that will facilitate a significant reduction of nontariff barriers to trade and the avoidance of new barriers in the future and that will take into account the structural changes which have taken place in the world economy;

1977-20. A mutually acceptable approach to agriculture that will achieve increased expansion and stabilization of trade, and greater assurance of world food supplies.

1977-21. While seeking to conclude comprehensive and balanced agreements on the basis of reciprocity among all industrial countries we are determined, in accordance with the aims of the Tokyo Declaration, to ensure that the agreements provide special benefits to developing countries.

Energy

1977-22. We are committed to national and joint efforts to limit energy demand and to increase and diversify supplies. There will need to be greater exchanges of technology and joint research and development aimed at more efficient energy use, improved recovery and use of coal and other conventional resources, and the development of new energy sources.

1977-23. We are also agreed that, in order to be effective, nonproliferation policies should as far as possible be acceptable to both industrialized and developing countries alike. To this end, we are undertaking a preliminary analysis to be completed within two months of the best means of advancing these objectives, including the study of terms of reference for international fuel cycle evaluation.

North-South Relations

We shall work:

1977-24. To increase the flow of aid and other real resources from the industrial to developing countries, particularly to the 800 million people who now live in absolute poverty; and to improve the effectiveness of aid;

1977-25. To facilitate developing countries’ access to sources of international finance;

1977-26. To support such multilateral lending institutions as the World Bank, whose lending capacity, we believe, will have to be increased in the years ahead to permit its lending to increase in real terms and widen in scope;

1977-27. To promote the secure investment needed to foster world economic development;

1977-28. To secure productive results from negotiations about the stabilization of commodity prices and the creation of a Common Fund for individual buffer stock agreements and to consider problems of the stabilization of export earnings of developing countries; and

1977-29. To continue to improve access in a non-disruptive way to the markets of industrial countries for the products of developing nations.

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1978 Bonn, Germany (35 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (33 commitments)

Growth, Employment and Inflation

1978-1. We will act, through measures to assure growth and develop needed skills, to increase employment. In doing this, we will build on the progress that has already been made in the fight against inflation and will seek new successes in that fight.

1978-2. Canada reaffirmed its intention, within the limits permitted by the need to contain and reduce inflation, to achieve higher growth of employment and an increase in output of up to five percent.

1978-3. As a contribution to avert the worldwide disturbances of economic equilibrium, the German delegation has indicated that by the end or August it will propose to the legislative bodies additional and quantitatively substantial measures up to one percent of GNP [Gross National Product], designed to achieve a significant strengthening of demand and a higher rate of growth. The order of magnitude will take account of the absorptive capacity of the capital market and the need to avoid inflationary pressures.

1978-4. The President of the French Republic has indicated that, while pursuing its policy of reduction of the rate of inflation, the French Government agrees, as a contribution to the common effort, to increase by an amount of about 0.5 percent of GNP the deficit of the budget of the State for the year 1978.

1978-5. The Italian Prime Minister has indicated that the Government undertakes to raise the rate of economic growth in 1979 by 1.5 percentage points with respect to 1978. It plans to achieve this goal by cutting public current expenditure while stimulating investment with the aim of increasing employment in a noninflationary context.

1978-6. The Prime Minister of Japan has referred to the fact that his Government is striving for the attainment of the real growth target for fiscal year 1978, which is about 1.5 percentage points higher than the performance of the previous year, mainly through the expansion of domestic demand. He has further expressed his determination to achieve the said target by taking appropriate measures as necessary. In August or September he will determine whether additional measures are needed.

1978-7. The United Kingdom, having achieved a major reduction in the rate of inflation and improvement in the balance of payments, has recently given a fiscal stimulus equivalent to rather over one percent of GNP. The Government intends to continue the fight against inflation so as to improve still further the prospects for growth and employment.

