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Growth and Responsibility:
The Prospective Agenda for the
2007 G8 Heiligendamm Summit

Laura Sunderland
Senior Researcher, G8 Research Group
March 14, 2007

See also G8 Finance Ministers Prospective Agenda


This prospective agenda is compiled by the G8 Research Group from public sources as an aid to researchers and other stakeholders interested in the 2007 G8 Summit, which will be hosted by Germany in Heilgendamm on June 6-8. It will be updated periodically as the Heiligendamm Summit planning evolves and as more information becomes available about its intended and actual agenda.

G8 Summit, Heiligendamm, June 6-8, 2006

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "Growth remains for all countries the basic prerequisite for achieving more employment, higher living standards and greater resource productivity. But growth is not an end in itself. It must be created equitably, not through unfair measures. Global competition must therefore in my firm opinion be placed within an international framework. It is precisely here that politics comes into play, as politics has the responsibility for this framework."[1]

On October 18, 2006, Chancellor Merkel submitted her tentative agenda for the German G8 presidency to the cabinet, which expressed its strong approval.[1] The focuses of the German presidency, according to Merkel's tentative agenda are as follows (1) investment, innovation and sustainability; (2) Africa: good governance, sustainable investment, peace and security; (3) Cooperation with Emerging Countries.[2]

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Investment, Innovation, Sustainability

World Economy

On December 28, 2006, German Sherpa, Bernd Pfaffenbach, stated that Germany plans to "go back to the roots of the World Economic Summit as it was previously known. We're concerned with the problems of the global economy."[3]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "In the G8 we will do our best to remind everyone in this group of nations that the original calling of the G7 was how best to move the world economy forward. In other words, the question of employment, the question of growth, the question of stability, the question of how best to confront the challenges of globalisation, including new issues such as energy and climate change, which will be very high on our agenda."[4]

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Free Trade

On January 25, 2007, The Globe and Mail reported Chancellor Merkel stated to the World Economic Forum in Davos that "Referring to Germany's role as president of the G8 group of industrialized countries, Ms. Merkel said free trade is an essential condition for economic growth in rich and poor nations."[5]

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Protectionism

On November 29, 2006, German Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that the issue of protectionism will be on the G8 agenda.[6]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that a German government official announced that the leaders will address protectionism in investment.[7], [ 8]

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Employment

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "the question of employment… will be very high on our agenda."[9]

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Global Imbalances

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel, in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stated that "We want to continue the G8's joint efforts to reduce the strong global imbalances, for example in exchange rates or oil supplies."[2]

On December 30, 2006, German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "The goal will be to identify imbalances and to determine what can be done to ensure more balanced global growth."[10]

As of October 18, 2006, global imbalances (such as the current account deficit in the US, deficient growth in Europe and Japan and foreign exchange reserves in Asia) are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[11]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that the leaders will discuss global imbalances[12], Asian foreign-currency reserves, greater flexibility of Chinese yuan, the American twin deficit[13], [14], and the need for structural reforms in Europe and Japan in order to bring growth to those sluggish economies.[15], [16]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that Merkel will focus the summit's attention on global economic matters, such as global imbalances.[17]

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Systemic Stability and Transparency of Financial Markets and Hedge Funds

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to minimize the international capital market's systemic risks while increasing their transparency. Let me make it very clear that I see much room for improvement, especially regarding hedge funds."[3]

On December 30, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that "On financial markets, Germany will press for greater transparency and political monitoring of speculative hedge funds, which are seen by Berlin -- and increasingly by some of its partners -- as a destabilizing element in global finance."[18] German Sherpa Pfaffenbach stated that Merkel will likely be satisfied with "a final declaration that calls for greater transparency."[19]

On December 11, 2006, Reuters reported that Finance Minister Peer Steinbrueck had won the backing of U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and Britain's finance minister, Gordon Brown to tighten controls on hedge funds.[20] Steinbrueck stated that "With the consent of the two most important finance countries, the probability rises that we will reach concrete decisions."[21]

As of October 18, 2006, measures to improve systemic stability and the transparency of financial markets are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[22]

