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Growth and Responsibility:
The Prospective Agenda for the
2007 G8 Heiligendamm Summit

Laura Sunderland
Senior Researcher, G8 Research Group
May 16, 2007

See also G8 Finance Ministers Prospective AgendaG8 Foreign Ministers Prospective Agenda


This prospective agenda is compiled by the G8 Research Group from public sources as an aid to researchers and other stakeholders interested in the 2007 G8 Summit, which will be hosted by Germany in Heilgendamm on June 6-8. It will be updated periodically as the Heiligendamm Summit planning evolves and as more information becomes available about its intended and actual agenda.

G8 Summit, Heiligendamm, June 6-8, 2006

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the World Economic Forum at Davos, stating that "Growth remains for all countries the basic prerequisite for achieving more employment, higher living standards and greater resource productivity. But growth is not an end in itself. It must be created equitably, not through unfair measures. Global competition must therefore in my firm opinion be placed within an international framework. It is precisely here that politics comes into play, as politics has the responsibility for this framework."[1]

On October 18, 2006, Chancellor Merkel submitted her tentative agenda for the German G8 presidency to the cabinet, which expressed its strong approval.[2] The focuses of the German presidency, according to Merkel's tentative agenda are as follows (1) investment, innovation and sustainability; (2) Africa: good governance, sustainable investment, peace and security; (3) Cooperation with Emerging Countries.[3]

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Investment, Innovation, Sustainability

On April 13, 2007, Oil Change International released a copy of a leaked draft of a G8 communiqué entitled "Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy."[4] The text of the leaked draft can be found here.

World Economy

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that the G8 will discuss ways to limit dangers of international financial transfers.[5]

On December 28, 2006, German Sherpa, Bernd Pfaffenbach, stated that Germany plans to "go back to the roots of the World Economic Summit as it was previously known. We're concerned with the problems of the global economy."[6]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "In the G8 we will do our best to remind everyone in this group of nations that the original calling of the G7 was how best to move the world economy forward. In other words, the question of employment, the question of growth, the question of stability, the question of how best to confront the challenges of globalisation, including new issues such as energy and climate change, which will be very high on our agenda."[7]

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Free Trade

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that "The G8 will seek to send a "positive signal" to encourage the World Trade Organisation's negotiations on freeing up international trade."[8]

On January 25, 2007, The Globe and Mail reported Chancellor Merkel stated to the World Economic Forum in Davos that "Referring to Germany's role as president of the G8 group of industrialized countries, Ms. Merkel said free trade is an essential condition for economic growth in rich and poor nations."[9]

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Protectionism

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that Berlin has put fighting protectionism on the agenda, to ensure that it does not hamper international investment or create differing investment climates in developing and emerging markets.[10]

On April 10, 2007, the Financial Times reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said that Germany is planning to release a G8 communique opposing "investment protectionism," stating that "I expect a specific G8 recommendation for the first time against 'double regimes' where investment by foreign companies is discriminated against compared with domestic investment... This is a particular problem in emerging economies."[11]

On November 29, 2006, German Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that the issue of protectionism will be on the G8 agenda.[12]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that a German government official announced that the leaders will address protectionism in investment.[13],[14]

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Employment

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "the question of employmentÉ will be very high on our agenda."[15]

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Global Imbalances

On May 4, 2007, Kyodo News reported that according to a draft copy of the G8's economic statement, the G8 will call on China to reduce its trade surplus by adopting a more flexible currency policy.[16] It goes on to state that addressing trade imbalances is crucial to economic stability.[17]

On March 30, 2007, Reuters News reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "One of the core topics to be discussed is global imbalances, so one has to look that each of the heads of state and government is in conformity with the analysis and is willing to fulfill the tasks that will be defined and agreed at the upcoming summit... What we are looking for is a common view of the heads of states and governments which is expressed to the outside. This could create more confidence in the markets... This does not necessarily mean that the leaders will say something that is relevant to daily markets... But if they e.g. declare themselves in favour of open markets and free investment flows I have the clear feeling that this will create more trust and confidence in the markets, they will accept it as a good sign."[18]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel, in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stated that "We want to continue the G8's joint efforts to reduce the strong global imbalances, for example in exchange rates or oil supplies."[19]

On December 30, 2006, German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "The goal will be to identify imbalances and to determine what can be done to ensure more balanced global growth."[20]

As of October 18, 2006, global imbalances (such as the current account deficit in the US, deficient growth in Europe and Japan and foreign exchange reserves in Asia) are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[21]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that the leaders will discuss global imbalances[22], Asian foreign-currency reserves, greater flexibility of Chinese yuan, the American twin deficit[23], [24], and the need for structural reforms in Europe and Japan in order to bring growth to those sluggish economies.[25], [26]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that Merkel will focus the summit's attention on global economic matters, such as global imbalances.[27]

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Systemic Stability and Transparency of Financial Markets and Hedge Funds

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that Berlin has put hedge funds on the agenda in order to maintain financial stability.[28]

On May 2, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that Germany's plan to regulate hedge funds will fail and that "Following the most recent negotiations with the partner nations, experts from the Federal Finance Ministry are no longer expecting even minimal goals to be reached at the world economic summit in Heiligendamm. It is therefore becoming increasingly less likely that at the meeting in early June Chancellor Angela Merkel and the other heads of state and government of the seven leading industrial nations and Russia (G8) will require the controversial hedge fund industry to voluntarily submit to a code of behaviour in order to contain the risks to the world economy. That timetable is too ambitious, it is said."[29] Germany hopes that Japan might take up the topic again for the summit in 2008.[30] The BBC Monitoring Europe reported that "Germany's only ally on the hedge fund issue is Italy. The United States and Great Britain are reinforcing their opposition. Japan, France, Canada and Russia are largely indifferent on the topic."[31]

On May 1, 2007, the Financial Times reported that Chancellor Merkel will demand more transparency from the hedge fund industry.[32] They reported that "Germany, facing stiff resistance from the UK and US, where most hedge funds are based, has dropped proposals for a global database of hedge fund holdings. However, Britain plans to propose international co-operation to turn the biannual survey into a tool for monitoring any threat to the financial system from hedge funds."[33] The UK is expected to propose international cooperation to turn the survey by the Financial Service Authority of prime brokers into a tool for monitoring threats to the financial system due to hedge funds.[34]

On April 28, 2007, Reuters News reported that "A German-led initiative to rein in the activities of hedge funds has all but failed, Der Spiegel magazine reported on Saturday, citing unidentified experts from the Finance Ministry in Berlin. It is increasingly unlikely that a meeting of Group of Eight leaders in Germany in June will issue a call to hedge funds to sign up to a voluntary code of conduct to help reduce risks to the global economy, the magazine quoted the experts as saying. Germany is now hoping that Japan will carry the initiative forward during its presidency of the G8 next year, it added. Italy was the only country that supported Germany on the issue while the United States and Britain strongly opposed the initiative, the magazine said, adding that Japan, France, Canada and Russia were indifferent."[35]