1978-8. The President of the United States stated that reducing inflation is essential to maintaining a healthy U.S. economy and has therefore become the top priority of U.S. economic policy. He identified the major actions that have been taken and are being taken to counter inflation in the United States: tax cuts originally proposed for fiscal year 1979 have now been reduced by $10 billion; government expenditure projections for 1978 and 1979 have been reduced; a very tight budget is being prepared for 1980; steps are being taken to reduce the direct contribution by government regulations or restrictions to rising costs and prices, and a voluntary program has been undertaken to achieve deceleration of wages and prices.

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Energy

1978-9. We are committed to reduce our dependence on imported oil.

We note that the European Community has already agreed at Bremen the following objectives for 1985:

1978-10. to reduce the Community’s dependence on imported energy to fifty percent,

1978-11. to limit net oil imports, and

1978-12. to reduce to 0.8 the ratio between the rate of increase in energy consumption and the rate of increase in gross domestic product.

1978-13. The U.S. will have in place by the end of the year a comprehensive policy framework within which this effort can be urgently carried forward. By year-end, measures will be in effect that will result in oil import savings of approximately 2.5 million barrels per day by 1985.

1978-14. In order to achieve these goals, the U.S. will establish a strategic oil reserve of 1 billion barrels;

1978-15. it will increase coal production by twothirds;

1978-16. it will maintain the ratio between growth in gross national product and growth in energy demand at or below 0.8; and

1978-17. its oil consumption will grow more slowly than energy consumption.

1978-18. The volume of oil imported in 1978 and 1979 should be less than that imported in 1977.

1978-19. In order to discourage excessive consumption of oil and to encourage the movement toward coal, the U.S. remains determined that the prices paid for oil in the U.S. shall be raised to the world level by the end of 1980.

1978-20. Looking to the longer term, our countries will review their national energy programs with a view to speeding them up.

1978-21. To promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, the nuclear fuel cycle studies initiated at the London Summit should be pursued.

1978-22. The President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Canada have expressed their firm intention to continue as reliable suppliers of nuclear fuel within the framework of effective safeguards.

1978-23. The President intends to use the full powers of his office to prevent any interruption of enriched uranium supply and to ensure that existing agreements will be respected.

1978-24. The Prime Minister intends that there shall be no interruption of Canadian uranium supply on the basis of effective safeguards.

1978-25. To help developing countries, we will intensify our national development assistance programs in the energy field and we will develop a coordinated effort to bring into use renewable energy technologies and to elaborate the details within one year.

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Trade

1978-26. We reaffirm our determination to expand international trade, one of the driving forces for more sustained and balanced economic growth. Through our joint efforts we will maintain and strengthen the open international trading system.

1978-27. At last year’s Downing Street Summit we rejected a protectionist course for world trade. We agreed to give a new impetus to the Tokyo Round. Our negotiators have fulfilled that commitment. Today we charge them, in cooperation with the other participants, to resolve the outstanding issues and to conclude successfully the detailed negotiations by December 15, 1978.

1978-28. We note the need for countries with large current accounts deficits to increase exports and for countries with large current accounts surpluses to facilitate increases in imports. In this context, the United States is firmly committed to improve its export performance and is examining measures to this end.

1978-29. The Prime Minister of Japan has stated that he wishes to work for the increase of imports through the expansion of domestic demand and various efforts to facilitate imports. Furthermore, he has stated that in order to cope with the immediate situation of unusual surplus, the Government of Japan is taking a temporary and extraordinary step of calling for moderation in exports with the aim of keeping the total volume of Japan’s exports for the fiscal year of 1978 at or below the level of fiscal year 1977.

Relations with Developing Countries

1978-30. The Prime Minister of Japan has stated that he will strive to double Japan’s official development assistance in three years.

1978-31. We pledge our governments to support replenishment of the International Development Association on a scale that would permit its lending to rise annually in real terms.

1978-32. As regards the more advanced developing countries, we renew our pledge to support replenishment of the multilateral development banks’ resources, on the scale needed to meet the growing needs for loans on commercial terms.