From October 15-18, 2006, various sources reported that leaders will address the need for hedge fund transparency[23], [24], [25] and the stability of financial markets.[26] German finance minister Peer Steinbruck stated that the Amaranth debacle alerted all to the "new sensitivity" in the United States to the systemic risks of hedge funds.[27] Steinbruck stated that this is a good opportunity to discuss the issue, and G7 Finance ministers are expected to discuss ways of improving hedge fund transparency during the German presidency.[28] Steinbruck stated that on hedge funds, "we are not talking about regulation here. The question is really one of transparency."[29] While the German government admits that while an agreement or solution might not be feasible, a discussion is important.[30]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss how to improve the basic conditions for a dynamic development of the world economy given that transnational mergers and acquisitions have recently been met with political resistance in the European Union and other large economies.[31]

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Freedom of Investment and Global Investment Conditions

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We have therefore set ourselves the goal of putting economic themes back to the forefront of the agenda during our G8 Presidency. We want to increase the options for global investment and are committed to the equal treatment of cross-border and domestic investment."[4]

On November 29, 2006, German Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "Free movement of investment and capital is an important fundament for the global economy and must be protected by reliable rules. We want to jointly work on this with our G8 partners."[32]

As of October 18, 2006, freedom of investment in both industrial and emerging countries, global investment conditions and the social dimensions of globalization are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[33]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that a German government official announced that the leaders will address protectionism in investment.[34], [ 35]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss the social dimension of globalization, the structure and reform of social security in developing countries, and investment in worker efficiency and human capital as the key to economic and social development and lasting growth.[36]

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Innovation and Trademark Piracy

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to support innovation, as the key to growth and prosperity, and markedly advance the effective worldwide protection of intellectual property."[5]

As of October 18, 2006, the importance of innovation in knowledge-based societies and the need to protect innovation from product and trademark piracy are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[37]

On October 18, 2006, a German government official announced that the leaders will discuss promoting innovation.[38]

On October 15, various sources reported that the German federal government announced that one of the main summit issues is product piracy.[39], [ 40] Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that Germany will seek to initiate a structured dialogue with the developing countries over the protection of the intellectual property, new international agreements to make trading falsified products more difficult and strengthen the existing national and international rules.[41]

On August 1, 2006, the German G8 Sherpa office disclosed that while no definite decisions concerning key topics have officially been made, intellectual property rights will be a priority at the summit.[42]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that the central topics of the German summit will be global economic imbalances, energy and intellectual property protection.[43]

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Sustainable Resource Use and Climate Change

On March 7, 2007, Reuters News reported that, regarding the European Commission's efforts on climate change, Chancellor Merkel stated "The more ambitious and challenging the targets are from this council, the easier it will be for us as the G8 president to say: Europe has taken its own important step and now others -- the United States, China, India and the big emerging countries -- must follow... I believe Europe can be a role model. Europe has to commit itself, but then Europe has good prospects for getting into dialogue with other countries to do their share, and the German G8 presidency will be lobbying for that."[6]

On March 1, 2007, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated that he will discuss the issue of climate change with the G8 leaders at the summit.[7]

On February 16, 2007, Upstream reported that following a meeting between UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Merkel stated that climate change was a top item on the agenda of both her G8 and EU presidencies.[8] Merkel will host a G8 conference in May to discuss technical details of a climate change agreement to be presented at the G8 Summit in June.[9] Blair suggested that the G8's dialogue with outreach countries is important to reach a climate change deal that the US will accept.[10]

On January 25, 2007, The Globe and Mail reported that "Elliot Morley met with Environment Minister John Baird in Ottawa [on January 24, 2007,] to encourage Canada to do more at home and internationally. Specifically, the Labour MP and former British environment minister is pushing for Canada and 11 other countries that join Britain in a group known as "G8 plus five" to craft a climate-change plan for this year's G8 meeting in Germany. The plan would then be finalized at the next meeting in Japan for 2008."[44] Representatives from the G8+5 will meet in Washington to discuss the plan and present "initial policy papers" on February 14, 2007, with senior US senators and congressmen.[45] The Globe and Mail reported that "World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz will speak at the event, as will Republican senator and presidential hopeful John McCain."[46]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to supply impulses for climate protection, greater energy efficiency and increased security of supply."[11]

On January 20, 2007, the Straits Times reported that "Germany currently holds the presidency of the European Union as well as the G-8, whose summit this summer will focus on climate change."[47]