On March 15, 2007, the Associated Press Newswires reported that German Finance Minister Peer Steinbrueck told a group of reporters that "We are not talking about regulation [of hedge funds] ... we are talking about the question of how to prevent potential financial crises... We are talking about investor protection .... and we are talking about market integrity."[36] According to the Associated Press Newswires "Steinbrueck said he did not believe recommendations on the hedge fund issue would be finalized by when world leaders of the Group of Eight countries attend a summit in Heiligendamm, Germany, in early June."[37] Steinbrueck stated that "The summit will not provide or will not finalize recommendations or conclusions" on hedge funds.[38]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to minimize the international capital market's systemic risks while increasing their transparency. Let me make it very clear that I see much room for improvement, especially regarding hedge funds."[39]

On December 30, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that "On financial markets, Germany will press for greater transparency and political monitoring of speculative hedge funds, which are seen by Berlin — and increasingly by some of its partners — as a destabilizing element in global finance."[40] German Sherpa Pfaffenbach stated that Merkel will likely be satisfied with "a final declaration that calls for greater transparency."[41]

On December 11, 2006, Reuters reported that Finance Minister Peer Steinbrueck had won the backing of U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and Britain's finance minister, Gordon Brown to tighten controls on hedge funds.[42] Steinbrueck stated that "With the consent of the two most important finance countries, the probability rises that we will reach concrete decisions."[43]

As of October 18, 2006, measures to improve systemic stability and the transparency of financial markets are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[44]

From October 15-18, 2006, various sources reported that leaders will address the need for hedge fund transparency[45], [46], [ 47] and the stability of financial markets.[48] German finance minister Peer Steinbruck stated that the Amaranth debacle alerted all to the "new sensitivity" in the United States to the systemic risks of hedge funds.[49] Steinbruck stated that this is a good opportunity to discuss the issue, and G7 Finance ministers are expected to discuss ways of improving hedge fund transparency during the German presidency.[50] Steinbruck stated that on hedge funds, "we are not talking about regulation here. The question is really one of transparency."[51] While the German government admits that while an agreement or solution might not be feasible, a discussion is important.[52]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss how to improve the basic conditions for a dynamic development of the world economy given that transnational mergers and acquisitions have recently been met with political resistance in the European Union and other large economies.[53]

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Freedom of Investment and Global Investment Conditions

On April 10, 2007, the Financial Times reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said that Germany is planning to release a G8 communique opposing "investment protectionism," stating that "I expect a specific G8 recommendation for the first time against 'double regimes' where investment by foreign companies is discriminated against compared with domestic investment... This is a particular problem in emerging economies."[54]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We have therefore set ourselves the goal of putting economic themes back to the forefront of the agenda during our G8 Presidency. We want to increase the options for global investment and are committed to the equal treatment of cross-border and domestic investment."[55]

On November 29, 2006, German Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "Free movement of investment and capital is an important fundament for the global economy and must be protected by reliable rules. We want to jointly work on this with our G8 partners."[56]

As of October 18, 2006, freedom of investment in both industrial and emerging countries, global investment conditions and the social dimensions of globalization are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[57]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that a German government official announced that the leaders will address protectionism in investment.[58], [ 59]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss the social dimension of globalization, the structure and reform of social security in developing countries, and investment in worker efficiency and human capital as the key to economic and social development and lasting growth.[60]

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Innovation and Trademark Piracy

On April 11, 2007, Dow Jones News Service reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said the G8 will agree to a joint position against product and brand piracy.[61]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to support innovation, as the key to growth and prosperity, and markedly advance the effective worldwide protection of intellectual property."[62]

As of October 18, 2006, the importance of innovation in knowledge-based societies and the need to protect innovation from product and trademark piracy are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[63]

On October 18, 2006, a German government official announced that the leaders will discuss promoting innovation.[64]

On October 15, various sources reported that the German federal government announced that one of the main summit issues is product piracy.[65], [ 66] Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that Germany will seek to initiate a structured dialogue with the developing countries over the protection of the intellectual property, new international agreements to make trading falsified products more difficult and strengthen the existing national and international rules.[67]

On August 1, 2006, the German G8 Sherpa office disclosed that while no definite decisions concerning key topics have officially been made, intellectual property rights will be a priority at the summit.[68]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that the central topics of the German summit will be global economic imbalances, energy and intellectual property protection.[69]

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Sustainable Resource Use and Climate Change

On May 15, 2007, the Guardian reported that British Prime Minister Tony Blair believes he is close to persuading US President George Bush to accept the ambitious plan drafted for the summit.[70] Blair and Bush will meet in Washington on May 16, 2007.[71] According to the Guardian, the British are pushing for the following inclusions in the agreement:

"* An agreement to stabilise the world temperature rise above pre-industrial levels at no higher than 2C (4F), or cut world greenhouse gas emissions by 50% below 1990 levels by 2050.

* An agreement to give companies and countries new technology "rewards" if they stopped cutting down forests.

* A new programme of energy efficiency, modelled on the EU scheme to cut C02 emissions by 20% by 2020 using simple techniques, such as energy-efficient lightbulbs and green cities.

* A new commitment to help poor countries in Africa adapt to the change."[72]

On May 13, 2007, the Washington Post reported that negotiators from the US are trying to weaken the language of the 18 page draft climate change declaration, dated April 2007.[73] The US is seeking to eliminate a section of the document that pledges to limit the increase in global temperatures this century to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide to 50% below 1990 levels by 2050.[74] The draft also shows that the US is seeking to eliminate a section of the declaration that says "We acknowledge that the U.N. climate process is the appropriate forum for negotiating future global action on climate change." The US similarly proposed eliminating the opening section that states "We underline that tackling climate change is an imperative, not a choice. We firmly agree that resolute and concerted international action is urgently needed in order to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and sustain our common basis of living."[75] The US proposed deleting sections that call on the developed world to modify activities that are linked to global warming, and eliminating a sentence that reads "Therefore we will increase the energy efficiency of our economies so that energy consumption by 2020 will be at least 30 percent lower compared to a business-as-usual scenario."[76]

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that "De Maiziere said leaders of the Group of Eight most industrialised nations will discuss the way forward on fighting climate change and global warming after the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse emissions expires in 2012... Germany hopes that a new treaty on emissions to be negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations will engage emerging nations such as South Africa, Brazil, China, India and Mexico."[77]

On May 11, 2007, Reuters News reported that according to a draft declaration dated April 2007, the US objects to proposed G8 pledges to: (a) cut greenhouse gas emissions by 50% below 1990 levels by 2050; (b) limit global warming to two degrees Celsius this century; (c) use the UN as the best forum to tackle climate change.[78] The US reportedly also rejects a section saying that carbon markets are key to developing technologies that are climate-friendly.[79] An anonymous source stated that the US has "rejected any mention of targets and timetables, don't want the U.N. to get more involved and refuse to endorse carbon trading because it must by definition involve targets."[80] Another source stated that "It is an open question whether Merkel will be prepared to accept a watered-down declaration or break with G8 tradition and declare a failure on climate change... Either way the ink will still be wet when the final declaration is made."[81]