1978-33. We agreed to pursue actively the negotiations on a Common Fund to a successful conclusion and to continue our efforts to conclude individual commodity agreements and to complete studies of various ways of stabilizing export earnings.

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G7 Statement on Airhijacking (2 Commitments)

1978-34. The Heads of State and Government, concerned about terrorism and the taking of hostages, declare that their governments will intensify their joint efforts to combat international terrorism. To this end, in cases where a country refuses extradition or prosecution of those who have hijacked an aircraft and/or do not return such aircraft, the Heads of State and Government are jointly resolved that their governments shall take immediate action to cease all flights to that country.

1978-35. At the same time, their governments will initiate action to halt all incoming flights from that country or from any country by the airlines of the country concerned.

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1979 Tokyo, Japan (34 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (31 commitments)

1979-1. The European Community has decided to restrict 1979 oil consumption to 500 million tons (10 million barrels a day) and to maintain Community oil imports between 1980 and 1985 at an annual level not higher than in 1978. The Community is monitoring this commitment and France, German, Italy and the United Kingdom have agreed to recommend to their Community partners that each member country’s contribution to these annual levels be specified.

1979-2. Canada, Japan, and the U.S. will each achieve the adjusted import levels to which they are pledged in the IEA [International Energy Agency] for 1979, will maintain their imports in 1980 at a level not higher than these 1979 levels, and will be monitoring this.

The seven countries express their will to take as goals for a ceiling on oil imports in 1985, the following figures:

1979-3. For France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom: the 1978 figure.

1979-4. Canada, whose oil production will be declining dramatically over the period between now and 1985, will reduce its annual average rate of growth of oil consumption to 1%, with the consequent reduction of oil imports by 50,000 barrels per day by 1985. Canada’s targets for imports will therefore be 0.6 million barrels per day.

1979-5. Japan adopts as a 1985 target a level not to exceed the range between 6.3 and 6.9 million barrels a day. Japan will review this target periodically and make it more precise in the light of current developments and growth projections, and do their utmost to reduce oil imports through conservation, rationalization of use and intensive development of alternative energy sources in order to move toward lower figures.

1979-6. The United States adopts as a goal for 1985 import levels not to exceed the levels either of 1977 or the adjusted target for 1979, i.e., 8.5 million barrels per day.

1979-7. A high-level group of representatives of our countries and of the EEC [European Economic Community] Commission, within the OECD, will review periodically the results achieved. Slight adjustments will be allowed to take account of special needs generated by growth.

1979-8. In fulfilling these commitments, our guiding principle will be to obtain fair supplies of oil products for all countries, taking into account the differing patterns of supply, the efforts made to limit oil imports, the economic situation of each country, the quantities of oil available, and the potential of each country for energy conservation.

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1979-9. We agree to take steps to bring into the open the working of oil markets by setting up a register of international oil transactions.

1979-10. We will urge oil companies and oilexporting countries to moderate spot market transactions.

1979-11. We will consider the feasibility of requiring that at the time of unloading crude oil cargoes, documents be presented indicating the purchase price as certified by the producer country.

1979-12. We will likewise seek to achieve better information on the profit situation of oil companies and on the use of the funds available to these companies.

1979-13. We agree on the importance of keeping domestic oil prices at world market prices or raising them to this level as soon as possible.

1979-14. We will seek to minimize and finally eliminate administrative action that might put upward pressure on oil prices that result from domestic underpricing of oil and to avoid new subsidies which would have the same effect.

1979-15. Our countries will not buy oil for governmental stockpiles when this would place undue pressure on prices; we will consult about the decisions that we make to this end.

1979-16. We pledge our countries to increase as far as possible coal use, production, and trade, without damage to the environment.

1979-17. We will endeavor to substitute coal for oil in the industrial and electrical sectors, encourage the improvement of coal transport, maintain positive attitudes toward investment for coal projects, pledge not to interrupt coal trade under longterm contracts unless required to do so by a national emergency, and maintain, by measures which do not obstruct coal imports, those levels of domestic coal production which are desirable for reasons of energy, regional and social policy.