On December 29, 2006, Chancellor Merkel stated that she will push energy and climate change as priorities for her G8 Presidency.[48]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Press reported that the energy issue area will be focused on Germany attempting to "make progress on drawing up a successor agreement to the so-called Kyoto Protocol on climate protection, which runs out in 2012."[49]

On December 7, 2006, a German spokesperson from the foreign ministry stated that during Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier's visit to the United States he will discuss G8 priorities, including energy and climate change.[50]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "energy and climate change… will be very high on our agenda."[51]

On December 1, 2006, Merkel said that climate change will play a "major role" in Germany's G8 presidency.[52] Merkel has appointed two special advisors, Hans Joachim Schnellnhuber, head of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Research, and Lars Goeran Josefsson of the energy company Vattenfall to develop German policy that is in line with the views of science and industry.[53] Merkel stated that "Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing mankind… On the one hand we need the know-how ... and on the other we need support from the private sector."[54] She also stated that she wants to use her presidency to "convince more people that something must be done about climate change… It is one of the biggest challenges we face. The G8 presidency is pre-destined for the discussion of this sort of issue."[55]

As of October 18, 2006, the need for sustainable resource use, energy efficient, climate change and the Kyoto Process are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[56] Kyoto was singled out to "play an important role" on the agenda.[57]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that the discussion of the world economy would not be a pure "capitalist agenda."[58] It will include the social dimensions of the world economy, responsible resource use, alternative energy, climate change[59] and energy efficiency. [60], [61] One official stated that nuclear power will not be on the agenda.[62] Energy efficiency is a key theme, both in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ensuring efficient use of oil and gas supplies in the face of high prices.[63]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss climate change and the future of the Kyoto protocol.[64] Merkel wants the G8 to set verifiable and attainable goals to increase the use of alternative fuels, particularly biofuels.[65] On climate change, Merkel seeks a new quality of cooperation regarding access to raw materials between producer, transit and consumer countries, because "the world-wide competition for resources so far has few rules."[66]

On October 3, 2006, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told reporters that environmental protection will be high on the agenda in 2007 and that Russia is "preparing to hand over the relay to the German friends."[67]

On September 28, 2006, Deutsche Welle reported that Merkel named climate change as her presidency's top priority for the summit.[68] Merkel also stated that she will use Germany's EU presidency to push for reduced energy use and more energy efficiency.[69] Merkel stated that "To prevent global warming, the nations with the largest emissions of gases that are causing climate change have to take part… That's why we will make this an important issue once again on the agenda during our G8 presidency… China, India and other countries are now much more aware of the risks… As a result, the ground is now more fertile than it once was… We urgently need agreements for the period after 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Germany will do all it can within its realm as president of both the G8 and the EU ... We have a great chance next year to have an international impact."[70]

On August 1, 2006, the German G8 Sherpa office disclosed that while no definite decisions concerning key topics have officially been made, energy and climate change will be priorities at the summit.[71]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that a central topic of the German summit will be energy.[72]

On July 19, 2006, Deutsche Welle reported that sustainable, renewable and environmentally sound energy policy will be a topic for the summit.[73]

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Africa: Good Governance, Sustainable Investment, Peace and Security

As of October 17, according to the Financial Times, the second part of the draft agenda has four chapters: "durable economic growth for the development of Africa," "good public governance," "peace and security as conditions for development," and "the fight against HIV and Aids."[74]

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Health and HIV/AIDS

On March 12, 2007, the official German G8 Presidency website stated that regarding HIV/AIDS "we will make headway in Heiligendamm."[12]

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that a top goal for Africa is combating AIDS.[13]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel, in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stated that "In the past, the G8 states have launched major initiatives, most importantly the Global Fund on Combating AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. However, I also want to say that we can't stop there. In September we'll be holding a conference in Germany at which we intend to assess the activities of this Fund and, above all, at which we have to ensure that it is replenished. With regard to AIDS, we want to make the fate of women and children a top priority of Germany's Presidency."[14]

As of October 18, 2006, strengthening health care systems and the fight against HIV/AIDS are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[75]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African discussion will include assistance for public health and the fight against HIV/AIDS.[76]