On May 10, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that Chancellor Merkel stated on May 8 that "Climate protection will play a role at the summit in Heiligendamm... I hope that the summit will send a clear signal with an eye to the negotiations in Indonesia and what we will do once the Kyoto Protocol runs out in 2012."[82]

On May 8, 2007, Kyodo News reported that Japanese Prime Minister Abe will propose steps to halve greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 during the Summit.[83] Abe has agreement from US President Bush on the issue.[84] Abe aims to seek consensus at the German summit to compile an action plan for the post-Kyoto framework during the 2008 summit hosted in Japan.[85]

On May 4, 2007, Dow Jones International News reported that a German government spokesperson stated that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report approved by delegated in Bangkok is "very important and significant" to put to the leaders at the G8 summit.[86]

On May 3, 2007, Reuters News reported that Michael Muller, a junior minister in the Environment Ministry, said that the blueprint for fighting climate change, developed at the UN climate change talks in Bangkok, will be high on the agenda of the G8 summit meeting.[87]

On April 13, 2007, the Dow Jones News Service, citing a Financial Times report, stated that according to a leaked draft communiqué, G8 heads of government "would "contribute our fair share" to limit global warming by ensuring global greenhouse gas emissions peak in the next 10 to 15 years and then cutting them 50% by 2050 from 1990 levels.[88]

On April 10, 2007, the Financial Times reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said that on energy and climate change, emerging economies should play a more "positive role," stating that "A country such as India could improve its international image by being seen to act" on greenhouse gas emissions reductions.[89]

On April 6, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that Chancellor Merkel, referring to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, said "This report confirms that climate change is a fact... We therefore need to act rapidly and decisively to bring down the rate at which temperatures are increasing worldwide and to curb the levels of carbon dioxide emissions... I will raise the issue at the G8 summit in Heiligendamm in June. My aim is to make all nations take responsibility for climate protection."[90]

On April 4, 2007, Associated Press Newswires reported that scientists and diplomats from more than 120 countries have produced a 21-page draft text, based on the 1,400 page assessment by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on the impact of global warming, to be presented at the G8 summit.[91] At the summit, the EU is expected to press President Bush to sign agree to international talks on emissions cuts.[92]

On March 17, 2007, Associated Press Newswires reported that Chancellor Merkel said that she hopes to achieve a step in the right direction against climate change during the G8 Summit.[93] She stated that "With this, Europe has a leading role, and we believe that we can also create more jobs and more export opportunities for people in the European Union through more innovation in these areas... Beyond that, we think Europe will inspire others with its example to implement more attractive and better climate production targets — I mean, for example, the United States of America, India and China... We want to bring up this issue at the G-8 summit in Heiligendamm in June, and I hope that there will then be a step in the right direction, that more people in the world will say they are ready to do something about climate change."[94]

On March 7, 2007, Reuters News reported that, regarding the European Commission's efforts on climate change, Chancellor Merkel stated "The more ambitious and challenging the targets are from this council, the easier it will be for us as the G8 president to say: Europe has taken its own important step and now others — the United States, China, India and the big emerging countries — must follow... I believe Europe can be a role model. Europe has to commit itself, but then Europe has good prospects for getting into dialogue with other countries to do their share, and the German G8 presidency will be lobbying for that."[95]

On March 1, 2007, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated that he will discuss the issue of climate change with the G8 leaders at the summit.[96]

On February 16, 2007, Upstream reported that following a meeting between UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Merkel stated that climate change was a top item on the agenda of both her G8 and EU presidencies.[97] Merkel will host a G8 conference in May to discuss technical details of a climate change agreement to be presented at the G8 Summit in June.[98] Blair suggested that the G8's dialogue with outreach countries is important to reach a climate change deal that the US will accept.[99]

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported that "Elliot Morley met with Environment Minister John Baird in Ottawa [on January 24, 2007,] to encourage Canada to do more at home and internationally. Specifically, the Labour MP and former British environment minister is pushing for Canada and 11 other countries that join Britain in a group known as "G8 plus five" to craft a climate-change plan for this year's G8 meeting in Germany. The plan would then be finalized at the next meeting in Japan for 2008."[100] Representatives from the G8+5 will meet in Washington to discuss the plan and present "initial policy papers" on February 14, 2007, with senior US senators and congressmen.[101] The Globe and Mail reported that "World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz will speak at the event, as will Republican senator and presidential hopeful John McCain."[102]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "We want to supply impulses for climate protection, greater energy efficiency and increased security of supply."[103]

On January 20, 2007, the Straits Times reported that "Germany currently holds the presidency of the European Union as well as the G-8, whose summit this summer will focus on climate change."[104]

On December 29, 2006, Chancellor Merkel stated that she will push energy and climate change as priorities for her G8 Presidency.[105]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Press reported that the energy issue area will be focused on Germany attempting to "make progress on drawing up a successor agreement to the so-called Kyoto Protocol on climate protection, which runs out in 2012."[106]

On December 7, 2006, a German spokesperson from the foreign ministry stated that during Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier's visit to the United States he will discuss G8 priorities, including energy and climate change.[107]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "energy and climate changeÉ will be very high on our agenda."[108]

On December 1, 2006, Merkel said that climate change will play a "major role" in Germany's G8 presidency.[109] Merkel has appointed two special advisors, Hans Joachim Schnellnhuber, head of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Research, and Lars Goeran Josefsson of the energy company Vattenfall to develop German policy that is in line with the views of science and industry.[110] Merkel stated that "Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing mankindÉ On the one hand we need the know-how ... and on the other we need support from the private sector."[111] She also stated that she wants to use her presidency to "convince more people that something must be done about climate changeÉ It is one of the biggest challenges we face. The G8 presidency is pre-destined for the discussion of this sort of issue."[112]

As of October 18, 2006, the need for sustainable resource use, energy efficient, climate change and the Kyoto Process are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[113] Kyoto was singled out to "play an important role" on the agenda.[114]

On October 18, 2006, various sources reported that the discussion of the world economy would not be a pure "capitalist agenda."[115] It will include the social dimensions of the world economy, responsible resource use, alternative energy, climate change[116] and energy efficiency. [117], [118] One official stated that nuclear power will not be on the agenda.[119] Energy efficiency is a key theme, both in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ensuring efficient use of oil and gas supplies in the face of high prices.[120]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss climate change and the future of the Kyoto protocol.[121] Merkel wants the G8 to set verifiable and attainable goals to increase the use of alternative fuels, particularly biofuels.[122] On climate change, Merkel seeks a new quality of cooperation regarding access to raw materials between producer, transit and consumer countries, because "the world-wide competition for resources so far has few rules."[123]

On October 3, 2006, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told reporters that environmental protection will be high on the agenda in 2007 and that Russia is "preparing to hand over the relay to the German friends."[124]