1979-18. Without the expansion of nuclear power generating capacity in the coming decades, economic growth and higher employment will be hard to achieve. This must be done under conditions guaranteeing our peoples’ safety. We will cooperate to this end. The International Atomic Energy Agency can play a key role in this regard.

1979-19. New technologies in the field of energy are the key to the world’s longerterm freedom from fuel crises. Large public and private resources will be required for the development and commercial application of those technologies. We will ensure that these resources are made available.

1979-20. An International Energy Technology Group linked to the OECD, IEA and other appropriate international organizations will be created to review the actions being taken or planned domestically by each of our countries, and to report on the need and potential for international collaboration, including financing.

1979-21. We remain ready to examine with oil-exporting countries how to define supply and demand prospects on the world oil market.

1979-22. We agree that we must do more to improve the longterm productive efficiency and flexibility of our economies. The measures needed may include more stimulus for investment and for research and development; steps to make it easier for capital and labor to move from declining to new industries; regulatory policies which avoid unnecessary impediments to investment and productivity; reduced growth in some public sector current expenditures; and removal of impediments to the international flow of trade and capital.

1979-23. The agreements reached in the Tokyo Round are an important achievement. We are committed to their early and faithful implementation.

1979-24. We renew our determination to fight protectionism.

1979-25. We want to strengthen the GATT, both to monitor the agreements reached in the MTNs [multilateral trade negotiations] and as an instrument for future policy in maintaining the open world trading system.

1979-26. We are deeply concerned about the millions of people still living in conditions of absolute poverty. We will take particular account of the poorest countries in our aid programs.

1979-27. We will place more emphasis on cooperation with developing countries in overcoming hunger and malnutrition.

1979-28. We will urge multilateral organizations to help these countries to develop effective food sector strategies and to build up the storage capacity needed for strong national food reserves.

1979-29. Increased bilateral and multilateral aid for agricultural research will be particularly important. In these and other ways we will step up our efforts to help these countries develop their human resources, through technical cooperation adapted to local conditions.

1979-30. We will also place special emphasis on helping developing countries to exploit their energy potential.

1979-31. We will do more to help developing countries increase the use of renewable energy; we welcome the World Bank’s coordination of these efforts.

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Special Statement of the Summit on Indochinese Refugees (3 commitments)

1979-32. The Governments represented will, as part of an international effort, significantly increase their contributions to Indochinese refugee relief and resettlement - by making more funds available and by admitting more people, while taking into account the existing social and economic circumstances in each of their countries.

1979-33. The Heads of State and Government request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to convene a conference as soon as possible with a view to attaining concrete and positive results.

1979-34. They extend full support to this objective and are ready to participate constructively in such a conference.

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1980 Venice, Italy (55 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (46 commitments)

Inflation

1980-1. The reduction of inflation is our immediate top priority and will benefit all nations. Inflation retards growth and harms all sectors of our societies. Determined fiscal and monetary restraint is required to break inflationary expectations.

1980-2. Continuing dialogue among the social partners is also needed for this purpose. We must retain effective international coordination to carry out this policy of restraint, and also to guard against the threat of growing unemployment and worldwide recession.

1980-3. We are also committed to encouraging investment and innovation, so as to increase productivity, to fostering the movement of resources from declining into expanding sectors so as to provide new job opportunities, and to promoting the most effective use of resources within and among countries.

1980-4. This will require shifting resources from government spending to the private sector and from consumption to investment, and avoiding or carefully limiting actions that shelter particular industries or sectors from the rigors of adjustment.

1980-5. In shaping economic policy, we need a better understanding of the longterm effects of global population growth, industrial expansion and economic development generally. A study of trends in these areas is in hand, and our representatives will keep these matters under review.