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African Economic Development and Democratic Development

On March 3, 2007, Deutsche Welle reported that "German parliamentarians have backed the Berlin government's resolve to make better co-operation with African nations a top priority during Germany's current EU and G8 presidencies."[15]

On February 26, 2007, Donald Kaberuka, President of the African Development Bank told Ugandan newspaper Daily Monitor that the G8 is expected to unveil a microfinance initiative for Africa at the summit.[16] He stated that "I have been reliably informed that the upcoming G8 German Presidency is proposing to the G8 and non-G8 a special micro-finance initiative for Africa... I fully welcome and endorse this initiative and I expect over the coming few months, the African Development Bank as well as the World Bank to collaborate closely with the initiators in conceptualising and targeting the initiative."[17]

On February 13, 2007, the Financial Times reported that Germany's development Minister said the G8 is expected to pledge new finance to create a micro-credit fund for African entrepreneurs in order to promote investment.[18] The Financial Times also reported that "[Germany] is co-ordinating a pre-G8 summit declaration by multinational companies from G8 countries, pledging to increase business with African countries, the minister said."[19]

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that a top goal for Africa is a "pact of sustained economic growth." With the World Bank, Germany will seek to establish regional micro-finance funds to give poor groups access to loans.[20]

On January 25, 2007, The Globe and Mail reported Chancellor Merkel stated to the World Economic Forum in Davos that "Another highlight of the German G8 presidency is the question of how Africa can be better integrated into the world economy."[77]

On January 25, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that "Germany also plans to unveil a proposal at the summit to increase foreign investment in African countries that fight corruption and promote democracy."[78]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "...the question of how we can better integrate Africa into the global economy is another priority of Germany's G8 Presidency... We want more to be invested on this continent and growth and employment to be placed on a broader basis... What we need more, above all, is a responsible approach to natural resources and the development of independent African capacities for conflict management and post-conflict peacebuilding. This not only makes things easier for private investments. It also strengthens the position of African states as equal partners when it comes to access to and control of Africa's raw materials. For one thing must not be allowed to happen, namely that Africa is again treated unfairly in the 21st century in a fight for raw materials."[21]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that Germany's Africa agenda will move away from "the multi-billion-dollar debt relief agreed in Gleneagles and urge African countries to take a more hands-on approach, fighting corruption and pushing for more democracy so as to create better conditions for increased foreign investment."[79]

As of October 18, 2006, African economic development, encouraging private investment (by supporting democracy, anti-corruption measures and resource sovereignty) are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[80]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African discussion will include ensuring good governance, fighting corruption, and encouraging growth and investment in Africa.[81] It will also include reducing violence and giving Africa back its ability to govern its own resources.[82] Another source stated that the African agenda will include energy and environment.[83]

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Africa: Energy and Natural Resources

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that the promotion of a sustained energy supply is a central goal, and that climate change affects developing countries in particular.[22] Wieczorek-Zeul stated that it is important to make progress in Africa on developing renewable energy sources, while also ensuring that Africa adapts to climate change and preserves forests.[23]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel stated that "... What we need more, above all, is a responsible approach to natural resources... This not only makes things easier for private investments. It also strengthens the position of African states as equal partners when it comes to access to and control of Africa's raw materials. For one thing must not be allowed to happen, namely that Africa is again treated unfairly in the 21st century in a fight for raw materials."[24]

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Partnership for Reform

As of October 18, 2006, G8 partnerships for reform with African countries and a new policy approach to Africa are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[84]

On October 18, 2006, a spokesperson for the German Treasury stated that in the context of Africa, Germany is expected to propose that each G8 country should sign a partnership agreement with an African country,[85] with preference given to those countries that are undertaking political reform and are seeking to attract foreign investment.[86] Regarding the New Partnership with Africa, German officials told journalists that "The basic argument is that we need a new and stable framework for investment in Africa." Africa countries that are pursuing good governance, fighting corruption and using raw materials responsibly will be rewarded with partnership agreements and business deals.[87]