On September 28, 2006, Deutsche Welle reported that Merkel named climate change as her presidency's top priority for the summit.[125] Merkel also stated that she will use Germany's EU presidency to push for reduced energy use and more energy efficiency.[126] Merkel stated that "To prevent global warming, the nations with the largest emissions of gases that are causing climate change have to take partÉ That's why we will make this an important issue once again on the agenda during our G8 presidencyÉ China, India and other countries are now much more aware of the risksÉ As a result, the ground is now more fertile than it once wasÉ We urgently need agreements for the period after 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Germany will do all it can within its realm as president of both the G8 and the EU ... We have a great chance next year to have an international impact."[127]

On August 1, 2006, the German G8 Sherpa office disclosed that while no definite decisions concerning key topics have officially been made, energy and climate change will be priorities at the summit.[128]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that a central topic of the German summit will be energy.[129]

On July 19, 2006, Deutsche Welle reported that sustainable, renewable and environmentally sound energy policy will be a topic for the summit.[130]

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Africa: Good Governance, Sustainable Investment, Peace and Security

On April 17, 2007, the Associated Press Newswires reported that during a meeting with Bono, Chancellor Merkel promised that Africa will play "an outstanding role" at the G8 summit.[131]

As of October 17, according to the Financial Times, the second part of the draft agenda has four chapters: "durable economic growth for the development of Africa," "good public governance," "peace and security as conditions for development," and "the fight against HIV and Aids."[132]

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Health and HIV/AIDS

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that with regards to Africa, the G8 will discuss fighting the AIDS epidemic.[133]

On April 3, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that at the G8 summit Chancellor Merkel will announce that Germany will give ¢´2 billion to Africa over four years, half for combating AIDS and half to finance better education and training in Africa.[134]

On March 27, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul said that the G8 leaders will announce more funding for AIDS at the summit, stating that "We have to replenish the Global Fund to Fight Aids. It is important that the G8 makes a contribution."[135] Wieczorek-Zeul did not set a specific figure for funding.[136]

On March 12, 2007, the official German G8 Presidency website stated that regarding HIV/AIDS "we will make headway in Heiligendamm."[137]

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that a top goal for Africa is combating AIDS.[138]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel, in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stated that "In the past, the G8 states have launched major initiatives, most importantly the Global Fund on Combating AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. However, I also want to say that we can't stop there. In September we'll be holding a conference in Germany at which we intend to assess the activities of this Fund and, above all, at which we have to ensure that it is replenished. With regard to AIDS, we want to make the fate of women and children a top priority of Germany's Presidency."[139]

As of October 18, 2006, strengthening health care systems and the fight against HIV/AIDS are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[140]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African discussion will include assistance for public health and the fight against HIV/AIDS.[141]

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African Economic Development and Democratic Development

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that with regards to Africa, the G8 will discuss fighting the AIDS epidemic and increasing the flow of "effective investment" to Africa, with preference given to those states adhering to principles of good governance.[142]

On April 25, 2007, Spiegel International reported that following a meeting between Chancellor Merkel and former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Merkel said that she wants to ensure that Gleneagles promises to Africa are met, stating that "We are going to take things up where Gleneagles ended... We don't need to have more conference and set more goals."[143]

On April 23, 2007, ANSA English Media Service reported that Chancellor Merkel responded to a letter by Pope Benedict urging G8 leaders to cancel the debt of the world's poorest countries by promising that her G8 and EU presidencies will be used to push for "progress in the fight against poverty" and African development.[144]

On April 3, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that at the G8 summit Chancellor Merkel will announce that Germany will give ¢´2 billion to Africa over four years, half for combating AIDS and half to finance better education and training in Africa.[145]

On March 27, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul said that "The G8 will do everything it can to institute micro-financing to which the poorest in Africa can have access, in particular women" and that giving poor Africans access to micro-credit would be at the top of the agenda during the G8 leaders summit.[146]

On March 3, 2007, Deutsche Welle reported that "German parliamentarians have backed the Berlin government's resolve to make better co-operation with African nations a top priority during Germany's current EU and G8 presidencies."[147]

On February 26, 2007, Donald Kaberuka, President of the African Development Bank told Ugandan newspaper Daily Monitor that the G8 is expected to unveil a microfinance initiative for Africa at the summit.[148] He stated that "I have been reliably informed that the upcoming G8 German Presidency is proposing to the G8 and non-G8 a special micro-finance initiative for Africa... I fully welcome and endorse this initiative and I expect over the coming few months, the African Development Bank as well as the World Bank to collaborate closely with the initiators in conceptualising and targeting the initiative."[149]

On February 13, 2007, the Financial Times reported that Germany's development Minister said the G8 is expected to pledge new finance to create a micro-credit fund for African entrepreneurs in order to promote investment.[150] The Financial Times also reported that "[Germany] is co-ordinating a pre-G8 summit declaration by multinational companies from G8 countries, pledging to increase business with African countries, the minister said."[151]

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that a top goal for Africa is a "pact of sustained economic growth." With the World Bank, Germany will seek to establish regional micro-finance funds to give poor groups access to loans.[152]

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported Chancellor Merkel stated to the World Economic Forum in Davos that "Another highlight of the German G8 presidency is the question of how Africa can be better integrated into the world economy."[153]

On January 25, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that "Germany also plans to unveil a proposal at the summit to increase foreign investment in African countries that fight corruption and promote democracy."[154]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "...the question of how we can better integrate Africa into the global economy is another priority of Germany's G8 Presidency... We want more to be invested on this continent and growth and employment to be placed on a broader basis... What we need more, above all, is a responsible approach to natural resources and the development of independent African capacities for conflict management and post-conflict peacebuilding. This not only makes things easier for private investments. It also strengthens the position of African states as equal partners when it comes to access to and control of Africa's raw materials. For one thing must not be allowed to happen, namely that Africa is again treated unfairly in the 21st century in a fight for raw materials."[155]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that Germany's Africa agenda will move away from "the multi-billion-dollar debt relief agreed in Gleneagles and urge African countries to take a more hands-on approach, fighting corruption and pushing for more democracy so as to create better conditions for increased foreign investment."[156]

As of October 18, 2006, African economic development, encouraging private investment (by supporting democracy, anti-corruption measures and resource sovereignty) are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[157]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African discussion will include ensuring good governance, fighting corruption, and encouraging growth and investment in Africa.[158] It will also include reducing violence and giving Africa back its ability to govern its own resources.[159] Another source stated that the African agenda will include energy and environment.[160]

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Africa: Energy and Natural Resources

On February 1, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul stated that Africa is a top issue for both the G8 and EU presidencies. She said that the promotion of a sustained energy supply is a central goal, and that climate change affects developing countries in particular.[161] Wieczorek-Zeul stated that it is important to make progress in Africa on developing renewable energy sources, while also ensuring that Africa adapts to climate change and preserves forests.[162]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel stated that "... What we need more, above all, is a responsible approach to natural resources... This not only makes things easier for private investments. It also strengthens the position of African states as equal partners when it comes to access to and control of Africa's raw materials. For one thing must not be allowed to happen, namely that Africa is again treated unfairly in the 21st century in a fight for raw materials."[163]