Energy

1980-6. We must break the existing link between economic growth and consumption of oil, and we mean to do so in this decade. This strategy requires conserving oil and substantially increasing production and use of alternative energy sources.

1980-7. To this end, maximum reliance should be placed on the price mechanism, and domestic prices for oil should take into account representative world prices.

1980-8. Market forces should be supplemented, where appropriate, by effective fiscal incentives and administrative measures.

To conserve oil in our countries:

1980-9. We are agreed that no new baseload, oilfired generating capacity should be constructed, save in exceptional circumstances, and that the conversion of oilfired capacity to other fuels should be accelerated.

1980-10. We will increase efforts, including fiscal incentives where necessary, to accelerate the substitution of oil in industry.

1980-11. We will encourage oil saving investments in residential and commercial buildings, where necessary by financial incentives and by establishing insulation standards.

1980-12. In transportation, our objective is the introduction of increasingly fuel-efficient vehicles.

1980-13. We will accelerate this progress, where appropriate, by arrangements or standards for improved automobile fuel efficiency, by gasoline pricing and taxation decisions, by research and development, and by making public transport more attractive.

1980-14. We must rely on fuels other than oil to meet the energy needs of future economic growth. This will require early, resolute, and wideranging actions.

1980-15. Our potential to increase the supply and use of energy sources other than oil over the next ten years is estimated at the equivalent of 1520 MBD of oil. We intend to make a coordinated and vigorous effort to realize this potential.

1980-16. To this end, we will seek a large increase in the use of coal and enhanced use of nuclear power in the mediumterm, and a substantial increase in production of synthetic fuels, in solar energy and other sources of renewable energy over the longer term.

1980-17. We shall encourage the exploration and development of our indigenous hydrocarbon resources in order to secure maximum production on a long-term basis.

1980-18. Together we intend to double coal production and use by early 1990.

1980-19. We will encourage long-term commitments by coal producers and consumers.

1980-20. It will be necessary to improve infrastructures in both exporting and importing countries, as far as is economically justified, to ensure the required supply and use of coal.

1980-21. We look forward to the recommendations of the International Coal Industry Advisory Board. They will be considered promptly.

1980-22. We are conscious of the environmental risks associated with increased coal production and combustion. We will do everything in our power to ensure that increased use of fossil fuels, especially coal, does not damage the environment.

1980-23. We underline the vital contribution of nuclear power to a more secure energy supply. The role of nuclear energy has to be increased if world energy needs are to be met.

1980-24. We shall therefore have to expand our nuclear generating capacity.

1980-25. We will continue to give the highest priority to ensuring the health and safety of the public and to perfecting methods for dealing with spent fuels and disposal of nuclear waste.

1980-26. We reaffirm the importance of ensuring the reliable supply of nuclear fuel and minimizing the risk of nuclear proliferation.

1980-27. We will actively support the recommendations of the International Energy Technology Group, proposed at the Tokyo Summit last year, for bringing new energy technologies into commercial use at the earliest feasible time.

1980-28. As far as national programs are concerned, we will by mid1981 adopt a two-phased approach; first, listing the numbers and types of commercial scale plants to be constructed in each of our countries by the mid1980s, and, second, indicating quantitative projections for expanding production by 1990, 1995 and 2000, as a basis for future actions.

1980-29. As far as international programs are concerned, we will join others in creating an international team to promote collaboration among interested nations on specific projects.

1980-30. A high-level group of representatives of our countries and of the EEC Commission will review periodically the results achieved in these fields.

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Relations with Developing Countries

1980-31. We approach in a positive spirit the prospect of global negotiations in the framework of the United Nations and the formulation of a new International Development Strategy. In particular, our object is to cooperate with the developing countries in energy conservation and development, expansion of exports, enhancement of human skills, and the tackling of underlying food and population problems.

1980-32. We are deeply conscious that extreme poverty and chronic malnutrition afflict hundreds of millions of people of developing countries. The first requirement in these countries is to improve their ability to feed themselves and reduce their dependence on food imports. We are ready to join with them and the international agencies concerned in their comprehensive long-term strategies to increase food production, and to help improve national as well as international research services.