On October 18, 2006, the German cabinet discussed a 17-page proposed agenda for the summit, produced by German sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach.[88] The document outlined Germany's plan to have each G8 member sign a partnership agreement with an Africa country that "that [is] willing to enter reform partnerships to be especially supported," with preference given to democratic states that are investor-friendly.[89], [ 90]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, Merkel will focus on African countries that advance social and political reforms and open their country for private investments.[ 91] She stated that donor countries should particularly support "those countries, which are ready for reform partnerships."[92] Merkel will focus on the Gleneagles Africa Action Plan.[93]

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African Outreach

As of October 18, 2006, according to Merkel's tentative G8 agenda, African representatives will be invited to participate in some summit sessions.[94]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African participants will attend the summit (although which countries will attend has yet to be determined).[95]

On October 15, 2006, officials reported that Germany plans to invite the heads of government from African countries to a separate summit on Africa in Germany before the G8 summit.[96] The focus of the summit will be to encourage private investment in Africa.[97] The African summit is being organized by German Cooperation Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, and will be held in Germany, tentatively in May, 2007.[98]

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Cooperation with Emerging Countries

On January 25, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that a senior economics official stated that German will suggest inviting leaders from Africa, Asia and Latin America to all G8 summits. "Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach said the economic power of Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa "must be accounted for" by routinely giving them a place at the table of the eight most industrialised nations... The new initiative to include them will be called the "Heiligendamm process" after the Baltic Coast resort, he added."[99] Stating there is "no chance of agreeing on enlarging" the G8, Pfaffenbach stated that instead it is important that the P5 states have "the opportunity to regularly play a role in influencing the development of the international economy."[100]

On January 25, 2007, The Globe and Mail reported that Chancellor Merkel pledge that "A summit in June will also include "a new form of dialogue" with emerging countries such as Brazil, India, Russia and China."[101]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "we must realize that only a unified G8 approach can help persuade the emerging economies, with their dynamic economic growth, to join us in our shared global responsibility. Any other approach will fail. Therefore my aim is for Germany's G8 Summit, in Heiligendamm in June, to place special emphasis on new forms of dialogue with the major emerging economies, i.e. Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa. The Summit will initiate that dialogue and pass it on to other international organizations because we need a coherent, joint approach in the many international bodies."[25]

On December 30, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that Germany "wants to include Mexico, India, China, Brazil and South Africa, countries that are not members of the G8, in the climate talks."[102]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that "A top-ranking government official from Beijing is to be present in Heiligendamm, as well as representatives from other countries such as India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa, where the talks will cover wage levels and social standards, as well as product piracy."[103]

As of October 18, 2006, according to Merkel's tentative G8 agenda, China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa will be invited to attend the summit.[104] Specific issues will be discussed, but Merkel's tentative agenda states that "the unity of the G8 as a group based on shared values is to be preserved."[105]

On October 18, 2006, German officials confirmed that China, Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa will be invited to the summit, but that the G8 will not be expanded.[106] Agence France Presse reported that the outreach countries will participate in the discussions on counterfeit products, rules governing working conditions, and the climate change.[107] Another source suggested that the outreach countries will attend the discussion on the framework conditions of globalization.[108]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that Merkel rejected a proposal to extend G8 membership to include China, India, Brazil, South Africa and Mexico.[109] This proposal was supported by the UK.[110]

On July 17, 2006, Chancellor Merkel stated that Mexico, Brazil and other countries invited to the 2006 summit will be invited to attend the G8 summit in 2007.[111]

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Middle East

On July 19, 2006, Chancellor Merkel announced to Russian reporters that "The topics will depend on the situation in the world then and will probably include a discussion on Iran, the Middle East conflict."[112]

On December 7, 2006, a German spokesperson from the foreign ministry stated that during Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier's visit to the United States he will discuss G8 priorities, including reviving the Middle East peace process.[113]

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Social Dimensions on Globalization

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "with changed political conditions, with right and fair conditions, we can shape globalization. Germany will make its contribution towards this during its Presidencies of the European Union and the G8."[26]

On December 14, 2006, Xinhua reported that setting up "common political standards for globalization" will be on the agenda.[114]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "the question of how best to confront the challenges of globalisation" will be on the agenda.[115]

As of October 18, 2006, the social dimensions of globalization are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[116]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss the social dimension of globalization.[117]

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Russian Participation

On January 25, 2007, The Globe and Mail reported that Chancellor Merkel pledge that "A summit in June will also include "a new form of dialogue" with emerging countries such as Brazil, India, Russia and China."[118]