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Partnership for Reform

On March 27, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that "Germany holds the presidency of the G8 and Merkel's cabinet is reported to have drafted a proposal that each member of the club sign a partnership agreement with an African country, with preference given to democratic, investor-friendly states."[164] EU Development Commissioner Louis Michel stated that along with efforts to combat corruption, selection will be based on "countries that seek to provide their populations with access to vital services like health and education."[165]

As of October 18, 2006, G8 partnerships for reform with African countries and a new policy approach to Africa are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[166]

On October 18, 2006, a spokesperson for the German Treasury stated that in the context of Africa, Germany is expected to propose that each G8 country should sign a partnership agreement with an African country,[167] with preference given to those countries that are undertaking political reform and are seeking to attract foreign investment.[168] Regarding the New Partnership with Africa, German officials told journalists that "The basic argument is that we need a new and stable framework for investment in Africa." Africa countries that are pursuing good governance, fighting corruption and using raw materials responsibly will be rewarded with partnership agreements and business deals.[169]

On October 18, 2006, the German cabinet discussed a 17-page proposed agenda for the summit, produced by German sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach.[170] The document outlined Germany's plan to have each G8 member sign a partnership agreement with an Africa country that "that [is] willing to enter reform partnerships to be especially supported," with preference given to democratic states that are investor-friendly.[171], [ 172]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, Merkel will focus on African countries that advance social and political reforms and open their country for private investments.[ 173] She stated that donor countries should particularly support "those countries, which are ready for reform partnerships."[174] Merkel will focus on the Gleneagles Africa Action Plan.[175]

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African Outreach

As of October 18, 2006, according to Merkel's tentative G8 agenda, African representatives will be invited to participate in some summit sessions.[176]

On October 18, 2006, German government officials stated that African participants will attend the summit (although which countries will attend has yet to be determined).[177]

On October 15, 2006, officials reported that Germany plans to invite the heads of government from African countries to a separate summit on Africa in Germany before the G8 summit.[178] The focus of the summit will be to encourage private investment in Africa.[179] The African summit is being organized by German Cooperation Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, and will be held in Germany, tentatively in May, 2007.[180]

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Cooperation with Emerging Countries

On April 10, 2007, the Financial Times reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach said that the outreach countries "must be accounted for" by including them in some sessions but not offering them full membership.[181] Pfaffenbach stated that this initiative, called the "Heligendamm process" will mark a new step toward integration, as the outreach countries have previously only participated on an ad hoc basis.[182] Pfaffenbach stated that any plan to expand the G8 was doomed, but the idea of giving the outreach countries "the opportunity to regularly play a role in influencing the development of the international economy" has been met by "positive reactions from other G8 countries."[183]

On January 25, 2007, Agence France Presse reported that a senior economics official stated that German will suggest inviting leaders from Africa, Asia and Latin America to all G8 summits. "Deputy Economics Minister Bernd Pfaffenbach said the economic power of Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa "must be accounted for" by routinely giving them a place at the table of the eight most industrialised nations... The new initiative to include them will be called the "Heiligendamm process" after the Baltic Coast resort, he added."[184] Stating there is "no chance of agreeing on enlarging" the G8, Pfaffenbach stated that instead it is important that the P5 states have "the opportunity to regularly play a role in influencing the development of the international economy."[185]

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported that Chancellor Merkel pledge that "A summit in June will also include "a new form of dialogue" with emerging countries such as Brazil, India, Russia and China."[186]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "we must realize that only a unified G8 approach can help persuade the emerging economies, with their dynamic economic growth, to join us in our shared global responsibility. Any other approach will fail. Therefore my aim is for Germany's G8 Summit, in Heiligendamm in June, to place special emphasis on new forms of dialogue with the major emerging economies, i.e. Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa. The Summit will initiate that dialogue and pass it on to other international organizations because we need a coherent, joint approach in the many international bodies."[187]

On December 30, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that Germany "wants to include Mexico, India, China, Brazil and South Africa, countries that are not members of the G8, in the climate talks."[188]

On December 28, 2006, Agence France Presse reported that "A top-ranking government official from Beijing is to be present in Heiligendamm, as well as representatives from other countries such as India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa, where the talks will cover wage levels and social standards, as well as product piracy."[189]

As of October 18, 2006, according to Merkel's tentative G8 agenda, China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa will be invited to attend the summit.[190] Specific issues will be discussed, but Merkel's tentative agenda states that "the unity of the G8 as a group based on shared values is to be preserved."[191]

On October 18, 2006, German officials confirmed that China, Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa will be invited to the summit, but that the G8 will not be expanded.[192] Agence France Presse reported that the outreach countries will participate in the discussions on counterfeit products, rules governing working conditions, and the climate change.[193] Another source suggested that the outreach countries will attend the discussion on the framework conditions of globalization.[194]

On July 27, 2006, the Financial Times reported that Merkel rejected a proposal to extend G8 membership to include China, India, Brazil, South Africa and Mexico.[195] This proposal was supported by the UK.[196]

On July 17, 2006, Chancellor Merkel stated that Mexico, Brazil and other countries invited to the 2006 summit will be invited to attend the G8 summit in 2007.[197]

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Middle East

On May 8, 2007, Reuters News reported that according to a senior official from a G8 member state the G8 will back "further measures" against Iran and calls for increasing pressure if it fails to comply with UN demands to suspend its nuclear enrichment program, according to the current G8 draft statement on non-proliferation.[198] The draft also states that the G8 "will support adopting further measures should Iran refuse to comply with its obligations."[199]

On July 19, 2006, Chancellor Merkel announced to Russian reporters that "The topics will depend on the situation in the world then and will probably include a discussion on Iran, the Middle East conflict."[200]

On December 7, 2006, a German spokesperson from the foreign ministry stated that during Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier's visit to the United States he will discuss G8 priorities, including reviving the Middle East peace process.[201]

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Social Dimensions on Globalization

On May 11, 2007, Agence France Presse, citing chancellery minister Thomas de Maiziere, reported that the G8 will "discuss the social impact of globalisation."[202]

On January 24, 2007, Chancellor Merkel reflected on the G8 theme of "Growth and Responsibility" in her keynote speech at the Davos World Economic Forum, stating that "with changed political conditions, with right and fair conditions, we can shape globalization. Germany will make its contribution towards this during its Presidencies of the European Union and the G8."[203]

On December 14, 2006, Xinhua reported that setting up "common political standards for globalization" will be on the agenda.[204]

On December 1, 2006, in an interview with Guardian Unlimited, Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK, stated that "the question of how best to confront the challenges of globalisation" will be on the agenda.[205]

As of October 18, 2006, the social dimensions of globalization are on Merkel's tentative G8 agenda.[206]

On October 15, 2006, Ulrich Schäfer of Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported that according to the confidential program for the summit, the G8 will discuss the social dimension of globalization.[207]