1980-33. We will support and, where appropriate, supplement initiatives of the World Bank and of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and to improve grain storage and food handling facilities.

1980-34. We strongly support the general capital increase of the World Bank, increases in the funding of the regional development banks, and the sixth replenishment of the International Development Association. We would welcome an increase in the rate of lending of these institutions, within the limits of their present replenishments, as needed to fulfill the programs described above. It is essential that all members, especially the major donors, provide their full contributions on the agreed schedule.

1980-35. We welcome the report of the Brandt Commission. We shall carefully consider its recommendations.

1980-36. The democratic industrialized countries cannot alone carry the responsibility of aid and other different contributions to developing countries: it must be equitably shared by the oilexporting countries and the industrialized Communist countries. The Personal Representatives are instructed to review aid policies and procedures and other contributions to developing countries and to report back their conclusions to the next Summit.

Monetary Problems

1980-37. Private lending will need to be supplemented by an expanded role for international institutions, especially the International Monetary Fund. We are committed to implementing the agreed increase in the IMF quotas, and to supporting appropriate borrowing by the Fund, if needed to meet financing requirements of its members.

1980-38. We reaffirm our commitment to stability in the foreign exchange markets. We note that the European Monetary System (EMS) has contributed to this end.

1980-39. We will continue close cooperation in exchange market policies so as to avoid disorderly exchange rate fluctuations.

1980-40. We will also cooperate with the IMF to achieve more effective surveillance. We support continuing examination by the IMF of arrangements to provide for a more balanced evolution of the world reserve system.

Trade

1980-41. We are resolved further to strengthen the open world trading system. We will resist pressures for protectionist actions, which can only be selfdefeating and aggravate inflation.

1980-42. We endorse the positive conclusion of the Multilateral Trade Negotiations, and commit ourselves to early and effective implementation.

1980-43. We reaffirm our determination to avoid a harmful export credit race. To this end we shall work with the other participants to strengthen the International Arrangement on Export Credits, with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable solution covering all aspects of the Arrangement by 1 December 1980.

1980-44. In particular, we shall seek to bring its terms closer to current market conditions and reduce distortions in export competition, recognizing the differentiated treatment of developing countries in the Arrangement.

1980-45. As a further step in strengthening the international trading system, we commit our governments to work in the United Nations toward an agreement to prohibit illicit payments to foreign government officials in international business transactions.

1980-46. If that effort falters, we will seek to conclude an agreement among our countries, but open to all, with the same objective.

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Statement on the Taking of Diplomatic Hostages (4 commitments)

1980-47. Gravely concerned by recent incidents of terrorism involving the taking of hostages and attacks on diplomatic and consular premises and personnel, the Heads of State and Government reaffirm their determination to deter and combat such acts.

1980-48. They note the completion of work on the International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages and call on all States to consider becoming parties to it as well as to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons of 1973.

1980-49. The Heads of State and Government vigorously condemn the taking of hostages and the seizure of diplomatic and consular premises and personnel in contravention of the basic norms of international law and practice. The Heads of State and Government consider it necessary that all governments should adopt policies which will contribute to the attainment of this goal and to take appropriate measures to deny terrorists any benefits from such criminal acts.

1980-50. They also resolve to provide to one another’s diplomatic and consular missions support and assistance in situations involving the seizure of diplomatic and consular establishments or personnel.

 

Statement on Refugees (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached.

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Political Topics – Afghanistan (4 commitments)

1980-51. We have taken note of today’s announcement of the withdrawal of some Soviet troops from Afghanistan. In order to make a useful contribution to the solution of the Afghan crisis, this withdrawal, if confirmed, will have to be permanent and continue until the complete withdrawal of the Soviet troops. Only thus will it be possible to reestablish a situation compatible with peace and the rule of law and thereby with the interests of all nations…We are resolved to do everything in our power to achieve this objective.