On December 27, 2006 ITAR-TASS World Service reported that German State Secretary of Economics and Technology and G8 sherpa, Bernd Pfaffenbach, said in an interview that Germany will actively promote full Russian membership in the G8, including finance ministers meetings.[119]

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Physical Preparations

On February 17, 2007, Deutsche Welle reported that the 14km long security fence being constructed will cost 12.4 million euros ($16.3 million) to build.[27] They also reported that approximately 10,000 police officers will be tasked with monitoring the fence during the Summit.[28] The air force, navy and special forces will provide Summit security.[29] Birgit Schwebs, deputy leader of the Left Party in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania's state parliament stated that "Mecklenburg is paying 13 million euros for the fence alone… The current official estimate is that our G8 summit in Heiligendamm will cost a round 92 million euros just for security."[30] Schwebs stated that the German government has promised 24 million euros to reimburse some Summit costs.[31]

On January 15, 2007, Reuters News reported that construction has begun on a 2.5 meter high, 12 km long steel and cement wall "topped by barbed wire, video monitors and movement sensors" to protect the G8 leaders during the Summit.[120] "To prevent anyone from tunneling beneath the fence, construction workers have rammed 50-cm long steel grating into the ground."[121]

On December 27, 2006 BBC Monitoring Europe reported that "For a few days at the beginning of June, around 15 heads of state and government from all over the world will be visiting the Baltic Coast resort. And a swarm of 2,000 delegates and 4,000 journalists, in itself a logistical feat, will be fighting to get to the G8 summit."[122]

On November 22, 2006, the German Federal Office of Criminal Investigations President, Joerg Ziercke, announced that approximately 10,000 police officers will be on duty during the Summit.[123] Between 50,000 to 100,000 participants are expected to demonstrate at counter-summit events.[124]

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Notes

1 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

2 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

3 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

4 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

5 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

6 Dow Jones International News (November 29, 2006), "UPDATE:Germany Criticizes Protectionism;Adds To G8 Agenda."

7 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

8 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

9 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

10 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

11 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

12 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

13 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

14 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

15 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

16 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

17 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

18 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

19 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

20 Reuters Business News (December 11, 2006), "U.S., UK back Berlin's G8 hedge fund initiative: paper," accessed December 15, 2006, http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/provider/providerarticle.aspx?feed=OBR&Date=20061211&ID=6262381

21 Reuters Business News (December 11, 2006), "U.S., UK back Berlin's G8 hedge fund initiative: paper," accessed December 15, 2006, http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/provider/providerarticle.aspx?feed=OBR&Date=20061211&ID=6262381

22 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

23 BBC Monitoring European (October 19, 2006), "Protests planned against G8 in Germany in June 2007."

24 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

25 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

26 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

27 Financial Times (October 18, 2006), "Hedge fund transparency put on G8 agenda."

28 Financial Times (October 18, 2006), "Hedge fund transparency put on G8 agenda."

29 Financial Times (October 18, 2006), "Hedge fund transparency put on G8 agenda."

30 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

31 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

32 Dow Jones International News (November 29, 2006), "UPDATE:Germany Criticizes Protectionism;Adds To G8 Agenda."

33 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

34 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

35 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

36 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

37 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

38 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

39 BBC Monitoring European (October 19, 2006), "Protests planned against G8 in Germany in June 2007."

40 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

41 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

42 Mona Bricke (August 31, 2006), Email to Intngo listserve.

43 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

44 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "British MP puts Ottawa on climate hot seat; Blair's envoy urges Canada to help craft post-Kyoto plan in time for G8 meeting."

45 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "British MP puts Ottawa on climate hot seat; Blair's envoy urges Canada to help craft post-Kyoto plan in time for G8 meeting."

46 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "British MP puts Ottawa on climate hot seat; Blair's envoy urges Canada to help craft post-Kyoto plan in time for G8 meeting."

47 Straits Times (January 20, 2007), "Bush feels the heat on environment issues."

48 Associated Press Newswires (December 19, 2006), "Germany's Merkel says Europe must speak with one voice on energy."

49 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

50 Associated Press Newswires (December 6, 2006), "German foreign minister to visit U.S. as Berlin prepares for EU , G-8 presidency."