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Russian Participation

On January 25, 2007, the Globe and Mail reported that Chancellor Merkel pledge that "A summit in June will also include "a new form of dialogue" with emerging countries such as Brazil, India, Russia and China."[208]

On December 27, 2006 ITAR-TASS World Service reported that German State Secretary of Economics and Technology and G8 sherpa, Bernd Pfaffenbach, said in an interview that Germany will actively promote full Russian membership in the G8, including finance ministers meetings.[209]

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Other Attendance

On May 15, 2007, IPR Strategic Information Database reported that Chancellor Merkel has invited Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to attend the G8 Summit, along with other representatives from the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD).[210]

On May 14, 2007 Reuters News reported that IMF chief Rodrigo Rato will attend the G8 summit.[211]

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Physical Preparations

On May 9, 2007, BBC Monitoring European reported that German Interior Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble will temporarily introduce border controls at the country and sea borders and at airports "in order to prevent the arrival of potential criminal and violent perpetrators in Germany."[212]

On May 2, 2007, the Financial Times reported that 16,000 police and 1,100 soldiers will provide summit security.[213]

On April 25, 2007 BBC Monitoring European reported that German Sherpa Bernd Pfaffenbach stated that "The G8 Summit does not in fact represent any target for attack[,]" and insisted that all issues raised by G8 critics will be taken seriously and put on the G8 agenda.[214]

On April 10, 2007, the Times reported that the security costs for the summit will approach ¢´100 million (£68 million).[215] Approximately 16,000 police, backed by soldiers will monitor the 13km security wall, two US naval vessels will monitor the coast, and a Royal Navy vessel will patrol the 11km maritime security zone.[216] 6,000 journalists are expected to attend the summit.[217]

On February 17, 2007, Deutsche Welle reported that the 14km long security fence being constructed will cost 12.4 million euros ($16.3 million) to build.[218] They also reported that approximately 10,000 police officers will be tasked with monitoring the fence during the Summit.[219] The air force, navy and special forces will provide Summit security.[220] Birgit Schwebs, deputy leader of the Left Party in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania's state parliament stated that "Mecklenburg is paying 13 million euros for the fence aloneÉ The current official estimate is that our G8 summit in Heiligendamm will cost a round 92 million euros just for security."[221] Schwebs stated that the German government has promised 24 million euros to reimburse some Summit costs.[222]

On January 15, 2007, Reuters News reported that construction has begun on a 2.5 meter high, 12 km long steel and cement wall "topped by barbed wire, video monitors and movement sensors" to protect the G8 leaders during the Summit.[223] "To prevent anyone from tunneling beneath the fence, construction workers have rammed 50-cm long steel grating into the ground."[224]

On December 27, 2006 BBC Monitoring Europe reported that "For a few days at the beginning of June, around 15 heads of state and government from all over the world will be visiting the Baltic Coast resort. And a swarm of 2,000 delegates and 4,000 journalists, in itself a logistical feat, will be fighting to get to the G8 summit."[225]

On November 22, 2006, the German Federal Office of Criminal Investigations President, Joerg Ziercke, announced that approximately 10,000 police officers will be on duty during the Summit.[226] Between 50,000 to 100,000 participants are expected to demonstrate at counter-summit events.[227]

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Notes

1 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

2 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

3 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

4 Steve Kretzmann (April 13, 2007), "G8 debates real climate action as Bank support for fossils rising," Oil Change International, accessed April 24, 2007, http://priceofoil.org/2007/04/13/world-bank-support-for-oil-rises-77-as-g8-debates-climate-action/

5 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

6 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

7 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

8 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

9 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

10 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

11 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

12 Dow Jones International News (November 29, 2006), "UPDATE:Germany Criticizes Protectionism;Adds To G8 Agenda."

13 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

14 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

15 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

16 Kyodo News (May 4, 2007), "G-8 summit to call on China to reduce trade surplus."

17 Kyodo News (May 4, 2007), "G-8 summit to call on China to reduce trade surplus."

18 Reuters News (March 30, 2007), "German G8 Summit agenda to seek balanced growth."

19 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

20 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

21 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

22 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

23 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

24 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

25 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

26 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

27 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

28 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

29 BBC Monitoring European (May 2, 2007), "German initiative to control hedge funds faces failure."

30 BBC Monitoring European (May 2, 2007), "German initiative to control hedge funds faces failure."

31 BBC Monitoring European (May 2, 2007), "German initiative to control hedge funds faces failure."

32 James Mackintosh (May 1, 2007), "Hedge funds survey reveals lower gearing," Financial Times.

33 James Mackintosh (May 1, 2007), "Hedge funds survey reveals lower gearing," Financial Times.

34 James Mackintosh (May 1, 2007), "Hedge funds survey reveals lower gearing," Financial Times.

35 Reuters News (April 28, 2007), "German hedge fund initiative all but dead - magazine."

36 Associated Press Newswires (March 15, 2007), "Germany pressing ahead on hedge funds but plan by summer could be elusive."

37 Associated Press Newswires (March 15, 2007), "Germany pressing ahead on hedge funds but plan by summer could be elusive."

38 Associated Press Newswires (March 15, 2007), "Germany pressing ahead on hedge funds but plan by summer could be elusive."

39 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

40 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

41 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

42 Reuters Business News (December 11, 2006), "U.S., UK back Berlin's G8 hedge fund initiative: paper," accessed December 15, 2006, http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/provider/providerarticle.aspx?feed=OBR&Date=20061211&ID=6262381

43 Reuters Business News (December 11, 2006), "U.S., UK back Berlin's G8 hedge fund initiative: paper," accessed December 15, 2006, http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/provider/providerarticle.aspx?feed=OBR&Date=20061211&ID=6262381

44 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

45 BBC Monitoring European (October 19, 2006), "Protests planned against G8 in Germany in June 2007."

46 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

47 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

48 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

49 Financial Times (October 18, 2006), "Hedge fund transparency put on G8 agenda."

50 Financial Times (October 18, 2006), "Hedge fund transparency put on G8 agenda."

51 Financial Times (October 18, 2006), "Hedge fund transparency put on G8 agenda."

52 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

53 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

54 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

55 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

56 Dow Jones International News (November 29, 2006), "UPDATE:Germany Criticizes Protectionism;Adds To G8 Agenda."

57 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

58 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

59 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

60 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

61 Dow Jones News Service (April 11, 2007), "Germany Wants G8 Customs Pact To Protect Intellectual Rights."

62 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

63 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

64 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

65 BBC Monitoring European (October 19, 2006), "Protests planned against G8 in Germany in June 2007."

66 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

67 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

68 Mona Bricke (August 31, 2006), Email to Intngo listserve.

69 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

70 David Adam and Patrick Wintour (May 15, 2007), "Climate change: new global plan to tie in worst polluters: Britain and Germany lead effort to get US, China and India to agree to carbon trading scheme," the Guardian.

71 David Adam and Patrick Wintour (May 15, 2007), "Climate change: new global plan to tie in worst polluters: Britain and Germany lead effort to get US, China and India to agree to carbon trading scheme," the Guardian.