1980-52. We are also ready to support any initiative to this end, such as that of the Islamic Conference.

1980-53. And we shall support every effort designed to contribute to the political independence and to the security of the States of the region.

1980-54. Those governments represented at this meeting which have taken a position against attendance at the Olympic Games vigorously reaffirm their positions.

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Statement on Hijacking (1 commitment)

1980-55. While enforcement measures under the Declaration have not yet been necessary, the Heads of State and Government emphasize that hijacking remains a threat to international civil aviation and that there can be no relaxation of efforts to combat this threat. To this end they look forward to continuing cooperation with all other governments.

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1981 Ottawa, Canada (40 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (31 commitments)

Economy

1981-1. We must continue to reduce inflation if we are to secure the higher investment and sustainable growth on which the durable recovery of employment depends.

1981-2. We need in most countries urgently to reduce public borrowing; where our circumstances permit or we are able to make changes within the limits of our budgets, we will increase support for productive investment and innovation.

1981-3. We must also accept the role of the market in our economies. We must not let transitional measures that may be needed to ease change become permanent forms of protection or subsidy.

1981-4. Most of us need also to rely on containment of budgetary deficits, by means of restraint in government expenditures as necessary.

1981-5. It is also highly desirable to minimize volatility of interest rates and exchange rates; greater stability in foreign exchange and financial markets is important for the sound development of the world economy.

Relations with Developing Countries

1981-6. We support the stability, independence and genuine nonalignment of developing countries and reaffirm our commitment to cooperate with them in a spirit of mutual interest, respect and benefit, recognizing the reality of our interdependence.

1981-7. We reaffirm our willingness to explore all avenues of consultation and cooperation with developing countries in whatever forums may be appropriate.

1981-8. We are ready to participate in preparations for a mutually acceptable process of global negotiations in circumstances offering the prospect of meaningful progress.

1981-9. We remain ready to support the developing countries in the efforts they make to promote their economic and social development within the framework of their own social values and traditions.

1981-10. We are committed to maintaining substantial and, in many cases, growing levels of Official Development Assistance and will seek to increase public understanding of its importance.

1981-11. We will direct the major portion of our aid to poorer countries, and will participate actively in the United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries.

1981-12. We will maintain a strong commitment to the international financial institutions and work to ensure that they have, and use effectively, the financial resources for their important responsibilities.

1981-13. We call on the surplus oil exporting countries to broaden their valuable efforts to finance development in non-oil developing countries, especially in the field of energy. We stand ready to cooperate with them for this purpose and to explore with them, in a spirit of partnership, possible mechanisms, such as those being examined in the World Bank, which would take due account of the importance of their financial contributions.

1981-14. We recognize the importance of accelerated food production in the developing world and of greater world food security, and the need for developing countries to pursue sound agricultural and food policies; we will examine ways to make increased resources available for these purposes.

1981-15. We are deeply concerned about the implications of world population growth. Many developing countries are taking action to deal with that problem, in ways sensitive to human values and dignity; and to develop human resources, including technical and managerial capabilities. We recognize the importance of these issues and will place greater emphasis on international efforts in these areas.

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Trade

1981-16. We reaffirm our strong commitment to maintaining liberal trade policies and to the effective operation of an open multilateral trading system as embodied in the GATT.

1981-17. We will work together to strengthen this system in the interest of all trading countries, recognizing that this will involve structural adaptation to changes in the world economy.

1981-18. We will implement the agreements reached in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations and invite other countries, particularly developing countries, to join in these mutually beneficial trading arrangements.

1981-19. We will continue to resist protectionist pressures, since we recognize that any protectionist measure, whether in the form of overt or hidden trade restrictions or in the form of subsidies to prop up declining industries, not only undermines the dynamism of our economies but also, over time, aggravates inflation and unemployment.