51 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

52 Associated Press Newswires (December 1, 2006), "Merkel pledges to make climate protection key part of Germany's G-8, EU presidencies."

53 Associated Press Newswires (December 1, 2006), "Merkel pledges to make climate protection key part of Germany's G-8, EU presidencies."

54 Associated Press Newswires (December 1, 2006), "Merkel pledges to make climate protection key part of Germany's G-8, EU presidencies."

55 Agence France Presse (December 1, 2006), "Germany names special advisors for climate change."

56 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

57 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

58 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

59 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

60 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

61 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

62 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

63 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

64 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

65 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

66 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

67 ITAR-TASS World Service (October 3, 2006), "G8 summit in Germany to focus on environmental protection—Lavrov."

68 Deutsche Welle (September 28, 2006), "Merkel to Target Climate Change as G8, EU Leader," accessed October 2, 2006 <www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2188336,00.html?maca=en-bulletin-433-html>.

69 Deutsche Welle (September 28, 2006), "Merkel to Target Climate Change as G8, EU Leader," accessed October 2, 2006 <www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2188336,00.html?maca=en-bulletin-433-html>.

70 Deutsche Welle (September 28, 2006), "Merkel to Target Climate Change as G8, EU Leader," accessed October 2, 2006 <www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2188336,00.html?maca=en-bulletin-433-html>.

71 Mona Bricke (August 31, 2006), Email to Intngo listserve.

72 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

73 Jabeen Bhatti (July 19, 2006), "German H8 Presidency: Changes in Style and Substance," Deutsche Welle. Accessed July 23, 2006. www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2103556,00.html.

74 Financial Times (17 October, 2006), "FT.com site: Hedge fund transparency put on G8 agenda."

75 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

76 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

77 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

78 Agence France Presse (January 25, 2007), "Germany wants emerging nations at all G8 summits."

79 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

80 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

81 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

82 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

83 Reuters (October 18, 2006), "Lobby groups welcome Germany focus on Africa for G8."

84 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

85 Joe De Capua (October 18, 2006), "VOA News: Germany to make Africa Priority at Next G8 Summit," The Voice of America.

86 All Africa (October 18, 2006), "German Cabinet Announced Africa to be Focus of 2007 G8 Summit."

87 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

88 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

89 Deutsche Welle (October 16, 2006), "Germany to Push for G8 Partnerships with Africa."

90 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

91 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

92 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

93 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

94 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

95 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

96 All Africa (October 18, 2006), "German Cabinet Announced Africa to be Focus of 2007 G8 Summit."

97 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

98 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

99 Agence France Presse (January 25, 2007), "Germany wants emerging nations at all G8 summits."

100 Agence France Presse (January 25, 2007), "Germany wants emerging nations at all G8 summits."

101 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

102 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

103 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

104 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

105 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

106 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

107 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

108 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

109 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

110 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

111 Regnum (July 17, 2006), "German chancellor does not know G8 agenda for 2007," Accessed July 23, 2006. www.regnum.ru/english/674931.html.

112 Jabeen Bhatti (July 19, 2006), "German H8 Presidency: Changes in Style and Substance," Deutsche Welle. Accessed July 23, 2006. www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2103556,00.html.

113 Associated Press Newswires (December 6, 2006), "German foreign minister to visit U.S. as Berlin prepares for EU, G-8 presidency."

114 Xinhua (December 14, 2006), "Merkel outlines goals for Germany's EU presidency," accessed December 15, 2006, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-12/14/content_5489800.htm

115 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

116 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

117 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

118 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

119 ITAR-TASS World Service (December 27, 2006), "Russia pins hopes on Germany presidency of EU, G8."

120 Reuters News (January 15, 2007), "New wall for G8 leaders prompts protests in Germany."

121 Reuters News (January 15, 2007), "New wall for G8 leaders prompts protests in Germany."

122 BBC Monitoring Europe (December 27, 2006), "German Report Previews Forthcoming German EU, G8 Presidency."

123 BBC Monitoring European (November 22, 2006), "German authority fears terror attacks during 2007 G8 summit."

124 BBC Monitoring European (November 22, 2006), "German authority fears terror attacks during 2007 G8 summit."

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