72 David Adam and Patrick Wintour (May 15, 2007), "Climate change: new global plan to tie in worst polluters: Britain and Germany lead effort to get US, China and India to agree to carbon trading scheme," the Guardian.

73 Juliet Eilperin (May 13, 2007), "U.S. Aims to Weaken G-8 Climate Change Statement," the Washington Post.

74 Juliet Eilperin (May 13, 2007), "U.S. Aims to Weaken G-8 Climate Change Statement," the Washington Post.

75 Juliet Eilperin (May 13, 2007), "U.S. Aims to Weaken G-8 Climate Change Statement," the Washington Post.

76 Juliet Eilperin (May 13, 2007), "U.S. Aims to Weaken G-8 Climate Change Statement," the Washington Post.

77 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

78 Jeremy Lovell (May 11, 2007), "EXCLUSIVE - G8 set for transatlantic clash on climate," Reuters News.

79 Jeremy Lovell (May 11, 2007), "EXCLUSIVE - G8 set for transatlantic clash on climate," Reuters News.

80 Jeremy Lovell (May 11, 2007), "EXCLUSIVE - G8 set for transatlantic clash on climate," Reuters News.

81 Jeremy Lovell (May 11, 2007), "EXCLUSIVE - G8 set for transatlantic clash on climate," Reuters News.

82 Agence France Presse (May 10, 2007), "Merkel hopes G8 summit will contribute to climate accord."

83 Kyodo News (May 8, 2007), "Japan to propose post-Kyoto steps to halve emissions by 2050."

84 Kyodo News (May 8, 2007), "Japan to propose post-Kyoto steps to halve emissions by 2050."

85 Kyodo News (May 8, 2007), "Japan to propose post-Kyoto steps to halve emissions by 2050."

86 Dow Jones International News (May 4, 2007), "Germany EU Endorses International Climate Report."

87 Darren Schuettler (May 3, 2007), "Germany to press for emissions curbs at G8 summit," Reuters News.

88 Dow Jones News Service (April 13, 2007), "Germany: G8 Should Set Greenhouse Gas Emissions Target—Report."

89 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

90 Agence France Presse (April 6, 2007), "Merkel says UN report shows need for action of climate change."

91 Arthur Max (April 4, 2007), "Delegates debate urgency of climate change in key policy report," Associated Press Newswires.

92 Arthur Max (April 4, 2007), "Delegates debate urgency of climate change in key policy report," Associated Press Newswires.

93 Associated Press Newswires (March 10, 2007), "Germany's Merkel hopes for more progress against climate change at G-8 summit."

94 Associated Press Newswires (March 10, 2007), "Germany's Merkel hopes for more progress against climate change at G-8 summit."

95 Reuters News (March 7, 2007), "EU climate meeting foreshadows German G8 push."

96 Agence France Presse (March 1, 2007), "UN chief to discuss climate change at G8 summit in June."

97 Upstream (February 16, 2007), "European Pressure on Climate."

98 Upstream (February 16, 2007), "European Pressure on Climate."

99 Upstream (February 16, 2007), "European Pressure on Climate."

100 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "British MP puts Ottawa on climate hot seat; Blair's envoy urges Canada to help craft post-Kyoto plan in time for G8 meeting."

101 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "British MP puts Ottawa on climate hot seat; Blair's envoy urges Canada to help craft post-Kyoto plan in time for G8 meeting."

102 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "British MP puts Ottawa on climate hot seat; Blair's envoy urges Canada to help craft post-Kyoto plan in time for G8 meeting."

103 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

104 Straits Times (January 20, 2007), "Bush feels the heat on environment issues."

105 Associated Press Newswires (December 19, 2006), "Germany's Merkel says Europe must speak with one voice on energy."

106 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

107 Associated Press Newswires (December 6, 2006), "German foreign minister to visit U.S. as Berlin prepares for EU , G-8 presidency."

108 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

109 Associated Press Newswires (December 1, 2006), "Merkel pledges to make climate protection key part of Germany's G-8, EU presidencies."

110 Associated Press Newswires (December 1, 2006), "Merkel pledges to make climate protection key part of Germany's G-8, EU presidencies."

111 Associated Press Newswires (December 1, 2006), "Merkel pledges to make climate protection key part of Germany's G-8, EU presidencies."

112 Agence France Presse (December 1, 2006), "Germany names special advisors for climate change."

113 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

114 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

115 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

116 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

117 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

118 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

119 Dow Jones International News (October 18, 2006), "Germany to Address Global Imbalances at G8 in 07."

120 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

121 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

122 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

123 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

124 ITAR-TASS World Service (October 3, 2006), "G8 summit in Germany to focus on environmental protection—Lavrov."

125 Deutsche Welle (September 28, 2006), "Merkel to Target Climate Change as G8, EU Leader," accessed October 2, 2006 <www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2188336,00.html?maca=en-bulletin-433-html>.

126 Deutsche Welle (September 28, 2006), "Merkel to Target Climate Change as G8, EU Leader," accessed October 2, 2006 <www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2188336,00.html?maca=en-bulletin-433-html>.

127 Deutsche Welle (September 28, 2006), "Merkel to Target Climate Change as G8, EU Leader," accessed October 2, 2006 <www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2188336,00.html?maca=en-bulletin-433-html>.

128 Mona Bricke (August 31, 2006), Email to Intngo listserve.

129 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

130 Jabeen Bhatti (July 19, 2006), "German H8 Presidency: Changes in Style and Substance," Deutsche Welle. Accessed July 23, 2006. www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2103556,00.html.

131 Associated Press Newswires (April 17, 2007), "Germany's Merkel promises Bono that Africa will play major role at G-8 summit."

132 Financial Times (17 October, 2006), "FT.com site: Hedge fund transparency put on G8 agenda."

133 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

134 BBC Monitoring European (April 3, 2007), "Germany's Merkel planning to announce more aid for Africa at G8 summit."

135 Agence France Presse (March 27, 2007), "G8 mulls micro-credit help, more AIDS funding for Africa."

136 Agence France Presse (March 27, 2007), "G8 mulls micro-credit help, more AIDS funding for Africa."

137 G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm (March 12, 2007), "Joining forces in the fight against HIV/AIDS," accessed March 14, 2007: http://www.g-8.de/nn_92160/Content/EN/Artikel/2007/03/2007-03-12-merkel-konferenz-gegen-Aids-bremen__en.html

138 BBC Monitoring European (February 1, 2007), "Minister says Africa 'top issue' of Germany's EU, G8 presidencies."

139 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

140 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

141 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

142 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

143 Spiegel International Online (April 25, 2007), "The West fails to deliver: Merkel to push G8 to meet Africa aid pledges," accessed April 30, 2007: http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,479372,00.html