1981-20. We will keep under close review the role played by our countries in the smooth functioning of the multilateral trading system with a view to ensuring maximum openness of our markets in a spirit of reciprocity, while allowing for the safeguard measures provided for in the GATT.

1981-21. We endorse efforts to reach agreement by the end of this year on reducing subsidy elements in official export credit schemes.

Energy

1981-22. Recognizing that our countries are still vulnerable and energy supply remains a potential constraint to a revival of economic growth, we will accelerate the development and use of all our energy sources, both conventional and new, and continue to promote energy savings and the replacement of oil by other fuels.

1981-23. To these ends, we will continue to rely heavily on market mechanisms, supplemented as necessary by government action.

1981-24. Our capacity to deal with short-term oil market problems should be improved, particularly through the holding of adequate levels of stocks.

1981-25. In most of our countries progress in constructing new nuclear facilities is slow. We intend in each of our countries to encourage greater public acceptance of nuclear energy, and respond to public concerns about safety, health, nuclear waste management and nonproliferation.

1981-26. We will further our efforts in the development of advanced technologies, particularly in spent fuel management.

1981-27. We will take steps to realize the potential for the economic production, trade and use of coal and will do everything in our power to ensure that its increased use does not damage the environment.

1981-28. We also intend to see to it that we develop to the fullest possible extent sources of renewable energy such as solar, geothermal and biomass energy.

1981-29. We will work for practical achievements at the forthcoming United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy.

East-West Economic Relations

1981-30. We concluded that consultations and, where appropriate, coordination are necessary to ensure that, in the field of East-West relations, our economic policies continue to be compatible with our political and security objectives.

1981-31. We will undertake to consult to improve the present system of controls on trade in strategic goods and related technology with the USSR.

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Chairman’s Summary of Political Issues (2 commitments)

1981-32. Together with other States and regional organizations, we are resolved to do what is necessary to enhance regional security and to ensure a peace built on the independence and dignity of sovereign nations.

1981-33. Recalling the statement on refugees adopted at the Venice Summit, we are seriously concerned over the growing plight of refugees throughout the world. We reaffirm our support for international relief efforts and our appeal to all governments to refrain from actions which can lead to massive flows of refugees.

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Ottawa Summit Statement on Terrorism (7 commitments)

1981-34. The Heads of State and Government, seriously concerned about the active support given to international terrorism through the supply of money and arms to terrorist groups, and about the sanctuary and training offered terrorists, as well as the continuation of acts of violence and terrorism such as aircraft hijacking, hostage-taking and attacks against diplomatic and consular personnel and premises, reaffirm their determination vigorously to combat such flagrant violations of international law.

1981-35. Emphasizing that all countries are threatened by acts of terrorism in disregard of fundamental human rights, they resolve to strengthen and broaden action within the international community to prevent and punish such acts.

1981-36. The Heads of State and Government are convinced that, in the case of the hijacking of a Pakistan International Airlines aircraft in March, the conduct of the Babrak Karmal government of Afghanistan, both during the incident and subsequently in giving refuge to the hijackers, was and is in flagrant breach of its international obligations under the Hague Convention to which Afghanistan is a party, and constitutes a serious threat to air safety. Consequently the Heads of State and Government propose to suspend all flights to and from Afghanistan in implementation of the Bonn Declaration unless Afghanistan immediately takes steps to comply with its obligations.

1981-37. Recalling the Venice Statement on the Taking of Diplomatic Hostages, the Heads of State and Government approve continued cooperation in the event of attacks on diplomatic and consular establishments or personnel of any of their governments.

1981-38. They undertake that in the event of such incidents, their governments will immediately consult on an appropriate response.

1981-39. Moreover, they resolve that any State which directly aids and abets the commission of terrorist acts condemned in the Venice Statement, should face a prompt international response.

1981-40. It was agreed to exchange information on terrorist threats and activities, and to explore cooperative measures for dealing with and countering acts of terrorism, for promoting more effective implementation of existing antiterrorist conventions, and for securing wider adherence to them.

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