144 ANSA English Media Service (April 23, 2007), "Pope urges G8 to cancel third world debt."

145 BBC Monitoring European (April 3, 2007), "Germany's Merkel planning to announce more aid for Africa at G8 summit."

146 Agence France Presse (March 27, 2007), "G8 mulls micro-credit help, more AIDS funding for Africa."

147 Deutsche Welle (March 3, 2007), "Germany Makes African Cooperation a Top Priority."

148 BBC Monitoring Africa (February 26, 2007), "Uganda: G8 countries to unveil micro-finance initiative for Africa."

149 BBC Monitoring Africa (February 26, 2007), "Uganda: G8 countries to unveil micro-finance initiative for Africa."

150 Financial Times (February 13, 2007), "Germany proposes Africa micro-credit fund."

151 Financial Times (February 13, 2007), "Germany proposes Africa micro-credit fund."

152 BBC Monitoring European (February 1, 2007), "Minister says Africa 'top issue' of Germany's EU, G8 presidencies."

153 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

154 Agence France Presse (January 25, 2007), "Germany wants emerging nations at all G8 summits."

155 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

156 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

157 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

158 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

159 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

160 Reuters (October 18, 2006), "Lobby groups welcome Germany focus on Africa for G8."

161 BBC Monitoring European (February 1, 2007), "Minister says Africa 'top issue' of Germany's EU, G8 presidencies."

162 BBC Monitoring European (February 1, 2007), "Minister says Africa 'top issue' of Germany's EU, G8 presidencies."

163 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

164 Agence France Presse (March 27, 2007), "G8 mulls micro-credit help, more AIDS funding for Africa."

165 Agence France Presse (March 27, 2007), "G8 mulls micro-credit help, more AIDS funding for Africa."

166 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

167 Joe De Capua (October 18, 2006), "VOA News: Germany to make Africa Priority at Next G8 Summit," The Voice of America.

168 All Africa (October 18, 2006), "German Cabinet Announced Africa to be Focus of 2007 G8 Summit."

169 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

170 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

171 Deutsche Welle (October 16, 2006), "Germany to Push for G8 Partnerships with Africa."

172 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

173 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

174 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

175 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

176 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

177 Associated Press Newswires (October 18, 2006), "Germany sets agenda for next year's G-8."

178 All Africa (October 18, 2006), "German Cabinet Announced Africa to be Focus of 2007 G8 Summit."

179 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

180 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

181 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

182 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

183 Hugh Williamson (April 10, 2007), "FT.com site: Berlin presses for emerging nations' role at G8 summits," Financial Times.

184 Agence France Presse (January 25, 2007), "Germany wants emerging nations at all G8 summits."

185 Agence France Presse (January 25, 2007), "Germany wants emerging nations at all G8 summits."

186 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

187 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

188 Agence France Presse (December 30, 2006), "Germany as G8 president to seek fairer growth distribution."

189 Agence France Presse (December 27, 2006), "Germany wants G8 to 'go back to roots', tackle world's economic problems."

190 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

191 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

192 The Guardian (October 19, 2006), "Germany to put debt and aid for Africa at top of G8 agenda."

193 Agence France Presse (October 18, 2006), "Germany's G8: dialogue with new eco players and rewards for Africa."

194 BBC Monitoring European (October 18, 2006), "German G8 presidency to focus on hedge funds, product piracy, Africa."

195 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

196 Bertrand Benoit (Berlin) and Mark Schieritz (Frankfurt) (July 27, 2006), "Germany plans to shake up G8 agenda," The Financial Times.

197 Regnum (July 17, 2006), "German chancellor does not know G8 agenda for 2007," Accessed July 23, 2006. www.regnum.ru/english/674931.html.

198 Louis Charbonneau (May 8, 2007), "G8 to back further measures against Iran—diplomats," Reuters News.

199 Louis Charbonneau (May 8, 2007), "G8 to back further measures against Iran—diplomats," Reuters News.

200 Jabeen Bhatti (July 19, 2006), "German H8 Presidency: Changes in Style and Substance," Deutsche Welle. Accessed July 23, 2006. www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2103556,00.html.

201 Associated Press Newswires (December 6, 2006), "German foreign minister to visit U.S. as Berlin prepares for EU, G-8 presidency."

202 Agence France Presse (May 11, 2007), "Africa, climate, investment on Germany's agenda for G8 summit."

203 World Economic Forum (January 24, 2007), "Opening Address by Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, at the World Economic Forum on 24 January 2007 in Davos (transcript), translation," Accessed January 30, 2007, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AM_2007/merkel.pdf

204 Xinhua (December 14, 2006), "Merkel outlines goals for Germany's EU presidency," accessed December 15, 2006, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-12/14/content_5489800.htm

205 Guardian Unlimited (December 1, 2006), "Q&A: Wolfgang Ischinger, German Ambassador to the UK," accessed December 15, 2006, http://politics.guardian.co.uk/eu/story/0,,1961753,00.html

206 Bundesregierung (October 18, 2006), "Focuses of the German G8 presidency," accessed November 2, 2006, www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6538/Content/EN/Artikel/2006/10/2006-10-18-schwerpunkte-deutsche-g8-pr_C3_A4sidentschaft__en.html

207 Ulrich Schäfer (October 15, 2006), "Vertrauliches Programm für den Weltwirtschaftsgipfel 2007," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Accessed October 19, 2006, www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/artikel/758/88670/

208 The Globe and Mail (January 25, 2007), "Merkel aims high in G8 tenure; German leader lays out sweeping vision on world trade, Africa and global warming."

209 [ ]ITAR-TASS World Service (December 27, 2006), "Russia pins hopes on Germany presidency of EU, G8."

210 IPR Strategic Information Database (May 15, 2007), "Egypt Participates in G-8 summit in Germany."

211 Reuters News (May 14, 2007), "IMF chief slams rich nations over aid promises."

212 BBC Monitoring European (May 9, 2007), "Germany wants to reintroduce border controls during G8 summit."

213 Hugh Williamson (May 2, 2007), "FT.com site: Germany aims to please G8 guests," Financial Times.

214 BBC Monitoring European (April 25, 2007), "German government sees no cause to oppose G8 summit, hopes protests peaceful."

215 Roger Boyes (April 10, 2007), "100,000 protestors prepare to disrupt G8 summit," The Times.

216 Roger Boyes (April 10, 2007), "100,000 protestors prepare to disrupt G8 summit," The Times.

217 Roger Boyes (April 10, 2007), "100,000 protestors prepare to disrupt G8 summit," The Times.

218 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

219 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

220 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

221 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

222 Deutsche Welle (February 17, 2007), "Heiligendamm Prepares for the G8 Summit."

223 Reuters News (January 15, 2007), "New wall for G8 leaders prompts protests in Germany."

224 Reuters News (January 15, 2007), "New wall for G8 leaders prompts protests in Germany."

225 BBC Monitoring Europe (December 27, 2006), "German Report Previews Forthcoming German EU, G8 Presidency."

226 BBC Monitoring European (November 22, 2006), "German authority fears terror attacks during 2007 G8 summit."

227 BBC Monitoring European (November 22, 2006), "German authority fears terror attacks during 2007 G8 summit."

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